經號:   
   (中部28經 更新)
中部28經/如象足跡大經(譬喻品[3])(莊春江譯)[MA.30]
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。在那裡,尊者舍利弗召喚比丘們:「比丘學友們!」「學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。尊者舍利弗說這個:「學友們!猶如凡任何叢林生物的足跡類,那些全都在象的足跡中走到容納,象的足跡被告知它們中第一的,即:以大的狀態。同樣的,學友們!凡任何善法,那些全都在四聖諦中走到攝取,在哪四個中?在苦聖諦中,在苦聖諦中,在苦聖諦中,在導向苦滅道跡聖諦中。(300)
  學友們!而哪個是苦聖諦?生是苦,老也是苦,死也是苦,愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望也是苦,凡沒得到想要的,那也是苦。以簡要:五取蘊是苦。學友們!而哪個是五取蘊?即:色取蘊、受取蘊、想取蘊、行取蘊、識取蘊。
  學友們!而哪個是色取蘊?四大與四大之所造色。
  學友們!而哪些是四大?地界、水界、火界、風界。(301)
  學友們!而哪些是地界?地界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!而哪些是自身內的地界?凡自身內的、各自的、硬的、固體的、執取的,即:頭髮、體毛、指甲、牙齒、皮膚、肌肉、筋腱、骨骼、骨髓、腎臟、心臟、肝臟、肋膜、脾臟、肺臟、腸子、腸間膜、胃、糞便,又或凡甚至其它任何自身內的、各自的、硬的、固體的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的地界。又,凡自身內的地界,連同凡外部的地界,這都是地界,它:『這不是我的我不是這個這不是我的真我。』這個應該以正確之慧這樣如實被看見。以正確之慧這樣如實看見這個後,在地界上,使心在地界上離染
  學友們!有那個時期,凡外部的水界發怒,在那時,外部的地界被消失。學友們!竟然像這樣大程度外部地界的無常性將被發現(知道);滅盡法的狀態將被發現;消散法的狀態將被發現;變易法的狀態將被發現,更何況這個只存續一下子、被渴愛執取身體的『我』,或『我的』,或『我是』?那時,它的『否定(不)』就在這裡存在。
  學友們!如果其他人辱罵、誹謗、惱害、騷擾那位比丘,他這麼知道:『我的這耳觸所生苦受已生起,而它緣於,非不緣於,緣於什麼?緣於觸。』他看見:『觸是無常的。』他看見:『受是無常的。』他看見:『想是無常的。』他看見:『諸行是無常的。』他看見:『識是無常的。』就界為所緣,他的心躍入、變得明淨、安頓、勝解
  學友們!如果其他人以不想要的、非所愛的、不合意的對待(實行)那位比丘:以拳頭的接觸,也以土塊的接觸,也以棍棒的接觸、也以刀的接觸,他這麼知道:『這個身體有像這樣的性質:在如實的身上拳頭的接觸走入,土塊的接觸也走入,棍棒的接觸也走入,刀的接觸也走入。又,在如鋸子的教誡中這被世尊說:「比丘們!即使賤業的盜賊們以兩邊都有手柄的鋸子切斷一一肢體,但在那裡凡惹惱心(意),他也不是我的以那個教誡的執行者。」又,我的活力已被發動將成為不退縮的,念已現起成為不忘失的,身已寧靜成為無激情的,已得定成為心一境的,現在,寧願在這個身上令拳頭的接觸走入,令土塊的接觸也走入,令棍棒的接觸也走入,令刀的接觸也走入,因為,這是諸佛陀教誡被執行(做)。』
  學友們!如果當那位比丘這麼隨念(回憶)佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立,他以那個激起急迫感、來到急迫感:『確實是我的無利得,確實不是我的利得;確實是我的惡得的,確實不是我的善得的:凡當我這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立。』學友們!猶如媳婦看見公公後,激起急迫感、來到急迫感。同樣的,學友們!如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立,他以那個激起急迫感、來到急迫感:『確實是我的無利得,確實不是我的利得;確實是我的惡得的,確實不是我的善得的:凡當我這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,善依止的平靜不住立。』如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜住立,他以那個成為悅意的。學友們!這個情形比丘有許多已做的。(302)
  學友們!而哪些是水界?水界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!而哪些是自身內的水界?凡自身內的、各自的、水、水性的(來到水的)、執取的,即:膽汁、痰、膿、血、汗、脂肪、眼淚、油脂、唾液、鼻涕、關節液、尿,又或凡甚至其它任何自身內的、各自的、水、水性的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的水界。又,凡自身內的水界,連同凡外部的水界,這都是水界,它:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』這個應該以正確之慧這樣如實被看見。以正確之慧這樣如實看見這個後,在水界上厭,使心在水界上離染。
  學友們!有那個時期,凡外部的水界發怒,它帶走村落,也帶走城鎮,也帶走城市,也帶走地方,也帶走地方區域。學友們!有那個時期,凡在大海中一百由旬的水退去,二百由旬的水也退去,三百由旬的水也退去,四百由旬的水也退去,五百由旬的水也退去,六百由旬的水也退去,七百由旬的水也退去。學友們!有那個時期,凡在大海中水保持(住立)七棵棕櫚樹[的高度],水也保持六棵棕櫚樹,水也保持五棵棕櫚樹,水也保持四棵棕櫚樹,水也保持三棵棕櫚樹,水也保持二棵棕櫚樹,水也保持一棵棕櫚樹的高度。學友們!有那個時期,凡在大海中水保持七人[的高度],水也保持六人,水也保持五人,水也保持四人,水也保持三人,水也保持二人,水也保持一人的高度。學友們!有那個時期,凡在大海中水保持半個人[的高度],水也保持腰的高度,水也保持膝的高度,水也保持腳踝的高度。學友們!有那個時期,凡在大海中水沒有潤濕手指節的高度。學友們!即使像這麼大的外部水界,無常性將被發現;滅盡法的狀態將被發現;消散法的狀態將被發現;變易法的狀態將被發現,更何況這個只存續一下子、被渴愛執取身體的『我』、『我的』、『我是』?那時,它的『否定』就在這裡存在。……(中略)如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜住立,他以那個成為悅意的。學友們!這個情形比丘也有許多已做的。(303)
  學友們!而哪些是火界?火界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!而哪些是自身內的火界?凡自身內的、各自的、火、火性的(來到火的)、執取的,即:以那個被加熱,以那個使消化,以那個被它遍燒,以那個吃的、喝的、嚼的、嘗的走到完全消化,又或凡甚至其它任何自身內的、各自的、火、火性的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的火界。又,凡自身內的火界,連同凡外部的火界,這都是火界,它:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』這個應該以正確之慧這樣如實被看見。以正確之慧這樣如實看見這個後,在火界上厭,使心在火界上離染。
  學友們!有那個時期,凡外部的火界發怒,它燃燒村落,也燃燒城鎮,也燃燒城市,也燃燒地方,也燃燒地方區域,它來到青草邊,或道路邊,或岩石邊,或水邊,或能被喜樂的土地後,以無燃料被熄滅。學友們!有那個時期,凡以雞毛也以腱肉尋求火。即使像這麼大的外部火界,無常性將被發現;滅盡法的狀態將被發現;消散法的狀態將被發現;變易法的狀態將被發現,更何況這個只存續一下子、被渴愛執取身體的『我』、『我的』、『我是』?那時,它的『否定』就在這裡存在。……(中略)當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜住立,他以那個成為悅意的。學友們!這個情形比丘也有許多已做的。(304)
  學友們!而哪些是風界?風界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!而哪些是自身內的風界?凡自身內的、各自的、風、風性的(來到風的)、執取的,即:上行風、下行風、腹中的風、腹腔中的(腸中的)風、隨行於四肢中的風、『呼吸』,又或凡甚至其它任何自身內的、各自的、風、風性的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的風界。又,凡自身內的風界,連同凡外部的風界,這都是風界,它:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』這個應該以正確之慧這樣如實被看見。以正確之慧這樣如實看見這個後,在風界上厭,使心在風界上離染。
  學友們!有那個時期,凡外部的風界發怒,它帶走村落,也帶走城鎮,也帶走城市,也帶走地方,也帶走地方區域。學友們!有那個時期,他們在夏季的最後一個月以棕櫚葉扇,也以扇子遍求風,在水流處的草也不{想要}[動]。竟然像這樣大程度外部風界的無常性將被發現;滅盡法的狀態將被發現;消散法的狀態將被發現;變易法的狀態將被發現,更何況這個只存續一下子、被渴愛執取身體的『我』、『我的』、『我是』?那時,它的『否定』就在這裡存在。
  學友們!如果其他人辱罵、誹謗、惱害、騷擾那位比丘,他這麼知道:『我的這耳觸所生苦受已生起,而它緣於,非不緣於,緣於什麼?緣於觸。』他看見:『觸是無常的。』他看見:『受是無常的。』他看見:『想是無常的。』他看見:『諸行是無常的。』他看見:『識是無常的。』就界為所緣,他的心躍入、變得明淨、安頓、勝解。
  學友們!如果其他人以不想要的、非所愛的、不合意的對待那位比丘:以拳頭的接觸,也以土塊的接觸,也以棍棒的接觸、也以刀的接觸,他這麼知道:『這個身體有像這樣的性質:在如實的身上拳頭的接觸走入,土塊的接觸也走入,棍棒的接觸也走入,刀的接觸也走入。又,在如鋸子的教誡中這被世尊說:「比丘們!即使賤業的盜賊們以兩邊都有手柄的鋸子切斷一一肢體,但在那裡凡惹惱心(意),他也不是我的以那個教誡的執行者。」又,我的活力已被發動將成為不退縮的,念已現起成為不忘失的,身已寧靜成為無激情的,已得定成為心一境,現在,寧願在這個身上令拳頭的接觸走入,令土塊的接觸也走入,令棍棒的接觸也走入,令刀的接觸也走入,因為,這是諸佛陀教誡被執行。』
  學友們!如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立,他以那個激起急迫感、來到急迫感:『確實是我的無利得,確實不是我的利得;確實是我的惡得的,確實不是我的善得的:凡當我這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立。』學友們!猶如媳婦看見公公後,激起急迫感、來到急迫感。同樣的,學友們!如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜不住立,他以那個激起急迫感、來到急迫感:『確實是我的無利得,確實不是我的利得;確實是我的惡得的,確實不是我的善得的:凡當我這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,善依止的平靜不住立。』如果當那位比丘這麼隨念佛、這麼隨念法、這麼隨念僧團時,依止善的平靜住立,他以那個成為悅意的。學友們!這個情形比丘有許多已做的。(305)
  學友們!猶如緣於木材、緣於蔓草、緣於茅草、緣於粘土圍繞的空間,就名為(就走到稱呼)『家屋』。同樣的,學友們!緣於骨骼、緣於筋腱、緣於肉、緣於皮膚圍繞的空間,色就名為『色』。學友們!如果自身內的眼不被破壞,但外部的諸色不來到領域(視野),以及沒有對應那個的注意,就沒有那樣程度對應那個的識之部分的出現。如果自身內的眼不被破壞,且外部的諸色來到領域,但沒有對應那個的注意,就沒有那樣程度對應那個的識之部分出現。學友們!當自身內的眼不被破壞,且外部的諸色來到領域,以及有對應那個的注意,這樣,有對應那個的識之部分的出現。凡像這樣性質的色,它在色取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的受,它在受取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的想,它在想取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的諸行,它在行取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的識,它在識取蘊中走到攝取。
  他這麼知道:『這樣,這麼說:有這些五取蘊的攝取、集合、結合。又,這被世尊說:「凡看見緣起者,他看見法;凡看見法者,他看見緣起。」而這些是緣所生的,即:五取蘊。凡在這些五取蘊上的意欲、阿賴耶、隨從、取著,那是苦集;凡在這些五取蘊上意欲貪的調伏、意欲貪的捨斷,那是苦滅。』學友們!這個情形比丘也有許多已做的。
  學友們!如果自身內的耳不被破壞……(中略)鼻不被破壞……舌不被破壞……身不被破壞……意不被破壞,但外部的法不來到領域,以及沒有對應那個的注意,就沒有那樣程度對應那個的識之部分出現。如果自身內的意不被破壞,且外部的法來到領域(識域),但沒有對應那個的注意,就沒有那樣程度對應那個的識之部分出現。學友們!當自身內的意不被破壞,且外部的法來到領域,以及有對應那個的注意,這樣,有對應那個的識之部分的出現。凡像這樣性質的色,它在色取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的受,它在受取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的想,它在想取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的諸行,它在行取蘊中走到攝取;凡像這樣性質的識,它在識取蘊中走到攝取。他這麼知道:『這樣,這麼說:有這些五取蘊的攝取、集合、結合。又,這被世尊說:「凡看見緣起者,他看見法;凡看見法者,他看見緣起。」而這些是緣所生的,即:五取蘊。凡在這些五取蘊上的意欲、阿賴耶、隨從、取著,那是苦集;凡在這些五取蘊上意欲貪的調伏、意欲貪的捨斷,那是苦滅。』學友們!這個情形比丘也有許多已做的。」尊者舍利弗說這個,悅意的那些比丘歡喜尊者舍利弗所說。(306)
  如象足跡大經第八終了。
MN.28/(8) Mahāhatthipadopamasuttaṃ
   300. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho āyasmā sāriputto bhikkhū āmantesi– “āvuso bhikkhave”ti. “Āvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca– “seyyathāpi, āvuso, yāni kānici jaṅgalānaṃ pāṇānaṃ padajātāni sabbāni tāni hatthipade samodhānaṃ gacchanti, hatthipadaṃ tesaṃ aggamakkhāyati yadidaṃ mahantattena; evameva kho, āvuso, ye keci kusalā dhammā sabbete catūsu ariyasaccesu saṅgahaṃ gacchanti. Katamesu catūsu? Dukkhe ariyasacce dukkhasamudaye ariyasacce, dukkhanirodhe ariyasacce, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ariyasacce”.
   301. “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, maraṇampi dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsāpi dukkhā, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ; saṃkhittena, pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā. Katame cāvuso, pañcupādānakkhandhā? Seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho.
   “Katamo cāvuso, rūpupādānakkhandho? Cattāri ca mahābhūtāni, catunnañca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ.
   “Katamā cāvuso, cattāro mahābhūtā? Pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu tejodhātu, vāyodhātu.
   302. “Katamā cāvuso, pathavīdhātu? Pathavīdhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ– kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu, yā ca bāhirā pathavīdhātu, pathavīdhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti – evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā pathavīdhātuyā nibbindati, pathavīdhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā āpodhātu pakuppati. Antarahitā tasmiṃ samaye bāhirā pathavīdhātu hoti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya pathavīdhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesenti, so evaṃ pajānāti– ‘uppannā kho me ayaṃ sotasamphassajā dukkhavedanā Sā ca kho paṭicca, no apaṭicca. Kiṃ paṭicca? Phassaṃ paṭicca’. So phasso aniccoti passati, vedanā aniccāti passati, saññā aniccāti passati, saṅkhārā aniccāti passati, viññāṇaṃ aniccanti passati. Tassa dhātārammaṇameva cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare aniṭṭhehi akantehi amanāpehi samudācaranti– pāṇisamphassenapi leḍḍusamphassenapi daṇḍasamphassenapi satthasamphassenapi. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘tathābhūto kho ayaṃ kāyo yathābhūtasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamanti, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamanti, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamanti, satthasamphassāpi kamanti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā kakacūpamovāde – “ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ, tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya na me so tena sāsanakaro”ti. Āraddhaṃ kho pana me vīriyaṃ bhavissati asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ. Kāmaṃ dāni imasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamantu, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamantu, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamantu, satthasamphassāpi kamantu, karīyati hidaṃ buddhānaṃ sāsanan’ti.
   “Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ, yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, suṇisā sasuraṃ disvā saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati; evameva kho, āvuso, tassa ce bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti, so tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ, yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   303. “Katamā cāvuso, āpodhātu? Āpodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso ajjhattikā āpodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā āpodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā āpodhātu yā ca bāhirā āpodhātu, āpodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā āpodhātuyā nibbindati, āpodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā āpodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi vahati, nigamampi vahati, nagarampi vahati, janapadampi vahati, janapadapadesampi vahati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde yojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, dviyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, tiyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, catuyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, pañcayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, chayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, sattayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde sattatālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chattālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, pañcatālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, catuttālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, titālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, dvitālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, tālamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde sattaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chapporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, pañcaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, catupporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, tiporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, dviporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, porisamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde aḍḍhaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, kaṭimattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, jāṇukamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, gopphakamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo, yaṃ mahāsamudde aṅgulipabbatemanamattampi udakaṃ na hoti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya āpodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmīti’ vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti …pe… tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti. So tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   304. “Katamā cāvuso, tejodhātu? Tejodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati, yena ca pariḍayhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchati, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā tejodhātu yā ca bāhirā tejodhātu, tejodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā tejodhātuyā nibbindati, tejodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā tejodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi dahati, nigamampi dahati, nagarampi dahati, janapadampi dahati, janapadapadesampi dahati. Sā haritantaṃ vā panthantaṃ vā selantaṃ vā udakantaṃ vā ramaṇīyaṃ vā bhūmibhāgaṃ āgamma anāhārā nibbāyati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ kukkuṭapattenapi nhārudaddulenapi aggiṃ gavesanti Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya tejodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti …pe… tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   305. “Katamā cāvuso, vāyodhātu? Vāyodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – uddhaṅgamā vātā, adhogamā vātā, kucchisayā vātā, koṭṭhāsayā vātā, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā, assāso passāso iti, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā vāyodhātu, yā ca bāhirā vāyodhātu, vāyodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama nesohamasmi na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā vāyodhātuyā nibbindati vāyodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā vāyodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi vahati, nigamampi vahati, nagarampi vahati, janapadampi vahati, janapadapadesampi vahati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ gimhānaṃ pacchime māse tālavaṇṭenapi vidhūpanenapi vātaṃ pariyesanti, ossavanepi tiṇāni na icchanti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya vāyodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesenti. So evaṃ pajānāti, uppannā kho me ayaṃ sotasamphassajā dukkhā vedanā. Sā ca kho paṭicca, no apaṭicca. Kiṃ paṭicca? Phassaṃ paṭicca. Sopi phasso aniccoti passati, vedanā aniccāti passati saññā aniccāti passati, saṅkhārā aniccāti passati, viññāṇaṃ aniccanti passati. Tassa dhātārammaṇameva cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare aniṭṭhehi akantehi amanāpehi samudācaranti, pāṇisamphassenapi leḍḍusamphassenapi daṇḍasamphassenapi satthasamphassenapi. So evaṃ pajānāti ‘tathābhūto kho ayaṃ kāyo yathābhūtasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamanti, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamanti, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamanti, satthasamphassāpi kamanti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā kakacūpamovāde “ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ. Tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya, na me so tena sāsanakaro”ti. Āraddhaṃ kho pana me vīriyaṃ bhavissati asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ. Kāmaṃ dāni imasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamantu, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamantu, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamantu, satthasamphassāpi kamantu. Karīyati hidaṃ buddhānaṃ sāsanan’ti.
   “Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ. Yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, suṇisā sasuraṃ disvā saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati; evameva kho, āvuso, tassa ce bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati – ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ. Yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   306. “Seyyathāpi, āvuso, kaṭṭhañca paṭicca valliñca paṭicca tiṇañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito agāraṃ tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati; evameva kho, āvuso, aṭṭhiñca paṭicca nhāruñca paṭicca maṃsañca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito rūpaṃ tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti, bāhirā ca rūpā na āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti bāhirā ca rūpā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yato ca kho, āvuso, ajjhattikañceva cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti, bāhirā ca rūpā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, tajjo ca samannāhāro hoti. Evaṃ tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yaṃ tathābhūtassa rūpaṃ taṃ rūpupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa vedanā sā vedanupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa saññā sā saññupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, ye tathābhūtassa saṅkhārā te saṅkhārupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, yaṃ tathābhūtassa viññāṇaṃ taṃ viññāṇupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati.
   “So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘evañhi kira imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ saṅgaho sannipāto samavāyo hoti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā– ‘yo paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati so dhammaṃ passati; yo dhammaṃ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passatīti. Paṭiccasamuppannā kho panime yadidaṃ pañcupādānakkhandhā. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṃ so dukkhasamudayo. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṃ, so dukkhanirodho’ti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   “Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, sotaṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti …pe… ghānaṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti… jivhā aparibhinnā hoti… kāyo aparibhinno hoti… mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā na āpāthaṃ āgacchanti no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Ajjhattiko ceva, āvuso, mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yato ca kho, āvuso, ajjhattiko ceva mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, tajjo ca samannāhāro hoti, evaṃ tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yaṃ tathābhūtassa rūpaṃ taṃ rūpupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa vedanā sā vedanupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa saññā sā saññupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, ye tathābhūtassa saṅkhārā te saṅkhārupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, yaṃ tathābhūtassa viññāṇaṃ taṃ viññāṇupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘evañhi kira imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ saṅgaho sannipāto samavāyo hoti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā– “yo paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati so dhammaṃ passati; yo dhammaṃ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passatī”ti. Paṭiccasamuppannā kho panime yadidaṃ pañcupādānakkhandhā. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṃ so dukkhasamudayo. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṃ so dukkhanirodho’ti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca āyasmā sāriputto. Attamanā te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Mahāhatthipadopamasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「所攝(MA.30)」,南傳作「走到攝取」(saṅgahaṃ gacchati),智髻比丘長老英譯為「被包含於」(is included in)。
  「善相應捨(MA.30)」,南傳作「依止善的平靜」(upekkhā kusalanissitā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「被有益支持的平靜」(equanimity supported by the wholesome)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,當回憶鋸子譬喻說時為隨念法,當回憶忍受著被鋸子切比丘的德性(guṇaṃ)時為隨念僧團,「依止善的平靜」,這是毘婆舍那的平靜(vipassanupekkhā)之意,這裡是六部分平靜:諸漏已滅盡者在想要不想要的所緣上(iṭṭhāniṭṭhesu ārammaṇesu)無染轉起……。
  「大學(MA.30)」,南傳作「有許多已做的」(bahukataṃ hoti,直譯為「很多被做了」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「許多被做了」(much has been done)。
  「無受而滅(MA.30)」,南傳作「以無燃料被熄滅」(anāhārā nibbāyati),智髻比丘長老英譯為「由於缺乏燃料而滅」(It goes out due to lack of fuel)。按:中阿含經都將「取」譯為「受」,而「執取」(upādāna),除了「取;取著;執著」的意思外,還有「燃料」的意思,《破斥猶豫》就說「無食物為無燃料」(nirāhārā nirupādānā),這樣,南北傳經文的含意是一致的。
  「以哆邏葉(MA.30)」,南傳作「以棕櫚葉扇」(tālavaṇṭenapi,另譯為「棕櫚莖」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「扇子」(a fan)。
  「則無有念(MA.30)」,南傳作「以及沒有對應那個的注意」(no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti),智髻比丘長老英譯為「以及沒有相當的[意識]吸引」(and there is no corresponding [conscious] engagement)。「注意」(samannāhāro),另譯為「存念」,《破斥猶豫》說「生起作意」(uppajjanamanasikāro)。
  「就界為所緣」(dhātārammaṇameva),智髻比丘長老英譯為「造一個元素為其支持目標」(having made an element its objective support)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,「躍入」為跳入(otarati, 投入),「明淨」為在那個所緣上明淨,因相的連結(Byañjanasandhivasena)而被稱為「就界為所緣」,「勝解」就是因界之力得到勝解(adhimokkhaṃ),不染著、不瞋惡(na rajjati, na dussati)。菩提比丘長老說「界為所緣」有二種解說,一是將「界」解說為如聲音、觸、受等,一是解說為「地界」。
  「惡得的」(dulladdhaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「壞的」(bad )。「善得的」(suladdhaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「好的」(good)。
  「識之部分」(viññāṇabhāgassa),智髻比丘長老英譯為「識類」(class of consciousness)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「識的部分」(viññāṇakoṭṭhāsassa)解說。