經號:   
   (中部40經 更新)
中部40經/馬城小經(雙大品[4])(莊春江譯)[MA.183]
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在鴦伽,名叫馬城的鴦伽市鎮。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!人們稱呼你們『沙門、沙門』,而且,當你們被問:『你們是誰?』時,你們自稱:『我們是沙門。』比丘們!當他們這麼稱呼、當你們這麼自稱時,『凡沙門適當道跡,我們將走向那個,這樣,這對我們的稱呼與我們的自稱將成為真實的事實,且凡我們受用衣服、施食、臥坐處、病人需物、醫藥必需品,在我們上那些作者,他們將有大果、大效益,以及我們的這個出家就將是功不唐捐的、有果實的、有結果的。』比丘們!應該被你們這麼學。(435)
  比丘們!而怎樣比丘不是沙門適當道跡的行者?比丘們!對凡任何比丘:貪婪者的貪婪未被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意未被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒未被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨未被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡未被捨斷、專橫者的專橫未被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒未被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝未被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾未被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐未被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求未被捨斷、邪見者的邪見未被捨斷,比丘們!對這些沙門的垢穢、沙門的過失、沙門的渣滓(惡行)、墮苦界處、能被感受惡趣的未捨斷者,我說:『他不是沙門適當道跡的行者。』比丘們!猶如名叫麼大若的武器之類的,兩邊刀刃被喝飲的[水連同石頭磨得]銳利,它被大衣完全裹覆、完全包捲,比丘們!我說這位比丘的出家是像這樣的譬喻。(436)
  比丘們!我不說沙門身分是著大衣者的以僅僅大衣的穿著,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是裸行者的以僅僅裸行,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是塵垢者的以僅僅塵垢,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是水浴者的以僅僅水浴,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是住樹下者的以僅僅住樹下,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是住露地者的以僅僅住露地,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是常站立者的以僅僅常站立,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是定期食者的以僅僅定期食,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是誦咒者的以僅僅誦咒,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是結髮者的以僅僅結髮的持有。
  比丘們!如果著大衣者的以僅僅大衣的穿著貪婪者的貪婪被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡被捨斷、專橫者的專橫被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求被捨斷、邪見者的邪見被捨斷,朋友、同事、親族、血親隨即對才出生的他帶入(作)著大衣者,就勸導著大衣者身份:『來!賢面!請你成為著大衣者,當你成為著大衣者時,以大衣的穿著,貪婪者的貪婪將被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意將被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒將被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨將被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡將被捨斷、專橫者的專橫將被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒將被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝將被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾將被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐將被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求將被捨斷、邪見者的邪見將被捨斷。』比丘們!因為,這裡,我看見某一類貪婪的、有瞋害心的、憤怒的、怨恨的、藏惡的、專橫的、嫉妒的、慳吝的、狡猾的、偽詐的、惡欲求的、邪見的著大衣者,因此,我不說沙門身分是著大衣者的以僅僅大衣的穿著。
  比丘們!如果裸行者的……(中略)比丘們!如果塵垢者的……(中略)比丘們!如果水浴者的……(中略)比丘們!如果住樹下者的……(中略)比丘們!如果住露地者的……(中略)比丘們!如果常站立者的……(中略)比丘們!如果定期食者的……(中略)比丘們!如果誦咒者的……(中略)比丘們!如果結髮者的以僅僅結髮的持有貪婪者的貪婪被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡被捨斷、專橫者的專橫被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求被捨斷、邪見者的邪見被捨斷,朋友、同事、親族、血親隨即對才出生的他帶入結髮者,就勸導結髮者身份:『來!賢面!請你成為結髮者,當你成為結髮者時,以結髮的持有,貪婪者的貪婪將被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意將被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒將被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨將被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡將被捨斷、專橫者的專橫將被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒將被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝將被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾將被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐將被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求將被捨斷、邪見者的邪見將被捨斷。』比丘們!因為,這裡,我看見某一類貪婪的、有瞋害心的、憤怒的、怨恨的、藏惡的、專橫的、嫉妒的、慳吝的、狡猾的、偽詐的、惡欲求的、邪見的結髮者,因此,我不說沙門身分是結髮者的以僅僅結髮的持有。(437)
  比丘們!而怎樣比丘是沙門適當道跡的行者?比丘們!對凡任何比丘:貪婪者的貪婪被捨斷、有瞋害心者的惡意被捨斷、憤怒者的憤怒被捨斷、怨恨者的怨恨被捨斷、藏惡者的藏惡被捨斷、專橫者的專橫被捨斷、嫉妒者的嫉妒被捨斷、慳吝者的慳吝被捨斷、狡猾者的狡猾被捨斷、偽詐者的偽詐被捨斷、惡欲求者的惡欲求被捨斷、邪見者的邪見被捨斷,比丘們!對這些沙門的垢穢、沙門的過失、沙門的渣滓、墮苦界處、能被感受惡趣的捨斷者,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』他看見從全部這些惡不善法變清淨的自己。對那位看見自己從全部這些惡不善法變清淨者,欣悅被生起;對喜悅者,被生起;對意喜者,身變得寧靜身已寧靜者感受樂;對有樂者,心入定。
  他以與慈俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二的,像這樣第三的,像這樣第四的,像這樣上下、橫向、到處,以對一切如對自己,以與慈俱行的、廣大的、變大的、無量的、無怨恨的、無瞋害的心遍滿全部世間後而住。以與悲俱行之心……(中略)以與喜悅俱行之心……(中略)以與平靜俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二的,像這樣第三的,像這樣第四的,像這樣上下、橫向、到處,以對一切如對自己,以與平靜俱行的、廣大的、變大的、無量的、無怨恨的、無瞋害的心遍滿全部世間後而住。
  比丘們!猶如有清澈水的、悅意水的、冷水的、透明水的、美麗堤岸的、能被喜樂的蓮花池,如果被熱壓迫的、被熱折磨的、疲累的、乾涸的、口渴的男子從東方到來,他走到那個蓮花池後除去(調伏)水的渴望,除去熱的苦惱。如果……男子也從西方到來……(中略)如果……男子也從北方到來……(中略)如果……男子也從南方到來……(中略)如果被熱壓迫的、被熱折磨的、疲累的、乾涸的、口渴的男子也從一一哪裡對那個到來,他走到那個蓮花池後除去水的渴望,除去熱的苦惱。同樣的,比丘們!如果從剎帝利族姓從在家出家,成為無家者,且他來到如來宣說的法律後,這麼修習慈、悲、喜悅、平靜後,得到內在的寂靜,以內在的寂靜,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』如果也從婆羅門族姓……(中略)如果也從毘舍族姓……(中略)如果也從首陀羅族姓……(中略)如果也從凡什麼族姓從在家出家,成為無家者,且他來到如來宣說的法律後,這麼修習慈、悲、喜悅、平靜後,得到內在的寂靜,以內在的寂靜,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』
  比丘們!如果從剎帝利族姓從在家出家,成為無家者,且他以諸的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無漏心解脫慧解脫,以諸漏的滅盡成為沙門。如果也從婆羅門族姓……(中略)如果也從毘舍族姓……(中略)如果也從首陀羅族姓……(中略)如果也從凡什麼族姓從在家出家,成為無家者,且他以諸漏的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,以諸漏的滅盡成為沙門。」
  世尊說這個,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊的所說。(438)
  馬城小經第十終了。
  雙大品第四終了,其攝頌
  磚(屋)、沙羅樹林、照顧,有慧的,又薩遮迦的抑止,
  臉色明朗的狀態及帝釋,漁夫、馬城與結髮者。
MN.40/(10) Cūḷa-assapurasuttaṃ
   435. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā aṅgesu viharati assapuraṃ nāma aṅgānaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “samaṇā samaṇāti vo, bhikkhave, jano sañjānāti. Tumhe ca pana ‘ke tumhe’ti puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇāmhā’ti paṭijānātha. Tesaṃ vo, bhikkhave, evaṃsamaññānaṃ sataṃ evaṃpaṭiññānaṃ sataṃ– ‘yā samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadā taṃ paṭipajjissāma; evaṃ no ayaṃ amhākaṃ samaññā ca saccā bhavissati paṭiññā ca bhūtā; yesañca mayaṃ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paribhuñjāma, tesaṃ te kārā amhesu mahapphalā bhavissanti mahānisaṃsā, amhākañcevāyaṃ pabbajjā avañjhā bhavissati saphalā sa-udrayā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.
   436. “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno hoti? Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno abhijjhālussa abhijjhā appahīnā hoti, byāpannacittassa byāpādo appahīno hoti, kodhanassa kodho appahīno hoti, upanāhissa upanāho appahīno hoti, makkhissa makkho appahīno hoti, paḷāsissa paḷāso appahīno hoti, issukissa issā appahīnā hoti, maccharissa macchariyaṃ appahīnaṃ hoti saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ appahīnaṃ hoti, māyāvissa māyā appahīnā hoti, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā appahīnā hoti, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi appahīnā hoti– imesaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, samaṇamalānaṃ samaṇadosānaṃ samaṇakasaṭānaṃ āpāyikānaṃ ṭhānānaṃ duggativedaniyānaṃ appahānā ‘na samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, matajaṃ nāma āvudhajātaṃ ubhatodhāraṃ pītanisitaṃ. Tadassa saṅghāṭiyā sampārutaṃ sampaliveṭhitaṃ. Tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imassa bhikkhuno pabbajjaṃ vadāmi.
   437. “Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭikassa saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, acelakassa acelakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, rajojallikassa rajojallikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave udakorohakassa udakorohaṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlikassa rukkhamūlikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, abbhokāsikassa abbhokāsikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ubbhaṭṭhakassa ubbhaṭṭhakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, pariyāyabhattikassa pariyāyabhattikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, mantajjhāyakassa mantajjhāyakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, jaṭilakassa jaṭādhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   “Saṅghāṭikassa ce, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyetha, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyetha, kodhanassa kodho pahīyetha, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyetha, makkhissa makkho pahīyetha, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyetha, issukissa issā pahīyetha, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyetha, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyetha, māyāvissa māyā pahīyetha, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyetha, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyetha, tamenaṃ mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā jātameva naṃ saṅghāṭikaṃ kareyyuṃ, saṅghāṭikattameva samādapeyyuṃ – ‘ehi tvaṃ, bhadramukha, saṅghāṭiko hohi, saṅghāṭikassa te sato saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyissati, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyissati, kodhanassa kodho pahīyissati, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyissati, makkhissa makkho pahīyissati, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyissati, issukissa issā pahīyissati, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyissati, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyissati, māyāvissa māyā pahīyissati, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyissati, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyissatī’ti. Yasmā ca kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭikampi idhekaccaṃ passāmi abhijjhāluṃ byāpannacittaṃ kodhanaṃ upanāhiṃ makkhiṃ paḷāsiṃ issukiṃ macchariṃ saṭhaṃ māyāviṃ pāpicchaṃ micchādiṭṭhikaṃ, tasmā na saṅghāṭikassa saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   “Acelakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… rajojallikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… udakorohakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… rukkhamūlikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… abbhokāsikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… ubbhaṭṭhakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… pariyāyabhattikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… mantajjhāyakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… jaṭilakassa ce, bhikkhave, jaṭādhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyetha, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyetha kodhanassa kodho pahīyetha, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyetha, makkhissa makkho pahīyetha, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyetha, issukissa issā pahīyetha, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyetha, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyetha, māyāvissa māyā pahīyetha, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyetha, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyetha, tamenaṃ mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā jātameva naṃ jaṭilakaṃ kareyyuṃ, jaṭilakattameva samādapeyyuṃ– ‘ehi tvaṃ, bhadramukha, jaṭilako hohi, jaṭilakassa te sato jaṭādhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyissati byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyissati, kodhanassa kodho pahīyissati …pe… pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyissati micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyissatī’ti. Yasmā ca kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, jaṭilakampi idhekaccaṃ passāmi abhijjhāluṃ byāpannacittaṃ kodhanaṃ upanāhiṃ makkhiṃ palāsiṃ issukiṃ macchariṃ saṭhaṃ māyāviṃ pāpicchaṃ micchādiṭṭhiṃ, tasmā na jaṭilakassa jaṭādhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   438. “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno hoti? Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīnā hoti, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīno hoti, kodhanassa kodho pahīno hoti, upanāhissa upanāho pahīno hoti, makkhissa makkho pahīno hoti, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīno hoti, issukissa issā pahīnā hoti, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, māyāvissa māyā pahīnā hoti, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīnā hoti, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā hoti– imesaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, samaṇamalānaṃ samaṇadosānaṃ samaṇakasaṭānaṃ āpāyikānaṃ ṭhānānaṃ duggativedaniyānaṃ pahānā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. So sabbehi imehi pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi visuddhamattānaṃ samanupassati ( ). Tassa sabbehi imehi pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi visuddhamattānaṃ samanupassato pāmojjaṃ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.
   “So mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Karuṇāsahagatena cetasā …pe… muditāsahagatena cetasā …pe… upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, pokkharaṇī acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setakā supatitthā ramaṇīyā. Puratthimāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya ghammābhitatto ghammapareto kilanto tasito pipāsito. So taṃ pokkharaṇiṃ āgamma vineyya udakapipāsaṃ vineyya ghammapariḷāhaṃ …pe… pacchimāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya …pe… uttarāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya …pe… dakkhiṇāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya. Yato kuto cepi naṃ puriso āgaccheyya ghammābhitatto ghammapareto, kilanto tasito pipāsito. So taṃ pokkharaṇiṃ āgamma vineyya udakapipāsaṃ, vineyya ghammapariḷāhaṃ. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, khattiyakulā cepi agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti, so ca tathāgatappaveditaṃ dhammavinayaṃ āgamma, evaṃ mettaṃ karuṇaṃ muditaṃ upekkhaṃ bhāvetvā labhati ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ vūpasamā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. Brāhmaṇakulā cepi …pe… vessakulā cepi …pe… suddakulā cepi …pe… yasmā kasmā cepi kulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti so ca tathāgatappaveditaṃ dhammavinayaṃ āgamma, evaṃ mettaṃ karuṇaṃ muditaṃ upekkhaṃ bhāvetvā labhati ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ vūpasamā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi.
   “Khattiyakulā cepi agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti. So ca āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Āsavānaṃ khayā samaṇo hoti. Brāhmaṇakulā cepi …pe… vessakulā cepi… suddakulā cepi… yasmā kasmā cepi kulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti, so ca āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Āsavānaṃ khayā samaṇo hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Cūḷa-assapurasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dasamaṃ.
   Mahāyamakavaggo niṭṭhito catuttho.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Giñjakasālavanaṃ pariharituṃ, paññavato puna saccakanisedho;
   Mukhavaṇṇapasīdanatāpindo, kevaṭṭa-assapurajaṭilena.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「沙門道跡(MA.183)」,南傳作「沙門適當道跡」(samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「對禁欲修道者妥善之路」(the way proper to the recluse)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「沙門能相應的(anucchavikā)、沙門隨順的道跡(anulomappaṭipadā)」解說。
  「我見(MA.183)」,南傳作「我看見」(passāmi)。
  「內止(MA.183)」,南傳作「內在的寂靜」(ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「內在的平和」(internal peace)。
  「被喝飲的[水連同石頭磨得]銳利」(pītanisitaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「磨得很好」(well whetted)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「被喝飲的水連同石頭善磨」(udakapītañceva silāya ca sunighaṃsitaṃ)解說,今準此譯。