北傳:雜阿含366經 南傳:相應部12相應4-9經 關涉主題:教理/緣起的五支說、緣起的內容‧譬喻/油燈的燃燒‧其它/過去六佛 (更新)
雜阿含366經[正聞本519-524經/佛光本365經](因緣相應/雜因誦/修多羅)(莊春江標點)
  如是我聞
  一時住舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園。
  爾時,世尊告諸比丘
  「毘婆尸佛未成正覺時,獨一靜處,專精禪思,作如是念:『一切世間皆入生死,自生、自熟,自滅、自沒,而彼眾生於老死之上出世間道不如實知。』
  即自觀察:『何緣有此老死?』如是正思惟觀察,得如實無間等起,知:『有生故,有此老死;緣生故,有老死。』
  復正思惟:『何緣故有此生?』尋復正思惟,無間等起知:『緣有故,有生。』
  尋復正思惟:『何緣故有有?』尋復正思惟,如實無間等起知:『有取故,有有。』
  尋復正思惟:『何緣故有取?』尋復正思惟,如實無間等起觀察:『取法味著、顧念,觸愛所增長,當知緣愛,取;緣取,有;緣有,生;緣生,老、病、死、憂、悲、、苦,如是,純大苦聚集。』
  譬如:緣油、炷而然燈,彼時時增油、治炷,彼燈常明,熾然不息,如前來歎譬城譬廣說。」
  佛說是經已,諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。
  如毘婆尸佛,如是,尸棄佛、毘濕波浮佛、迦羅迦孫提佛、迦那迦牟尼佛、迦葉佛皆如是說。

相應部12相應4經/毘婆尸經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  住在舍衛城……(中略)。
  「比丘們!當毘婆尸世尊阿羅漢、遍正覺者正覺以前,還是未現正覺菩薩時,這麼想:『唉!這個世間確實已陷入苦難:它被生,被老,死亡;死沒,再生,但對這老、死苦的出離不了知,什麼時候對這老、死苦的出離才將被了知呢?』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有老死?以什麼為緣而有老死呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當生存在了,則有老死;以生為緣而有老死。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有生?以什麼為緣而有生呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當有存在了,則有生;以有為緣而有生。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有有?以什麼為緣而有有呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當取存在了,則有有;以取為緣而有有。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有取?以什麼為緣而有取呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當渴愛存在了,則有取;以渴愛為緣而有取。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有渴愛?以什麼為緣而有渴愛呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當受存在了,則有渴愛;以受為緣而有渴愛。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有受?以什麼為緣而有受呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當觸存在了,則有受;以觸為緣而有受。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有觸?以什麼為緣而有觸呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當六處存在了,則有觸;以六處為緣而有觸。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有六處?以什麼為緣而有六處呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當名色存在了,則有六處;以名色為緣而有六處。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有名色?以什麼為緣而有名色呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當識存在了,則有名色;以識為緣而有名色。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有識?以什麼為緣而有識呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當行存在了,則有識;以行為緣而有識。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼存在了,則有行?以什麼為緣而有行呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當無明存在了,則有行;以無明為緣而有行。』
  這樣,因為以無明為緣而有行;以行為緣而有識;……(中略)這樣是這整個苦蘊
  『集!集!』比丘們!在以前所不曾聽過的法上,毘婆尸菩薩的眼生起,智生起,慧生起,明生起,光生起。
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有老死?以什麼滅而有老死滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當生不存在了,則沒有老死;以生滅而有老死滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有生?以什麼滅而有生滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當有不存在了,則沒有生;以有滅而有生滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有有?以什麼滅而有有滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當取不存在了,則沒有有;以取滅而有有滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有取?以什麼滅而有取滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當渴愛不存在了,則沒有取;以渴愛滅而有取滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有渴愛?以什麼滅而有渴愛滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當受不存在了,則沒有渴愛;以受滅而有渴愛滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有受?以什麼滅而有受滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當觸不存在了,則沒有受;以觸滅而有受滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有觸?以什麼滅而有觸滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當六處不存在了,則沒有觸;以六處滅而有觸滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有六處?以什麼滅而有六處滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當名色不存在了,則沒有六處;以名色而六處滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有名色?以什麼滅而有名色滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當識不存在了,則沒有名色;以識滅而有名色滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有識?以什麼滅而有識滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當行不存在了,則沒有識;以行滅而有識滅。』
  比丘們!那時,毘婆尸菩薩這麼想:『當什麼不存在了,則沒有行?以什麼滅而有行滅呢?』比丘們!那時,從如理作意,以慧有毘婆尸菩薩的現觀:『當無明不存在了,則沒有行;以無明滅而有行滅。』
  這樣,以無明滅而有行滅;以行滅而有識滅;……(中略)這樣是這整個苦蘊的
  『滅!滅!』比丘們!在以前所不曾聽過的法上,毘婆尸菩薩的眼生起,智生起,慧生起,明生起,光生起。」
   (對七佛都應該那樣使之詳細)

相應部12相應5經/尸棄經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!當尸棄世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者……(中略)。」

相應部12相應6經/毘舍浮經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!當毘舍浮世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者……(中略)。」

相應部12相應7經/拘留孫經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!當拘留孫世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者……(中略)。」

相應部12相應8經/拘那含經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!當拘那含世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者……(中略)。」

相應部12相應9經/迦葉經(因緣相應/因緣篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!當迦葉世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者……(中略)。」

巴利語經文(台灣嘉義法雨道場流通的word版本)
SN.12.4/(4) Vipassīsuttaṃ
   4. Sāvatthiyaṃ viharati …pe… “vipassissa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa pubbeva sambodhā anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva sato etadahosi– ‘kicchaṃ vatāyaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca mīyati ca cavati ca upapajjati ca. Atha ca panimassa dukkhassa nissaraṇaṃ nappajānāti jarāmaraṇassa. Kudāssu nāma imassa dukkhassa nissaraṇaṃ paññāyissati jarāmaraṇassā’”ti?
   “Atha kho bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati jarāmaraṇaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā jarāmaraṇan’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘jātiyā kho sati jarāmaraṇaṃ hoti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati jāti hoti, kiṃpaccayā jātī’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘bhave kho sati jāti hoti, bhavapaccayā jātī’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati bhavo hoti, kiṃpaccayā bhavo’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘upādāne kho sati bhavo hoti, upādānapaccayā bhavo’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati upādānaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā upādānan’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘taṇhāya kho sati upādānaṃ hoti, taṇhāpaccayā upādānan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati taṇhā hoti, kiṃpaccayā taṇhā’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘vedanāya kho sati taṇhā hoti, vedanāpaccayā taṇhā’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati vedanā hoti, kiṃpaccayā vedanā’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘phasse kho sati vedanā hoti, phassapaccayā vedanā’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati phasso hoti, kiṃpaccayā phasso’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘saḷāyatane kho sati phasso hoti, saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā saḷāyatanan’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘nāmarūpe kho sati saḷāyatanaṃ hoti, nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā nāmarūpan’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘viññāṇe kho sati nāmarūpaṃ hoti viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti, kiṃpaccayā viññāṇan’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘saṅkhāresu kho sati viññāṇaṃ hoti, saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi ‘kimhi nu kho sati saṅkhārā honti, kiṃpaccayā saṅkhārā’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘avijjāya kho sati saṅkhārā honti, avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā’”ti.
   “Iti hidaṃ avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā; saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṃ …pe… evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti. ‘Samudayo, samudayo’ti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati jarāmaraṇaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘jātiyā kho asati jarāmaraṇaṃ na hoti, jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati jāti na hoti kissa nirodhā jātinirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘bhave kho asati jāti na hoti, bhavanirodhā jātinirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati bhavo na hoti, kissa nirodhā bhavanirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘upādāne kho asati bhavo na hoti, upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati upādānaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā upādānanirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘taṇhāya kho asati upādānaṃ na hoti, taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati taṇhā na hoti, kissa nirodhā taṇhānirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘vedanāya kho asati taṇhā na hoti, vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati vedanā na hoti, kissa nirodhā vedanānirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘phasse kho asati vedanā na hoti, phassanirodhā vedanānirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati phasso na hoti, kissa nirodhā phassanirodho’ti? Atha kho bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘saḷāyatane kho asati phasso na hoti, saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati saḷāyatanaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā saḷāyatananirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘nāmarūpe kho asati saḷāyatanaṃ na hoti, nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati nāmarūpaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā nāmarūpanirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘viññāṇe kho asati nāmarūpaṃ na hoti, viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati viññāṇaṃ na hoti, kissa nirodhā viññāṇanirodho’ti? Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘saṅkhāresu kho asati viññāṇaṃ na hoti, saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa etadahosi– ‘kimhi nu kho asati saṅkhārā na honti, kissa nirodhā saṅkhāranirodho’ti Atha kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa yoniso manasikārā ahu paññāya abhisamayo– ‘avijjāya kho asati saṅkhārā na honti, avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho’”ti.
   “Iti hidaṃ avijjānirodhā saṅkhāranirodho; saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho …pe… evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotīti. ‘Nirodho, nirodho’ti kho, bhikkhave, vipassissa bodhisattassa pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu cakkhuṃ udapādi, ñāṇaṃ udapādi, paññā udapādi, vijjā udapādi, āloko udapādi”. Catutthaṃ.
   (Sattannampi buddhānaṃ evaṃ vitthāretabbo).

SN.12.5/(5) Sikhīsuttaṃ
   5. Sikhissa bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa …pe…

SN.12.6/(6) Vessabhūsuttaṃ
   6. Vessabhussa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa …pe…

SN.12.7/(7) Kakusandhasuttaṃ
   7. Kakusandhassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa …pe…

SN.12.8/(8) Koṇāgamanasuttaṃ
   8. Koṇāgamanassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa …pe…

SN.12.9/(9) Kassapasuttaṃ
   9. Kassapassa, bhikkhave, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa …pe…
南北傳經文比對(莊春江作):
  「若死;若遷(SA.285)/自滅、自沒(SA.366)」,南傳作「死亡;死沒」(mīyati ca cavati ca),菩提比丘長老英譯為「以及死,它死去」(and dies, it passes away)。
  北傳SA.285,SA.287,SA.366都沒有「集!集!」(‘samudayo, samudayo’ti)與「滅!滅!」(‘nirodho, nirodho’ti),這樣依「苦、集、滅、道」之「四聖諦」的述說層次就沒有南傳經文的明顯。
  「如前來歎譬城譬廣說」,依《大智度論》:「如城譬喻經中說:『佛言:我本未得道時,如是思惟:眾生可愍,深入嶮道,所謂數數生,數數老,數數死,往來世間,不知出處。我即時復作是念:何因緣有老死?如是求覓時得實智慧,生因緣是老死等。』」(T.25.622c)指的應該就是SA.285,《大毘婆沙論》則有二說:①「或復有處說十緣起,如城喻經說。」(T.27.122a)指的應該就是SA.287「齊識而還」的十支緣起。②「故城喻經作如是說:『我未證得三菩提時如實現觀生緣老死。』」(T.27.175a)指的應該也是SA.285。按:從本經油燈譬喻來看,採《大智度論》說應較為妥當。