經號:   
   (中部47經 更新)
中部47經/考察經(雙小品[5])(莊春江譯)[MA.186]
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!探查應該被不知道他人心差別的考察比丘為了『是遍正覺者,或否?』的識知在如來上做。」
  「大德!我們的法是世尊為根本的、世尊為導引的、世尊為依歸的,大德!就請世尊說明這個所說的義理,那就好了!聽聞世尊的[教說]後,比丘們將會憶持。」
  「比丘們!那樣的話,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我將說。」
  「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:(487)
  「比丘們!如來應該被不知道他人心差別的考察比丘在二法上探查:在能被眼、耳識知的諸法上:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸成為污染法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸成為污染法,如來的那些不被發現。』
  當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸成為污染法,如來的那些不被發現。』之後,更進一步探查:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法,如來的那些不被發現。』
  當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法,如來的那些不被發現。』之後,更進一步探查:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸淨法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸淨法,如來的那些被發現。』
  當探查他時,這麼知道:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸淨法,如來的那些被發現。』之後,更進一步探查:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間到達者,或者是暫時到達者?』當探查他時,這麼知道:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間到達者,這位尊者不是暫時到達者。』
  當探查他時,這麼知道:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間到達者,這位尊者不是暫時到達者。』之後,更進一步探查:『這位變得有名的、得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,他的一些過患被發現?』比丘們!不直到成為變得有名的、得到名聲的,這裡,比丘的一些過患不被發現,比丘們!但當比丘成為變得有名的、得到名聲的,那時,他的一些過患被發現。當探查他時,這麼知道:『這位變得有名的、得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,一些過患不被發現。』
  當探查他時,這麼知道:『這位變得有名的、得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,一些過患不被發現。』之後,更進一步探查:『這位尊者是無畏懼的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者:以離貪的狀態、以貪的滅盡在諸欲上不親近?』當探查他時,這麼知道:『這位尊者是無畏懼的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者:以離貪的狀態、以貪的滅盡在諸欲上不親近。』比丘們!如果其他人這麼詢問那位比丘:『那麼,對尊者,以什麼理由以什麼類比,以那個尊者你這麼說:這位尊者是無畏懼的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者:以離貪的狀態、以貪的滅盡在諸欲上不親近?』比丘們!當正確地回答時,比丘應該這麼回答:『因為,當這位像這樣的尊者在僧團中住,或當單獨地住時,凡在那裡是諸善去者、凡在那裡是諸惡去者、凡在那裡[他們]教誡群眾、凡這裡一些人在物質上被看見、凡這裡一些人不被物質染著,這位尊者不以那個輕蔑他。又,這被我從世尊的面前聽聞,從面前領受:我是無畏懼的節制者,我不是有畏懼的節制者:以離貪的狀態、以貪的滅盡在諸欲上不親近。』(488)
  比丘們!在那裡,如來就應該進一步被質問:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸成為污染法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸成為污染法,如來的那些不被發現。』『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法,如來的那些不被發現。』『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸淨法,如來的那些被發現,或否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼、耳識知的諸淨法,如來的那些被發現。我有這個路、這個行境,但不以那個成為等同彼的。』
  比丘們!對這樣說的大師,弟子值得為了法的聽聞前往,大師對他教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白有對比的法,比丘們!如是如是大師對比丘教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白有對比的法,如是如是他在那個法上證知這裡某一類法後,在諸法上走到究竟,他在大師上變得明淨:『世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是善行者。』比丘們!如果其他人這麼詢問那位比丘:『尊者以什麼理由、以什麼類比,以那個尊者你這麼說:世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是善行者?』比丘們!當正確地回答時,比丘應該這麼回答:『朋友!這裡,我為了法的聽聞去見世尊,世尊對那個我教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白有對比的法,一一像這樣,我在那個法上,證知這裡某一類法後,在諸法上我走到究竟,他在大師上變得明淨:『世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是善行者。』(489)
  比丘們!凡任何人在如來上的信被這些方式(行相)、這些語詞、這些文句住立、生根、確立,比丘們!這被稱為有理由的、見為根的、堅固的信,不被沙門,或被婆羅門,或被天,或被魔,或被梵,或被世間中任何人動搖,比丘們!這樣是在如來上法的探查,而且,這樣如來被法善探求。」
  世尊說這個,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊的所說。(490)
  考察經第七終了。
MN.47/(7) Vīmaṃsakasuttaṃ
   487. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “vīmaṃsakena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā parassa cetopariyāyaṃ ajānantena tathāgate samannesanā kātabbā ‘sammāsambuddho vā no vā’ iti viññāṇāyā”ti. “Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā, bhagavaṃnettikā bhagavaṃpaṭisaraṇā; sādhu vata, bhante, bhagavantaṃyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho; bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti. “Tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   488. “Vīmaṃsakena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā parassa cetopariyāyaṃ ajānantena dvīsu dhammesu tathāgato samannesitabbo cakkhusotaviññeyyesu dhammesu– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassā’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassā’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, udāhu ittarasamāpanno’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti – ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, nāyamāyasmā ittarasamāpanno’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, nāyamāyasmā ittarasamāpanno’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, saṃvijjantassa idhekacce ādīnavā’ti? Na tāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjanti yāva na ñattajjhāpanno hoti yasappatto. Yato ca kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ñattajjhāpanno hoti yasappatto athassa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjanti. Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, nāssa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, nāssa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti. Tañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṃ pare evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ke panāyasmato ākārā, ke anvayā, yenāyasmā evaṃ vadesi– abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti. Sammā byākaramāno, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ byākareyya– ‘tathā hi pana ayamāyasmā saṅghe vā viharanto eko vā viharanto, ye ca tattha sugatā ye ca tattha duggatā, ye ca tattha gaṇamanusāsanti, ye ca idhekacce āmisesu saṃdissanti, ye ca idhekacce āmisena anupalittā, nāyamāyasmā taṃ tena avajānāti Sammukhā kho pana metaṃ bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– abhayūparatohamasmi, nāhamasmi bhayūparato, vītarāgattā kāme na sevāmi khayā rāgassā’ti.
   489. “Tatra bhikkhave, tathāgatova uttariṃ paṭipucchitabbo– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’”ti.
   “Ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vāti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vāti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassa; etaṃpathohamasmi, etaṃgocaro, no ca tena tammayo’ti.
   “Evaṃvādiṃ kho, bhikkhave, satthāraṃ arahati sāvako upasaṅkamituṃ dhammassavanāya. Tassa satthā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ. Yathā yathā kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno satthā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ tathā tathā so tasmiṃ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ dhammesu niṭṭhaṃ gacchati, satthari pasīdati– ‘sammāsambuddho bhagavā, svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti. Tañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṃ pare evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ke panāyasmato ākārā, ke anvayā, yenāyasmā evaṃ vadesi– sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti? Sammā byākaramāno, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ byākareyya – ‘idhāhaṃ, āvuso, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃ dhammassavanāya. Tassa me bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ. Yathā yathā me, āvuso bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ tathā tathāhaṃ tasmiṃ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ dhammesu niṭṭhamagamaṃ, satthari pasīdiṃ – sammāsambuddho bhagavā, svākkhāto bhagavatā, dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti.
   490. “Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, imehi ākārehi imehi padehi imehi byañjanehi tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā hoti mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ākāravatī saddhā dassanamūlikā, daḷhā; asaṃhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tathāgate dhammasamannesanā hoti. Evañca pana tathāgato dhammatāsusamanniṭṭho hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Vīmaṃsakasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ sattamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「心(MA.186)」,南傳作「心差別」(cetopariyāyaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「心」(mind)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「心的場合,心的分別」(cittavāraṃ cittaparicchedaṃ)解說。
  「雜眼、耳知法(MA.186)」,南傳作「能被眼、耳識知的諸混雜法」(vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「能經由眼或耳認識的任何混合情況」(any mixed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「有時黑(邪惡),有時白(善)」(kāle kaṇhā, kāle sukkāti)解說「混雜」。
  「樂行非恐怖(MA.186)」,南傳作「無畏懼的節制者」(abhayūparato),菩提比丘長老英譯為「以無恐怖而自制」(restrained without fear)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「成為無畏的寂靜者、究竟的寂靜者、常恆的寂靜者」(abhayo hutvā uparato, accantūparato satatūparatoti)解說。
  「有何行(MA.186)」,南傳作「以什麼理由」(ke…ākārā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「什麼理由」(What are the…reasons)。按:「理由」(ākārā),比較多場合是「行相;相;相貌;樣相;樣子;情況」的意思。
  「有何智(MA.186)」,南傳作「以什麼類比」(ke anvayā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「什麼是他的證據」(what is his evidence)。按:「類比」(anvayā),菩提比丘長老英也譯為「推論」(by inference, SN),《破斥猶豫》以「理解」(anubuddhiyo, MN.47),或「推論、隨覺」(anumānaṃ, anubuddhīti. MN.28)解說。
  「善逝(MA.186)」,南傳作「善去者」(sugatā,另譯為「善趣者;投生善處者;善逝」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「某些有好行為者」(some there are well behaved)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「善去者、善行的作者、努力相應者」(suṭṭhugatā suppaṭipannā kārakā yuttapayuttā)解說。
  「因食可見(MA.186)」,南傳作「在物質上被看見」(āmisesu saṃdissanti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「在這裡某些被看見與物質的事相關連」(some here are seen concerned about material things)。按:「物質」(āmisa),另譯為「財;食;味;利益」。
  「如是境界(MA.186)」,南傳作「這個行境」(etaṃgocaro),菩提比丘長老英譯為「我的領域」(my domain)。
  「知斷一法(MA.186)」,南傳作「證知這裡某一類法後」(abhiññāya idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ, abhiññā idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「獲得洞察入那個法」(gained insight into that Dhamma, DN.28),菩提比丘長老英譯為「這裡某個教導經由直接的理解」(through direct knowledge of a certain teaching here, MN.47),並解說,為了帶出要表達的意思,將「法」譯為「教導」。按:《破斥猶豫》說,在那個被教導的法上某一個洞察法證知後,以那個洞察法在諸教說法上走到究竟(tasmiṃ desite dhamme ekaccaṃ paṭivedhadhammaṃ abhiññāya tena paṭivedhadhammena desanādhamme niṭṭhaṃ gacchati.),《吉祥悅意》說,在那個被教導的法上某一個法名為聲聞波羅蜜智(完成智;最高智)認知後,在諸法上我走到究竟(tasmiṃ desite dhamme ekaccaṃ dhammaṃ nāma sāvakapāramīñāṇaṃ sañjānitvā dhammesu niṭṭhamagamaṃ),在哪些法上呢?在四諦法上(Catusaccadhammesu)。
  「見本(MA.186)」,南傳作「見為根的」(dassanamūlikā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「根植於見解」(rooted in vision)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「須陀洹道為根的」(sotāpattimaggamūlikā)解說。
  「一些」(ekacce),菩提比丘長老英譯為「那些」(those)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,一些慢與過慢等的過患(ekacce mānātimānādayo ādīnavā)。
  「惡去者」(duggatā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「不良行為」(ill behaved)。按:此即「善去者」的反義詞。