經號:   
   (中部45經 更新)
中部45經/法的受持小經(雙小品[5])(莊春江譯)[MA.174]
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!有這四種法的受持,哪四種?比丘們!有法的受持現在是樂的,未來是苦果報的;比丘們!有法的受持現在是苦的,同樣地未來也是苦果報的;比丘們!有法的受持現在是苦的,未來是樂果報的;比丘們!有法的受持現在是樂的,同樣地未來也是樂果報的。(468)
  比丘們!而什麼是法的受持現在是樂的,未來是苦果報的呢?比丘們!有一些這樣說、這樣見的沙門婆羅門:『在諸欲中沒有過失。』他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態,他們與綁髮髻的女遊行者自娛,他們這麼說:『當那些沙門婆羅門尊師在諸欲上看見什麼未來的恐懼時,說諸欲的捨斷,告知諸欲的遍知呢?與這些女遊行者嬌嫩、柔軟、毛茸茸手臂的接觸是樂的。』他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態。他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態後,以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界惡趣下界、地獄,他們在那裡感受苦的、激烈的、猛烈的、強烈的感受,他們這麼說:『當那些沙門婆羅門尊師在諸欲上看見這個未來的恐懼時,說諸欲的捨斷,告知諸欲的遍知,因為這些欲之因、欲之因由,我們感受苦的、激烈的、猛烈的、強烈的感受。』
  比丘們!猶如在夏季最後一個月,葛藤果莢裂開,比丘們!那時,葛藤種子落在某棵沙羅樹下,比丘們!那時,凡在那棵沙羅樹上居住的那位天神成為害怕的、驚怖的,來到畏懼。比丘們!那時,在那棵沙羅樹上居住天神的朋友、同事、親族、血親:園林的諸天神、樹林的諸天神、樹木的諸天神、在藥草與大無花果樹上居住的諸天神集合、聚集後,這麼安慰:『尊師!不要害怕,尊師!不要害怕,或許孔雀會吞下那個葛藤的種子,或鹿會咀嚼,或林火會燃燒,或樵夫們會抓起,或螞蟻們會起來,又或是非種子。』比丘們!那時,孔雀既沒吞下那個葛藤的種子,鹿也沒咀嚼,林火也沒燃燒,樵夫們也沒抓起,螞蟻們也沒起來,而且是種子。它被下雨的雨雲落下完全地增長,那棵葛藤葛蔓有嬌嫩、柔軟、毛茸茸的蔓藤,它緊密纏繞那棵沙羅樹。比丘們!那時,在那棵沙羅樹居住的天神這麼想:『當那些朋友、同事、親族、血親尊師們:園林的諸天神、樹林的諸天神、樹木的諸天神、在藥草與大無花果樹上居住的諸天神,在葛藤的種子上看見什麼未來的恐懼時,集合、聚集後,這麼安慰:「尊師!不要害怕,尊師!不要害怕,或許孔雀吞下那個葛藤的種子,或鹿咀嚼,或林火燃燒,或樵夫們抓起,或螞蟻們起來,又或是非種子。」呢?與這些葛藤葛蔓嬌嫩、柔軟、毛茸茸蔓藤的接觸是樂的。』它會環繞那棵沙羅樹,它環繞那棵沙羅樹後,會爬(作)在樹枝上面,爬在樹枝上面後,會使氣根生出,使生出氣根後,凡那棵沙羅樹的一一大枝幹,會破壞它們。比丘們!那時,在那棵沙羅樹居住的天神這麼想:『當那些朋友、同事、親族、血親尊師們:園林的諸天神、樹林的諸天神、樹木的諸天神、在藥草與大無花果樹上居住的諸天神,在葛藤的種子上看見這個未來的恐懼時,集合、聚集後,這麼安慰:「尊師!不要害怕,尊師!不要害怕,或許孔雀吞下那個葛藤的種子,或鹿咀嚼,或林火燃燒,或樵夫們抓起,或螞蟻們起來,又或是非種子。」而凡葛藤種子之因,我感受苦的、激烈的、猛烈的、強烈的感受。』同樣的,比丘們!有一些這樣說、這樣見的沙門婆羅門:『在諸欲中沒有過失。』他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態,他們與綁髮髻的女遊行者自娛,他們這麼說:『當那些沙門婆羅門尊師在諸欲上看見什麼未來的恐懼時,說諸欲的捨斷,告知諸欲的遍知呢?與這些女遊行者嬌嫩、柔軟、毛茸茸手臂的接觸是樂的。』他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態。他們來到在諸欲中陷落狀態後,以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄,他們在那裡感受苦的、激烈的、猛烈的、強烈的感受,他們這麼說:『當那些沙門婆羅門尊師在諸欲上看見這個未來的恐懼時,說諸欲的捨斷,告知諸欲的遍知,因為這些欲之因、欲之因由,我們感受苦的、激烈的、猛烈的、強烈的感受。』』比丘們!這被稱為法的受持現在是樂的,未來是苦果報的。(469)
  比丘們!而什麼是法的受持現在是苦的,同樣地未來也是苦果報的?比丘們!這裡,某人是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、受邀不來者受邀不住立者。他受用非帶來的、非被個別招請的、非邀請的。那個他不從甕口領受,不從鍋口領受,非門檻中間、非棍棒中間、非杵中間、非正在吃的兩人的、非從孕婦、非從授乳女、非從與男子生活女、非在饑饉時被收集的食物處、非狗出現的場所、非蒼蠅群集的場所。非魚、非肉,飲非榖酒、非果酒、非酸粥。那個他是一家一口團食者,或是二家二口團食者……(中略)或是七家七口者。以一處施物維生,也以二處施物維生……(中略),也以七處施物維生。一天吃一餐,也二天吃一餐……(中略)也七天吃一餐,像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。那個他是食蔬菜者,或是食稗子者,或是食生米者,或是食大度拉米者,或是食蘇苔者,或是食米糠者,或是食飯汁者,或是食胡麻粉者,或是食草者,或是食牛糞者。他以森林的根與果實食物維生,是落下果實為食物者。他穿麻衣,也穿麻的混織物,也穿裹屍布,也穿糞掃衣,也穿低力刀樹皮,也穿羚羊皮,也穿羊皮,也穿茅草衣,也穿樹皮衣,也穿木片衣,也穿髮毛織物,也穿獸毛織物,也穿貓頭鷹羽毛衣。也是拔髮鬚者、拔髮鬚致力實踐者,也是常站立者、拒絕座位者,也是蹲踞者、蹲踞勤奮實踐者。也是臥荊棘者,睡在荊棘床墊上。也住於為黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐者。像這樣,他住於為許多種像這樣形色身體的苦行折磨的致力實踐者,他以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄。比丘們!這被稱為法的受持現在是苦的,未來是苦果報的。(470)
  比丘們!而什麼是法的受持現在是苦的,未來是樂果報的?比丘們!這裡,某人本來重貪之類者,他經常感受貪生起的苦、憂;本來是重瞋之類者,他經常感受瞋生起的苦、憂;本來是重癡之類者,他經常感受癡生起的苦、憂,他與苦俱地,也與憂俱地,也淚流滿面哭泣著行圓滿的、遍純淨的梵行,他以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。比丘們!這被稱為法的受持現在是苦的,未來是樂果報的。(471)
  比丘們!而什麼是法的受持現在是樂的,同樣地未來也是樂果報的?比丘們!這裡,某人本來不是重貪之類者,他不經常感受貪生起的苦、憂;本來不是重瞋之類者,他不經常感受瞋生起的苦、憂;本來不是重癡之類者,他不經常感受癡生起的苦、憂,他就從離諸欲後,從離諸不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺離而生喜、樂的初禪;從尋與伺的平息……(中略)第二禪……(中略)第三禪……(中略)進入後住於不苦不樂,平靜、念遍純淨的第四禪,他以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。比丘們!這被稱為法的受持現在是樂的,同樣地未來也是樂果報的。
  比丘們!這是四種法的受持。」
  世尊說這個,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊的所說。(472)
  法的受持小經第五終了。
MN.45/(5) Cūḷadhammasamādānasuttaṃ
   468. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “cattārimāni, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānāni. Katamāni cattāri? Atthi, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhaṃ āyatiṃ dukkhavipākaṃ; atthi, bhikkhave dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhañceva āyatiñca dukkhavipākaṃ; atthi, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhaṃ āyatiṃ sukhavipākaṃ; atthi, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhañceva āyatiñca sukhavipākaṃ”.
   469. “Katamañca, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhaṃ āyatiṃ dukkhavipākaṃ? Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino– ‘natthi kāmesu doso’ti. Te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjanti. Te kho moḷibaddhāhi paribbājikāhi paricārenti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘kiṃsu nāma te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kāmesu anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā kāmānaṃ pahānamāhaṃsu, kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññapenti? Sukho imissā paribbājikāya taruṇāya mudukāya lomasāya bāhāya samphasso’ti te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjanti. Te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjanti. Te tattha dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘idaṃ kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kāmesu anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā kāmānaṃ pahānamāhaṃsu, kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññapenti, ime hi mayaṃ kāmahetu kāmanidānaṃ dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayāmā’ti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, gimhānaṃ pacchime māse māluvāsipāṭikā phaleyya. Atha kho taṃ, bhikkhave, māluvābījaṃ aññatarasmiṃ sālamūle nipateyya. Atha kho, bhikkhave, yā tasmiṃ sāle adhivatthā devatā sā bhītā saṃviggā santāsaṃ āpajjeyya. Atha kho, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ sāle adhivatthāya devatāya mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā ārāmadevatā vanadevatā rukkhadevatā osadhitiṇavanappatīsu adhivatthā devatā saṅgamma samāgamma evaṃ samassāseyyuṃ– ‘mā bhavaṃ bhāyi, mā bhavaṃ bhāyi; appeva nāmetaṃ māluvābījaṃ moro vā gileyya, mago vā khādeyya, davaḍāho vā ḍaheyya, vanakammikā vā uddhareyyuṃ, upacikā vā uṭṭhaheyyuṃ, abījaṃ vā panassā’ti. Atha kho taṃ, bhikkhave, māluvābījaṃ neva moro gileyya, na mago khādeyya, na davaḍāho ḍaheyya, na vanakammikā uddhareyyuṃ, na upacikā uṭṭhaheyyuṃ, bījañca panassa taṃ pāvussakena meghena abhippavuṭṭhaṃ sammadeva viruheyya. Sāssa māluvālatā taruṇā mudukā lomasā vilambinī, sā taṃ sālaṃ upaniseveyya. Atha kho, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ sāle adhivatthāya devatāya evamassa– ‘kiṃsu nāma te bhonto mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā ārāmadevatā vanadevatā rukkhadevatā osadhitiṇavanappatīsu adhivatthā devatā māluvābīje anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā saṅgamma samāgamma evaṃ samassāsesuṃ – “mā bhavaṃ bhāyi mā bhavaṃ bhāyi, appeva nāmetaṃ māluvābījaṃ moro vā gileyya, mago vā khādeyya, davaḍāho vā ḍaheyya, vanakammikā vā uddhareyyuṃ, upacikā vā uṭṭhaheyyuṃ, abījaṃ vā panassā”ti; sukho imissā māluvālatāya taruṇāya mudukāya lomasāya vilambiniyā samphasso’ti. Sā taṃ sālaṃ anuparihareyya. Sā taṃ sālaṃ anupariharitvā upari viṭabhiṃ kareyya. Upari viṭabhiṃ karitvā oghanaṃ janeyya. Oghanaṃ janetvā ye tassa sālassa mahantā mahantā khandhā te padāleyya. Atha kho, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ sāle adhivatthāya devatāya evamassa– ‘idaṃ kho te bhonto mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā ārāmadevatā vanadevatā rukkhadevatā osadhitiṇavanappatīsu adhivatthā devatā māluvābīje anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā saṅgamma samāgamma evaṃ samassāsesuṃ – “mā bhavaṃ bhāyi mā bhavaṃ bhāyi, appeva nāmetaṃ māluvābījaṃ moro vā gileyya, mago vā khādeyya, davaḍāho vā ḍaheyya, vanakammikā vā uddhareyyuṃ, upacikā vā uṭṭhaheyyuṃ abījaṃ vā panassā”ti. Yañcāhaṃ māluvābījahetu dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayāmī’ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, santi eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃvādino evaṃdiṭṭhino ‘natthi kāmesu doso’ti Te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjanti. Te moḷibaddhāhi paribbājikāhi paricārenti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘kiṃsu nāma te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kāmesu anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā kāmānaṃ pahānamāhaṃsu, kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññapenti? Sukho imissā paribbājikāya taruṇāya mudukāya lomasāya bāhāya samphasso’ti. Te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjanti. Te kāmesu pātabyataṃ āpajjitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjanti. Te tattha dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti. Te evamāhaṃsu– ‘idaṃ kho te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kāmesu anāgatabhayaṃ sampassamānā kāmānaṃ pahānamāhaṃsu, kāmānaṃ pariññaṃ paññapenti. Ime hi mayaṃ kāmahetu kāmanidānaṃ dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayāmā’ti. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhaṃ āyatiṃ dukkhavipākaṃ.
   470. “Katamañca, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhañceva āyatiñca dukkhavipākaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco acelako hoti muttācāro hatthāpalekhano, na-ehibhaddantiko, natiṭṭhabhaddantiko, nābhihaṭaṃ, na uddissakataṃ, na nimantanaṃ sādiyati, so na kumbhimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na kaḷopimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na eḷakamantaraṃ, na daṇḍamantaraṃ, na musalamantaraṃ, na dvinnaṃ bhuñjamānānaṃ, na gabbhiniyā, na pāyamānāya, na purisantaragatāya, na saṅkittīsu, na yattha sā upaṭṭhito hoti, na yattha makkhikā saṇḍasaṇḍacārinī, na macchaṃ, na maṃsaṃ, na suraṃ, na merayaṃ, na thusodakaṃ pivati. So ekāgāriko vā hoti ekālopiko, dvāgāriko vā hoti dvālopiko …pe… sattāgāriko vā hoti sattālopiko. Ekissāpi dattiyā yāpeti, dvīhipi dattīhi yāpeti… sattahipi dattīhi yāpeti. Ekāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti, dvīhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti… sattāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti. Iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. So sākabhakkho vā hoti sāmākabhakkho vā hoti, nīvārabhakkho vā hoti, daddulabhakkho vā hoti, haṭabhakkho vā hoti, kaṇabhakkho vā hoti, ācāmabhakkho vā hoti, piññākabhakkho vā hoti, tiṇabhakkho vā hoti, gomayabhakkho vā hoti, vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. So sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti, chavadussānipi dhāreti, paṃsukūlānipi dhāreti, tirīṭānipi dhāreti, ajinampi dhāreti, ajinakkhipampi dhāreti, kusacīrampi dhāreti, vākacīrampi dhāreti, phalakacīrampi dhāreti, kesakambalampi dhāreti, vāḷakambalampi dhāreti, ulūkapakkhampi dhāreti, kesamassulocakopi hoti, kesamassulocanānuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaṭṭhakopi hoti, āsanapaṭikkhitto, ukkuṭikopi hoti ukkuṭikappadhānamanuyutto, kaṇṭakāpassayikopi hoti, kaṇṭakāpassaye seyyaṃ kappeti, sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Iti evarūpaṃ anekavihitaṃ kāyassa ātāpanaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto viharati So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhañceva āyatiñca dukkhavipākaṃ.
   471. “Katamañca, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhaṃ āyatiṃ sukhavipākaṃ? Idha bhikkhave, ekacco pakatiyā tibbarāgajātiko hoti, so abhikkhaṇaṃ rāgajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti; pakatiyā tibbadosajātiko hoti, so abhikkhaṇaṃ dosajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti; pakatiyā tibbamohajātiko hoti, so abhikkhaṇaṃ mohajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. So sahāpi dukkhena, sahāpi domanassena, assumukhopi rudamāno paripuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ carati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannadukkhaṃ āyatiṃ sukhavipākaṃ.
   472. “Katamañca, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhañceva āyatiñca sukhavipākaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco pakatiyā na tibbarāgajātiko hoti, so na abhikkhaṇaṃ rāgajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti; pakatiyā na tibbadosajātiko hoti, so na abhikkhaṇaṃ dosajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti; pakatiyā na tibbamohajātiko hoti so na abhikkhaṇaṃ mohajaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. So vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dhammasamādānaṃ paccuppannasukhañceva āyatiñca sukhavipākaṃ. Imāni kho, bhikkhave, cattāri dhammasamādānānī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Cūḷadhammasamādānasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ pañcamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「受法(MA.174)」,南傳作「法的受持」(dhammasamādānāni,逐字譯為「法+受持」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「承擔的事」(undertaking things)。「受持」(samādāna),另譯為「拿起,遵守,接受」,《破斥猶豫》以「執取之被執取」(gahitagahaṇāni)解說。
  「自然(MA.174)」,南傳作「本來」(pakatiyā,另譯為「自然」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「本性;天生」(by nature)。