經號:   
   (SN.42.8 更新)
相應部42相應8經/吹海螺者經(村長相應/處篇/如來記說)(莊春江譯)[SA.916]
  有一次世尊住在那爛陀賣衣者的芒果園中。
  那時,尼乾陀的弟子,村長阿西邦大葛之子去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁坐下。世尊對在一旁坐下的村長阿西邦大葛之子說這個:
  「村長!尼乾陀若提子如何對弟子們說法呢?」
  「大德!尼乾陀若提子這麼對弟子說法:『凡任何人殺生,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何人取未給予的,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何人行邪淫,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何人虛妄地說,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』大德!尼乾陀若提子這麼對弟子說法。」
  「村長!但,『凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』在存在這樣時,將不存在任何墮苦界者、墮地獄者,如尼乾陀若提子之言。
  村長!你怎麼想它:凡那位殺生的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時(時非時?),哪個時間比較多:凡那位殺生:或凡那位不殺生?」
  「大德!凡那位殺生的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,那個時間比較少:那位殺生,而那個時間就比較多:凡那位不殺生。」
  「村長!『凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』在存在這樣時,將不存在任何墮苦界者、墮地獄者,如尼乾陀若提子之言。
  村長!你怎麼想它:凡那位未給予而取的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,哪個時間比較多:凡那位取未給予的,或凡那位不取未給予的?」
  「大德!凡那位未給予而取的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,那個時間比較少:凡那位不取未給予的,而那個時間就比較多:凡那位取未給予的。」
  「村長!『凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』在存在這樣時,將不存在任何墮苦界者、墮地獄者,如尼乾陀若提子之言。
  村長!你怎麼想它:凡那位邪淫的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,哪個時間比較多:凡那位行邪淫,或凡那位不行邪淫?」
  「大德!凡那位邪淫的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,那個時間比較少:凡那位行邪淫,而那個時間就比較多:凡那位不行邪淫。」
  「村長!『凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』在存在這樣時,將不存在任何墮苦界者、墮地獄者,如尼乾陀若提子之言。
  村長!你怎麼想它:凡那位妄語的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,哪個時間比較多:凡那位虛妄地說,或凡那位不虛妄地說?」
  「大德!凡那位妄語的男子,比較日或夜的從時到時,那個時間比較少:凡那位虛妄地說,而那個時間就比較多:凡那位不虛妄地說。」
  「村長!『凡一一經常地住,一一以那個被引導。』在存在這樣時,將不存在任何墮苦界者、墮地獄者,如尼乾陀若提子之言。
  村長!這裡,某位大師是這樣說者、這樣見者:『凡任何人殺生,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何人取未給予的,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何行邪淫,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者;凡任何人虛妄地說,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。』村長!而弟子在那位大師上是極淨信者,他這麼想:
  『我的大師是這樣知者、這樣見者:「凡任何人殺生,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。」而有生類被我殺了,我也是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。』他得到(邪)見。村長!他不捨斷那個言語、不捨斷那個心、不斷念那個見後,像這樣這麼被帶、被置於地獄中。
  『我的大師是這樣知者、這樣見者:「凡任何人取未給予的,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。」而有未給予的被我取了,我也是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。』他得到見。村長!他不捨斷那個言語、不捨斷那個心、不斷念那個見後,像這樣這麼被帶、被置於地獄中。
  『我的大師是這樣知者、這樣見者:「凡任何人行邪淫,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。」而諸邪淫被我行,我也是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。』他得到見。村長!他不捨斷那個言語、不捨斷那個心、不斷念那個見後,像這樣這麼被帶、被置於地獄中。
  『我的大師是這樣知者、這樣見者:「凡任何人虛妄地說,那全部是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。」而被我虛妄地說,我也是墮苦界者、墮地獄者。』他得到見。村長!他不捨斷那個言語、不捨斷那個心、不斷念那個見後,像這樣這麼被帶、被置於地獄中。
  村長!然而,這裡,如來阿羅漢遍正覺者明行具足者善逝世間知者應該被調御人的無上調御者天-人們的大師佛陀世尊在世間出現,他以種種法門呵責、斥責殺生,並且說:『你們要戒絕殺生!』他呵責、斥責未給予而取,並且說:『你們要戒絕未給予而取!』他呵責、斥責邪淫,並且說:『你們要戒絕邪淫!』他呵責、斥責妄語,並且說:『你們要戒絕妄語!』村長!而弟子在那位大師上是極淨信者,他像這樣深慮:
  『世尊以種種法門呵責、斥責殺生,並且說:「你們要戒絕殺生!」而或多或少有生類被我殺了,凡或多或少有生類被我殺了者,這是不善的,這是不的,但我就以那個為緣成為後悔者,我的這個惡業將不成為未作的。』他像這樣省察後,就捨斷那個殺生,且未來成為離殺生者。這樣,有這個惡業的捨斷,這樣,有這個惡業的超越。
  『世尊以種種法門呵責、斥責未給予而取,並且說:「你們要戒絕未給予而取!」而或多或少有未給予的被我取了,凡或多或少有未給予的被我取了者,這是不善的,這是不好的,但我就以那個為緣成為後悔者,我的這個惡業將不成為未作的。』他像這樣省察後,就捨斷那個未給予而取,且未來成為離未給予而取者,這樣,有這個惡業的捨斷,這樣,有這個惡業的超越。
  『世尊以種種法門呵責、斥責邪淫,並且說:「你們要戒絕邪淫!」而或多或少有邪淫被我實行了,凡或多或少有邪淫被我實行了者,這是不善的,這是不好的,但我就以那個為緣成為後悔者,我的這個惡業將不成為未作的。』他像這樣省察後,就捨斷那個邪淫,且未來成為離邪淫者,這樣,有這個惡業的捨斷,這樣,有這個惡業的超越。
  『世尊以種種法門呵責、斥責妄語,並且說:「你們要戒絕妄語!」而或多或少有虛妄被我說了,凡或多或少有虛妄被我說了者,這是不善的,這是不好的,但我就以那個為緣成為後悔者,我的這個惡業將不成為未作的。』他像這樣省察後,就捨斷那個妄語,且未來成為離妄語者,這樣,有這個惡業的捨斷,這樣,有這個惡業的超越。
  捨斷殺生後,他是離殺生者;捨斷未給予而取後,他是離未給予而取者;捨斷邪淫後,他是離邪淫者;捨斷妄語後,他是離妄語者;捨斷離間語後,他是離離間語者;捨斷粗惡語後,他是離粗惡語者;捨斷雜穢語後,他是離雜穢語者;捨斷貪婪後,他是不貪婪者;捨斷惡意瞋怒後,他是無瞋害心者;捨斷邪見後,他是正見者。
  村長!那位這麼離貪婪的、離惡意的、不癡昧的、正知的、朝向念的聖弟子他以與慈俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二的,像這樣第三的,像這樣第四的,像這樣上下、橫向、到處、對一切如對自己,以與慈俱行的、廣大的、變大的、無量的、無怨恨的、無瞋害的心遍滿全部世間後而住。
  村長!猶如如有力氣的吹海螺者少困難地就使四方知道。同樣的,村長!當慈心解脫已這麼修習、已這麼多作時,凡所作的有量業,它在那裡不殘留,它在那裡不住立。
  村長!那位這麼離貪婪的、離惡意的、不癡昧的、正知的、朝向念的聖弟子他以與悲俱行之心……(中略)以與喜悅俱行之心……(中略)以與平靜俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二的,像這樣第三的,像這樣第四的,像這樣上下、橫向、到處、對一切如對自己,以與平靜俱行的、廣大的、變大的、無量的、無怨恨的、無瞋害的心遍滿全部世間後而住。
  村長!猶如有力氣的吹海螺者少困難地就使四方知道。同樣的,村長!當以平靜心解脫已這麼修習、已這麼多作時,凡所作的有量業,它在那裡不殘留,它在那裡不住立。」
  在這麼說時,村長阿西邦大葛之子對世尊說這個:
  「太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!……(中略)世尊記得我為優婆塞,從今天起已終生歸依。」
SN.42.8. Saṅkhadhamasuttaṃ
   360. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṃ viharati pāvārikambavane. Atha kho asibandhakaputto gāmaṇi nigaṇṭhasāvako yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho asibandhakaputtaṃ gāmaṇiṃ bhagavā etadavoca– “kathaṃ nu kho, gāmaṇi, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ desetī”ti? “Evaṃ kho, bhante, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ deseti– ‘yo koci pāṇaṃ atipāteti, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko, yo koci adinnaṃ ādiyati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko yo koci kāmesu micchā carati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko, yo koci musā bhaṇati sabbo, so āpāyiko nerayiko. Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulaṃ viharati, tena tena nīyatī’ti. Evaṃ kho, bhante, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ desetī”ti. “‘Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulañca, gāmaṇi, viharati, tena tena nīyati’, evaṃ sante na koci āpāyiko nerayiko bhavissati, yathā nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa vacanaṃ”.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso pāṇātipātī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, katamo bahutaro samayo, yaṃ vā so pāṇamatipāteti, yaṃ vā so pāṇaṃ nātipātetī”ti? “Yo so, bhante, puriso pāṇātipātī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, appataro so samayo yaṃ so pāṇamatipāteti, atha kho sveva bahutaro samayo yaṃ so pāṇaṃ nātipātetī”ti. “‘Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulañca, gāmaṇi, viharati tena tena nīyatī’ti, evaṃ sante na koci āpāyiko nerayiko bhavissati, yathā nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa vacanaṃ”.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso adinnādāyī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, katamo bahutaro samayo, yaṃ vā so adinnaṃ ādiyati, yaṃ vā so adinnaṃ nādiyatī”ti. “Yo so, bhante, puriso adinnādāyī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya appataro so samayo, yaṃ so adinnaṃ ādiyati, atha kho sveva bahutaro samayo, yaṃ so adinnaṃ nādiyatī”ti. “‘Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulañca, gāmaṇi, viharati tena tena nīyatī’ti, evaṃ sante na koci āpāyiko nerayiko bhavissati, yathā nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa vacanaṃ”.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso kāmesumicchācārī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, katamo bahutaro samayo, yaṃ vā so kāmesu micchā carati, yaṃ vā so kāmesu micchā na caratī”ti? “Yo so, bhante, puriso kāmesumicchācārī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, appataro so samayo yaṃ so kāmesu micchā carati, atha kho sveva bahutaro samayo, yaṃ so kāmesu micchā na caratī”ti. “‘Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulañca, gāmaṇi, viharati tena tena nīyatī’ti evaṃ sante na koci āpāyiko nerayiko bhavissati, yathā nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa vacanaṃ”.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, gāmaṇi, yo so puriso musāvādī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya, katamo bahutaro samayo, yaṃ vā so musā bhaṇati, yaṃ vā so musā na bhaṇatī”ti? “Yo so, bhante puriso musāvādī rattiyā vā divasassa vā samayāsamayaṃ upādāya appataro so samayo, yaṃ so musā bhaṇati, atha kho sveva bahutaro samayo, yaṃ so musā na bhaṇatī”ti. “‘Yaṃbahulaṃ yaṃbahulañca, gāmaṇi, viharati tena tena nīyatī’ti, evaṃ sante na koci āpāyiko nerayiko bhavissati, yathā nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa vacanaṃ”.
   “Idha, gāmaṇi, ekacco satthā evaṃvādī hoti evaṃdiṭṭhi – ‘yo koci pāṇamatipāteti, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko, yo koci adinnaṃ ādiyati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko, yo koci kāmesu micchā carati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko, yo koci musā bhaṇati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko’ti. Tasmiṃ kho pana, gāmaṇi, satthari sāvako abhippasanno hoti. Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘mayhaṃ kho satthā evaṃvādī evaṃdiṭṭhi– yo koci pāṇamatipāteti, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayikoti. Atthi kho pana mayā pāṇo atipātito, ahampamhi āpāyiko nerayikoti diṭṭhiṃ paṭilabhati. Taṃ, gāmaṇi, vācaṃ appahāya taṃ cittaṃ appahāya taṃ diṭṭhiṃ appaṭinissajjitvā yathābhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye. Mayhaṃ kho satthā evaṃvādī evaṃdiṭṭhi– yo koci adinnaṃ ādiyati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayikoti. Atthi kho pana mayā adinnaṃ ādinnaṃ ahampamhi āpāyiko nerayikoti diṭṭhiṃ paṭilabhati. Taṃ, gāmaṇi, vācaṃ appahāya taṃ cittaṃ appahāya taṃ diṭṭhiṃ appaṭinissajjitvā yathābhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye. Mayhaṃ kho satthā evaṃvādī evaṃdiṭṭhi– yo koci kāmesu micchā carati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayiko’ti. Atthi kho pana mayā kāmesu micchā ciṇṇaṃ. ‘Ahampamhi āpāyiko nerayiko’ti diṭṭhiṃ paṭilabhati. Taṃ, gāmaṇi, vācaṃ appahāya taṃ cittaṃ appahāya taṃ diṭṭhiṃ appaṭinissajjitvā yathābhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye. Mayhaṃ kho satthā evaṃvādī evaṃdiṭṭhi– yo koci musā bhaṇati, sabbo so āpāyiko nerayikoti. Atthi kho pana mayā musā bhaṇitaṃ. ‘Ahampamhi āpāyiko nerayiko’ti diṭṭhiṃ paṭilabhati. Taṃ, gāmaṇi, vācaṃ appahāya taṃ cittaṃ appahāya taṃ diṭṭhiṃ appaṭinissajjitvā yathābhataṃ nikkhitto evaṃ niraye.
   “Idha pana, gāmaṇi, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā. So anekapariyāyena pāṇātipātaṃ garahati vigarahati, ‘pāṇātipātā viramathā’ti cāha. Adinnādānaṃ garahati vigarahati, ‘adinnādānā viramathā’ti cāha. Kāmesumicchācāraṃ garahati, vigarahati ‘kāmesumicchācārā viramathā’ti cāha. Musāvādaṃ garahati vigarahati ‘musāvādā viramathā’ti cāha. Tasmiṃ kho pana, gāmaṇi, satthari sāvako abhippasanno hoti. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘bhagavā kho anekapariyāyena pāṇātipātaṃ garahati vigarahati, pāṇātipātā viramathāti cāha. Atthi kho pana mayā pāṇo atipātito yāvatako vā tāvatako vā. Yo kho pana mayā pāṇo atipātito yāvatako vā tāvatako vā, taṃ na suṭṭhu, taṃ na sādhu. Ahañceva kho pana tappaccayā vippaṭisārī assaṃ. Na metaṃ pāpaṃ kammaṃ akataṃ bhavissatī’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya tañceva pāṇātipātaṃ pajahati. Āyatiñca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa pahānaṃ hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa samatikkamo hoti.
   “‘Bhagavā kho anekapariyāyena adinnādānaṃ garahati vigarahati, adinnādānā viramathāti cāha. Atthi kho pana mayā adinnaṃ ādinnaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā. Yaṃ kho pana mayā adinnaṃ ādinnaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā taṃ na suṭṭhu, taṃ na sādhu. Ahañceva kho pana tappaccayā vippaṭisārī assaṃ, na metaṃ pāpaṃ kammaṃ akataṃ bhavissatī’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya tañceva adinnādānaṃ pajahati. Āyatiñca adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa pahānaṃ hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa samatikkamo hoti.
   “‘Bhagavā kho pana anekapariyāyena kāmesumicchācāraṃ garahati vigarahati, kāmesumicchācārā viramathāti cāha. Atthi kho pana mayā kāmesu micchā ciṇṇaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā. Yaṃ kho pana mayā kāmesu micchā ciṇṇaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā taṃ na suṭṭhu, taṃ na sādhu. Ahañceva kho pana tappaccayā vippaṭisārī assaṃ, na metaṃ pāpaṃ kammaṃ akataṃ bhavissatī’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya tañceva kāmesumicchācāraṃ pajahati, āyatiñca kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa pahānaṃ hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa samatikkamo hoti.
   “‘Bhagavā kho pana anekapariyāyena musāvādaṃ garahati vigarahati, musāvādā viramathāti cāha. Atthi kho pana mayā musā bhaṇitaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā. Yaṃ kho pana mayā musā bhaṇitaṃ yāvatakaṃ vā tāvatakaṃ vā taṃ na suṭṭhu, taṃ na sādhu. Ahañceva kho pana tappaccayā vippaṭisārī assaṃ, na metaṃ pāpaṃ kammaṃ akataṃ bhavissatī’ti. So iti paṭisaṅkhāya tañceva musāvādaṃ pajahati, āyatiñca musāvādā paṭivirato hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa pahānaṃ hoti. Evametassa pāpassa kammassa samatikkamo hoti.
   “So pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti. Kāmesumicchācāraṃ pahāya kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti. Musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti. Pisuṇaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti. Pharusaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti. Samphappalāpaṃ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti. Abhijjhaṃ pahāya anabhijjhālu hoti. Byāpādappadosaṃ pahāya abyāpannacitto hoti. Micchādiṭṭhiṃ pahāya sammādiṭṭhiko hoti.
   “Sa kho so, gāmaṇi, ariyasāvako evaṃ vigatābhijjho vigatabyāpādo asammūḷho sampajāno paṭissato mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati. Seyyathāpi, gāmaṇi, balavā saṅkhadhamo appakasireneva catuddisā viññāpeyya; evameva kho, gāmaṇi, evaṃ bhāvitāya mettāya cetovimuttiyā evaṃ bahulīkatāya yaṃ pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ, na taṃ tatrāvasissati, na taṃ tatrāvatiṭṭhati.
   “Sa kho so, gāmaṇi, ariyasāvako evaṃ vigatābhijjho vigatabyāpādo asammūḷho sampajāno paṭissato karuṇāsahagatena cetasā …pe… muditāsahagatena cetasā …pe…. Upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati. Seyyathāpi, gāmaṇi, balavā saṅkhadhamo appakasireneva catuddisā viññāpeyya; evameva kho, gāmaṇi, evaṃ bhāvitāya upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā evaṃ bahulīkatāya yaṃ pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ na taṃ tatrāvasissati, na taṃ tatrāvatiṭṭhatī”ti. Evaṃ vutte, asibandhakaputto gāmaṇi bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante …pe… upāsakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gatan”ti. Aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):