經號:   
   (長部27經 更新)
長部27經/世界開端經(波梨品[第三])(莊春江譯)[DA.5, MA.154]
襪謝德與婆羅墮若
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城東園鹿母講堂。當時,希望成為比丘的襪謝德與婆羅墮若在比丘中別住。那時,傍晚時從獨坐出來的世尊從高樓下來後,在屋外高樓陰影處經行。(111)
  襪謝德看見傍晚時從獨坐出來、從高樓下來後在屋外高樓陰影處經行的世尊。看見後,召喚婆羅墮若:「婆羅墮若朋友!這位傍晚時從獨坐出來的世尊從高樓下來後,在屋外在高樓陰影處經行。婆羅墮若朋友!我們走,我們將去見世尊,或許我們會得到從世尊面前法說的聽聞。」「是的,朋友!」婆羅墮若回答襪謝德。(112)
  那時,襪謝德與婆羅墮若去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,跟隨經行的世尊經行。那時,世尊召喚襪謝德:「襪謝德!你們從婆羅門血統、從婆羅門家族、從婆羅門家庭、從在家出家成為無家者,襪謝德!是否婆羅門們沒辱罵、沒誹謗你們呢?」「大德!婆羅門們確實以充滿適合自己的責難辱罵、誹謗我們,非不充滿。」「襪謝德!那麼,如怎樣婆羅門們以充滿適合自己的責難辱罵、誹謗你們,非不充滿呢?」「大德!婆羅門們這麼說:『僅婆羅門是最上的階級,其他的是下劣的階級;僅婆羅門是白的階級,其他的是黑的階級;僅婆羅門們變純淨,非婆羅門們否;僅婆羅門們是梵天的親生兒子、從口生的、梵天生的、梵天化作的、梵天的繼承者。你們捨棄最上階級後,已到達最下劣程度的階級,即:卑俗的、黑的、親族腳子孫禿頭假沙門。那個這是不好的,那個這是不適當的:凡你們捨棄最上的階級後,已到達最下劣程度的階級,即:卑俗的、黑的、親族腳子孫的禿頭假沙門。』大德!婆羅門們像這樣以充滿適合自己的責難辱罵、誹謗我們,非不充滿。」(113)
  「襪謝德!確實,不記得往昔的婆羅門們這麼說:『僅婆羅門是最上的階級,其他的是下劣的階級;僅婆羅門是白的階級,其他的是黑的階級;僅婆羅門們變純淨,非婆羅門們否;僅婆羅門們是梵天的親生兒子、從口生的、梵天生的、梵天化作的、梵天的繼承者。』襪謝德!然而,諸婆羅門的月經期的,及懷孕的,及生產的,及哺乳的婆羅門女被看見,但,那些從婆羅門女胎生的存在者卻這麼說:『僅婆羅門是最上的階級,其他的是下劣的階級;僅婆羅門是白的階級,其他的是黑的階級;僅婆羅門們變純淨,非婆羅門們否;僅婆羅門們是梵天的親生兒子、從口生的、梵天生的、梵天化作的、梵天的繼承者。』他們誹謗梵天,同時也虛妄地說、產出許多非福德。(114)
四種階級純淨
  襪謝德!有這四種階級:剎帝利婆羅門毘舍首陀羅。襪謝德!這裡,某一類剎帝利是殺生者、未給予而取者、邪淫者、妄語者、離間語者、粗惡語者、雜穢語者、貪婪者、瞋害心者、邪見者,襪謝德!像這樣,凡這些不善法,被稱為不善的;有罪的,被稱為有罪的;不應該被實行的,被稱為不應該被實行的;不適於聖者的,被稱為不適於聖者的;黑的,黑果報的;智者責備的,這裡,在一些剎帝利中他們被看見。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!這裡,某一類首陀羅也是殺生者、未給予而取者、邪淫者、妄語者、離間語者、粗惡語者、雜穢語者、貪婪者、瞋害心者、邪見者,襪謝德!像這樣,凡這些不善法,被稱為不善的……(中略)黑的,黑果報的;智者責備的,這裡,在一些首陀羅中他們也被看見。
  襪謝德!這裡,某一類剎帝利是離殺生者、離未給予而取者、離邪淫者、離妄語者、離離間語者、離粗惡語者、離雜穢語者、不貪婪者、無瞋害心者、正見者,襪謝德!像這樣,凡這些善法,被稱為善的;無罪的,被稱為無罪的;應該被實行的,被稱為應該被實行的;適於聖者的,被稱為適於聖者的;白的,白果報的;智者稱讚的,這裡,在一些剎帝利中他們被看見。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!這裡,某一類首陀羅也是離殺生者……(中略)不貪婪者、無瞋害心者、正見者,襪謝德!像這樣,凡這些善法,被稱為善的;無罪的,被稱為無罪的;應該被實行的,被稱為應該被實行的;適於聖者的,被稱為適於聖者的;白的,白果報的;智者稱讚的,這裡,在一些首陀羅中他們也被看。(115)
  襪謝德!在這四種階級中,在當這樣兩者混雜:諸黑白法、智者責備的、連同智者稱讚的轉起時,在這裡,凡婆羅門們這麼說:『僅婆羅門是最上的階級,其他的是下劣的階級;僅婆羅門是白的階級,其他的是黑的階級;僅婆羅門們變純淨,非婆羅門們否;僅婆羅門們是梵天的親生兒子、從口生的、梵天生的、梵天化作的、梵天的繼承者。』智者們不認可他們的那個,那是什麼原因?襪謝德!因為,這四種階級中,凡比丘是漏已滅盡的、已完成的、應該被作的已作的、負擔已卸的、自己的利益已達成的有之結已滅盡的、以究竟智解脫的阿羅漢,他被告知為他們中最高的:就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(116)
  襪謝德!其次,以這個法門,這也能被知道:如是,法就在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。
  襪謝德!憍薩羅國波斯匿王知道:『沙門喬達摩是從緊鄰的釋迦家族出家者。』襪謝德!而釋迦族是憍薩羅國波斯匿王的隨從:襪謝德!釋迦族在憍薩羅國波斯匿王上行身體伏在地上之禮、起立、問訊、合掌行為、恭敬行為。襪謝德!像這樣,凡釋迦族在憍薩羅國波斯匿王上行身體伏在地上之禮、起立、問訊、合掌行為、恭敬行為,那位憍薩羅國波斯匿王在如來上行身體伏在地上之禮、起立、問訊、合掌行為、恭敬行為,那不是:『沙門喬達摩是好出生者,我是惡出身者;沙門喬達摩是有力者,我是弱者;沙門喬達摩是端正者,我是醜陋者;沙門喬達摩是大影響力者,我是少影響力者。』反而他只恭敬著法、尊重著法、崇敬著法、供養著法、尊敬著法,這樣,憍薩羅國波斯匿王在如來上行身體伏在地上之禮、起立、問訊、合掌行為、恭敬行為。襪謝德!以這個法門,這也能被知道:如是,法就在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(117)
  襪謝德!你們是從種種出身的、從種種名字、從種種姓氏、從種種家庭、從在家出家成為無家者,當你們被詢問『你們是誰』時,你們應該自稱:『我們是釋迦之子沙門。』襪謝德!又,凡在如來上他的信已住立、已生根、已堅固地確立,不能被沙門,或被婆羅門,或被天,或被魔,或被梵,或被世間中任何者動搖,對他,這是適當的言語:『我是世尊的親生子、從口生者、法生者、法化作者、法的繼承人。』那是什麼原因?襪謝德!因為,這是如來的同義語:『法身』,及『梵身』,及『法已生者』,及『梵已生者』(118)。
  襪謝德!有那個時候,凡偶爾,經過長時間這個世界破壞。在當世界破壞時,大部分眾生成為光音天到達者(轉起者),在那裡,他們是意所生的、喜為食的、自己有光明的、空中行走的、在清淨狀態的,長時間住立(存續)。
  襪謝德!有那個時候,凡偶爾,經過長時間這個世界轉回,在當世界轉回時,大部分眾生從光音天身死後來到此處的狀態。在那裡,他們是意所生的、喜為食的、自己有光明的、空中行走的、在清淨狀態的,長時間住立。(119)
出現的地味
  襪謝德!當時是只有水存在的、黑暗、漆黑,日月不被知道,星星、星光不被知道,日夜不被知道,月、半個月不被知道,季節、年不被知道,雌雄不被知道,眾生但就名為(就走到稱呼)『眾生』。襪謝德!那時,偶爾,經過長時間那些眾生的地味在水中擴大,猶當加熱的牛乳被冷卻時,在上面有,同樣的,它出現。它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的,猶如是熟酥具足或生酥具足這樣的容色,猶如是純小蜜蜂所製造的蜂蜜這樣的樂味。襪謝德!那時,某位躁動之類的眾生:『喂!這將會是什麼?』以手指嚐地味。當他以手指嚐地味時,渴愛使之包起來,以及對他進入。襪謝德!其他對那位眾生來到跟隨所見的眾生們也以手指嚐地味。當他們以手指嚐地味時,渴愛使之包起來,以及對他們進入。(120)
日月等的初出現
  襪謝德!那時,那些眾生對地味以手著手製作團食吃。襪謝德!當那些眾生對地味以手著手製作團食吃,那時,那些眾生自己的光消失。在自己的光消失時,日月出現。在日月出現時,星星、星光出現。在星星、星光出現時,日夜被知道。在日夜被知道時,月、半個月被知道。在月、半個月被知道時,季節、年被知道。襪謝德!就這範圍,這個世界再被轉回。(121)
  襪謝德!那時,吃地味的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。襪謝德!如是如是吃地味的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物,如是如是堅固性進入到那些眾生的身體中,連同容色衰退情況被知道:一些眾生是有美貌的,一些眾生是醜的。在那裡,凡那些有美貌的眾生輕蔑那些醜的眾生:『我們比這些是更有美貌的,這些比我們是更陋的。』以容色極慢為緣,當他們成為慢、極慢之類者時,地味消失。在地味消失時,他們聚集,聚集後悲嘆:『哎呀!味!哎呀!味!』然後,現在人們得到甚至任何善味後,也這麼說:『哎呀!味!哎呀!味!』他們就跟隨那個往昔的世界開端語言,然而不知道意義。(122)
地餅的出現
  襪謝德!那時,在那些眾生的地味消失時,地餅出現,猶如蘑菇,同樣的,它出現。它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的,猶如是熟酥具足或生酥具足這樣的容色,猶如是純小蜜蜂所製造的蜂蜜這樣的樂味。
  襪謝德!那時,那些眾生著手吃地餅。吃那個的他們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。襪謝德!如是如是吃地餅的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物,如是如是堅固性更多量地進入到那些眾生的身體中,連同容色衰退情況被知道:一些眾生是有美貌的,一些眾生是醜的。在那裡,凡那些有美貌的眾生輕蔑那些醜的眾生:『我們比這些是更有美貌的,這些比我們是更陋的。』以容色極慢為緣,當他們成為慢、極慢之類者時,地餅消失。(123)
蔓藤的出現
  在地餅消失時,蔓藤出現,猶如蔓草,同樣的,它出現。它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的,猶如是熟酥具足或生酥具足那樣的容色,猶如是小蜜蜂的純蜂蜜那樣的樂味。
  襪謝德!那時,那些眾生著手吃蔓藤。吃那個的他們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。襪謝德!如是如是吃蔓藤的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物,如是如是堅固性更多量地進入到那些眾生的身體中,連同容色衰退情況被知道:一些眾生是有美貌的,一些眾生是醜的。在那裡,凡那些有美貌的眾生輕蔑那些醜的眾生:『我們比這些是更有美貌的,這些比我們是更陋的。』以容色極慢為緣,當他們成為慢、極慢之類者時,蔓藤消失。
  在蔓藤消失時,他們聚集,聚集後悲嘆:『確實不存在了,我們的蔓藤確實消失了。』然後,現在,人們被任何苦法接觸,他們這麼說:『確實不存在了,我們的確實消失了。』他們就跟隨那個往昔的世界開端語言,然而不知道意義。(124)
非耕種的熟米之出現
  襪謝德!那時,在那些眾生的蔓藤消失時,非耕種的熟米出現:無糠的、無殼的、純淨的、極香的米粒果實。凡他們傍晚時取它作晚餐,它清晨時已再生長成熟的;凡他們清晨時取它作早餐者,它傍晚時已再生長成熟的,無收割被知道。襪謝德!那時,吃非耕種熟米的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。(125)
男女性特徵的出現
  襪謝德!如是如是吃非耕種熟米的那些眾生長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物,如是如是堅固性更多量地進入到那些眾生的身體中,連同容色衰退情況被知道:女子的女性特徵出現,以及男子的男性特徵出現。女子對男子過度地思念,以及男子對女子。當他們過度互相地思念時,貪著生起,熱惱進入到身體中。以熱惱為緣,他們從事婬欲法
  襪謝德!當時,諸眾生看見從事婬欲法者,其他人投擲塵土,其他人投擲,其他人投擲牛糞:『不淨者不應該存在,不淨者不應該存在。』『為什麼眾生竟然對眾生像這樣做?』然後,現在,在某些地方,人們也對被帶出的年輕妻子,其他人投擲塵土,其他人投擲灰,其他人投擲牛糞,他們就跟隨那個往昔的世界開端語言,然而不知道意義。(126)
婬欲法的行為
  襪謝德!當時被認定非法,然後,現在被認定合法。襪謝德!又,凡當時眾生從事婬欲法,他們一個月或兩個月不得到進入村落或城鎮。襪謝德!當那些眾生在那個非正法上過度地來到陷入狀態時,那時,就為了那個非正法的覆藏,他們著手建造家屋。襪謝德!那時,某位懶惰之類的眾生想這個:『喂!為何我就被惱害:當傍晚時為晚餐取米,清晨時為早餐?讓我為晚餐早餐就一次地取米。』
  襪謝德!那時,那位眾為晚餐早餐就一次地取米。襪謝德!那時,某位眾生去見那位眾生。抵達後,對那位眾生說這個:『來!眾生先生!我們將獲得米的食物。』『夠了!眾生先生!米被我為晚餐早餐就一次地取。』襪謝德!那時,那位眾生對那位眾生來到跟隨所見的,為二日就一次地取米:『先生!這樣也確實!』
  襪謝德!那時,某位眾生去見那位眾生。抵達後,對那位眾生說這個:『來!眾生先生!我們將獲得米的食物。』『夠了!眾生先生!米被我為二日就一次地取。』襪謝德!那時,那位眾生對那位眾生來到跟隨所見的,為四日就一次地取米:『先生!這樣也確實好!』
  襪謝德!那時,某位眾生去見那位眾生。抵達後,對那位眾生說這個:『來!眾生先生!我們將獲得米的食物。』『夠了!眾生先生!米被我為四日就一次地取。』襪謝德!那時,那位眾生對那位眾生來到跟隨所見的,為八日就一次地取米:『先生!這樣也確實好!』
  襪謝德!當那些眾生著手吃儲存的米時,那時,糠包覆米粒,及稻殼包覆米粒,及切割的不被再生長,收割被知道,一叢叢稻(米)住立。(127)
米的分配
  襪謝德!那些眾生聚集,聚集後悲嘆:『先生!惡法確實已在眾生中出現:以前,我們是意所生的、食喜的、自己發光的、於虛空中行走的、處在清淨狀態的,我們長時間住立。偶爾,經過長時間那些我們的地味確實在水中擴大,它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的,那些我們對地味以手著手製作團食吃。當那些我們以手著手製作團食吃時,自己的光消失。在自己的光消失時,日月出現。在日月出現時,星星、星光出現。在星星、星光出現時,日夜被知道。在日夜被知道時,月、半個月被知道。在月、半個月被知道時,季節、年被知道。吃地味的那些我們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。就以那些我們的惡不善法出現,地味消失。在地味消失時,地餅出現,它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的。那些我們著手吃地餅,吃那個的我們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。就以那些我們的惡不善法出現,地餅消失,蔓藤出現,它是容色具足的、氣味具足的、味道具足的,那些我們著手吃蔓藤,吃那個的我們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。就以那些我們的惡不善法出現,蔓藤消失。在蔓藤消失時,非耕種的熟米出現,無糠的、無殼的、純淨的、極香的米粒果實。凡我們傍晚時取它作晚餐,它清晨時已再生長成熟的;凡我們清晨時取它作早餐者,它傍晚時已再生長成熟的,無收割被了知。襪謝德!那時,吃非耕種熟米的那些我們長久地在長時間持續以它為食、以它為食物。就以那些我們的惡不善法出現,糠包覆米粒,及稻殼包覆米粒,及切割的不被再生長,收割被知道,一叢叢稻(米)住立。讓我們分配米,讓我們使邊界設立。』襪謝德!那時,那些眾生分配米,使邊界設立。(128)
  襪謝德!那時,某位躁動之類的眾生,當守護自己的部分時,拿取某位未給與的部分後吃。他們抓住他後說這個:『眾生先生!你確實做惡的,確實是因為當守護自己的部分時,你拿取某位未給與的部分後吃,眾生先生!你確實不要再又像這樣做。』『是的,先生!』襪謝德!那位眾生回答那些眾生。襪謝德!第二次,那位眾生又……(中略)襪謝德!第三次,那位眾生又當守護自己的部分時,拿取某位未給與的部分後吃。他們抓住他後說這個:『眾生先生!你確實做惡的,確實是因為當守護自己的部分時,你拿取某位未給與的部分後吃,眾生先生!你確實不要再又像這樣做。』其他人們以拳攻擊,其他人們以土塊攻擊,其他人們以棍棒攻擊。襪謝德!自此以後,未給予而取被知道,斥責被知道,妄語被知道,執棍棒被知道。(129)
大選出王
  襪謝德!那時,那些眾生聚集,聚集後悲嘆:『先生!惡法確實已在眾生中出現:因為於該處竟然未給予而取被知道,斥責被知道,妄語被知道,執棍棒被知道。讓我們選出一位眾生:凡對應該被生氣者正確地生氣,對應該被斥責者正確地斥責,對應該被驅逐者正確地驅逐,而我們將隨給與他米的部分。』
  襪謝德!那時,凡那些眾生中較英俊的、較好看的、較端正的、較大影響力的,那些眾生去見那位眾生後,說這個:『來!眾生先生!請你對應該被生氣者正確地生氣,請你對應該被斥責者正確地斥責,請你對應該被驅逐者正確地驅逐,而我們將隨給與你米的部分。』『是的,先生!』襪謝德!那位眾生回答那些眾生們後,對應該被生氣者正確地生氣,對應該被斥責者正確地斥責,對應該被驅逐者正確地驅逐,而他們隨給與米的部分。(130)
  襪謝德!『公眾(大人們)選出的』:『大選出、大選出』就是第一個生起的語言。襪謝德!『田主』:『剎帝利、剎帝利』就是第二個生起的語言。襪謝德!『以法使其他人喜悅』:『國王、國王』就是第三個生起的語言。襪謝德!像這樣,以往昔世界開端的語言,這樣有這個剎帝利圈的生起:就那些眾生的,非其他的;就等同的,非不等同的;就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(131)
婆羅門圈
  襪謝德!那時,就那些眾生中一些想這個:『先生!惡法確實已在眾生中出現:因為於該處竟然未給予而取被知道,斥責被知道,妄語被知道,執棍棒被知道,驅逐被知道。讓我們使諸惡不善法帶走。』他們使諸惡不善法帶走。襪謝德!『他們使諸惡不善法帶走』:『婆羅門、婆羅門』就是第一個生起的語言。他們在林野處建造葉屋後,在葉屋中修禪,是離炭火者、離煙者、放下杵者,在傍晚為了晚餐,在清晨為了早餐進入村落、城鎮、王都尋求食物者。他們得到食物後,就再次地在林野的葉屋中修禪。對那個,人們看見後這麼說:『先生!這些眾生在林野處建造後,在葉屋中修禪,是離炭火者、離煙者、放下杵者,在傍晚為了晚餐,在清晨為了早餐進入村落、城鎮、王都尋求食物者。他們得到食物後,就再次地在林野的葉屋中修禪。』襪謝德!『他們修禪』:『修禪者、修禪者』就是第二個生起的語言。襪謝德!就那些眾生中一些眾生是在林野葉屋中那個禪不能夠者(不達到者),退出到村落附近、城鎮附近後,住留為製作典籍者。襪謝德!對那個,人們看見後這麼說:『先生!這些眾生是在林野葉屋中那個禪不能夠者,退出到村落附近、城鎮附近後,住留為製作典籍者,現在,這些人不修禪。』襪謝德!『現在,這些人不修禪』:『誦讀者(不修禪者)、誦讀者』就是第三個生起的語言。襪謝德!當時被認定下劣的,然後,現在被認定最上的。像這樣,以往昔世界開端的語言,這樣有這個婆羅門圈的生起:就那些眾生的,非其他的;就等同的,非不等同的;就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(132)
毘舍圈
  襪謝德!那時,就那些眾生中一些眾生受持婬欲法後,從事各個工作。襪謝德!『受持婬欲法後,從事各個工作』:『毘舍、毘舍』就是生起的語言。襪謝德!像這樣,以往昔世界開端的語言,這樣有這個毘舍圈的生起:就那些眾生的,非其他的;就等同的,非不等同的;就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(133)
首陀羅圈
  襪謝德!那時,就那些眾生中,凡其餘那些眾生,他們有獵人行、低劣行。襪謝德!『獵人行、低劣行』:『首陀羅、首陀羅』就是生起的語言。襪謝德!像這樣,以往昔世界開端的語言,這樣有這個首陀羅圈的生起:就那些眾生的,非其他的;就等同的,非不等同的;就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(134)
  襪謝德!有那種時候:斥責自己的法的剎帝利從在家出家成為無家者:『我將成為沙門。』襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!斥責自己的法的首陀羅也從在家出家成為無家者:『我將成為沙門。』襪謝德!從這四圈有沙門圈的生起:就那些眾生的,非其他的;就等同的,非不等同的;就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(135)
惡行等的談論
  襪謝德!剎帝利以身行惡行後,以語行惡行後,以意行惡行後,是邪見者、邪見業的受持者。邪見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界惡趣下界、地獄。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!首陀羅也……(中略)襪謝德!沙門以身行惡行,以語行惡行,以意行惡行後,是邪見者、邪見業的受持者。邪見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄。
  襪謝德!剎帝利以身行善行、以語行善行、以意行善行後,是正見者、正見業的受持者。正見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!首陀羅也……(中略)襪謝德!沙門也以身行善行、以語行善行、以意行善行後,是正見者、正見業的受持者。正見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。(136)
  襪謝德!剎帝利是以身作二種者、以語作二種者、以意作二種者,是混雜見者、混雜見業的受持者。混雜見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後是苦樂的感受者。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!首陀羅也……(中略)襪謝德!沙門是以身作二種者、以語作二種者、以意作二種者,是混雜見者、混雜見業的受持者。混雜見業的受持之因,以身體的崩解,死後是苦樂的感受者。(137)
菩提分的修習
  襪謝德!剎帝利以身已防護、以語已防護、以意已防護,因七覺分法修習而當生般涅槃。襪謝德!婆羅門也……(中略)襪謝德!毘舍也……(中略)襪謝德!首陀羅也……(中略)襪謝德!沙門以身已防護、以語已防護、以意已防護,因七覺分法的修習而當生般涅槃。(138)
  襪謝德!這四種階級中,凡比丘是漏已滅盡的、已完成的、應該被作的已作的、負擔已卸的、自己的利益已達成的、有之結已滅盡的、以究竟智解脫的阿羅漢,他被告知為他們中最高的:就以法,非以非法。襪謝德!因為,法在這個人中是最上的:當生連同來世。(139)
  襪謝德!這個偈頌也被梵王常童子說:
  『剎帝利在這人們中是最上的:凡歸屬種姓者們,
   明行具足者,在天人中他是最上的。[SN.6.11]』
  襪謝德!又,這個偈頌被那位梵王常童子善吟誦,非被惡吟誦;被善說,非被惡說;被伴隨利益,非被伴隨無利益,被我同意。襪謝德!我也這麼說:
  『剎帝利在這人們中是最上的:凡歸屬種姓者們,
   明行具足者,在天人中他是最上的。」
  世尊說這個,悅意的襪謝德與婆羅墮若歡喜世尊的所說。(140)
  世界開端經第四終了。
DN.27/(4) Aggaññasuttaṃ
Vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā
   111. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati pubbārāme migāramātupāsāde. Tena kho pana samayena vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā bhikkhūsu parivasanti bhikkhubhāvaṃ ākaṅkhamānā. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamati.
   112. Addasā kho vāseṭṭho bhagavantaṃ sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhitaṃ pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamantaṃ. Disvāna bhāradvājaṃ āmantesi– “ayaṃ, āvuso bhāradvāja, bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito pāsādā orohitvā pāsādapacchāyāyaṃ abbhokāse caṅkamati. Āyāmāvuso bhāradvāja, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamissāma; appeva nāma labheyyāma bhagavato santikā dhammiṃ kathaṃ savanāyā”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho bhāradvājo vāseṭṭhassa paccassosi.
   113. Atha kho vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā bhagavantaṃ caṅkamantaṃ anucaṅkamiṃsu. Atha kho bhagavā vāseṭṭhaṃ āmantesi– “tumhe khvattha, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇajaccā brāhmaṇakulīnā brāhmaṇakulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā, kacci vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā na akkosanti na paribhāsantī”ti? “Taggha no, bhante, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti. “Yathā kathaṃ pana vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti? “Brāhmaṇā, bhante, evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā. Brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā. Brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā. Brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā. Te tumhe seṭṭhaṃ vaṇṇaṃ hitvā hīnamattha vaṇṇaṃ ajjhupagatā, yadidaṃ muṇḍake samaṇake ibbhe kaṇhe bandhupādāpacce. Tayidaṃ na sādhu, tayidaṃ nappatirūpaṃ, yaṃ tumhe seṭṭhaṃ vaṇṇaṃ hitvā hīnamattha vaṇṇaṃ ajjhupagatā yadidaṃ muṇḍake samaṇake ibbhe kaṇhe bandhupādāpacce’ti. Evaṃ kho no, bhante, brāhmaṇā akkosanti paribhāsanti attarūpāya paribhāsāya paripuṇṇāya, no aparipuṇṇāyā”ti.
   114. “Taggha vo, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇā porāṇaṃ assarantā evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Dissanti kho pana, vāseṭṭha, brāhmaṇānaṃ brāhmaṇiyo utuniyopi gabbhiniyopi vijāyamānāpi pāyamānāpi. Te ca brāhmaṇā yonijāva samānā evamāhaṃsu ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Te brahmānañceva abbhācikkhanti, musā ca bhāsanti, bahuñca apuññaṃ pasavanti.
Catuvaṇṇasuddhi
   115. “Cattārome, vāseṭṭha, vaṇṇā– khattiyā, brāhmaṇā, vessā, suddā. Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī kāmesumicchācārī musāvādī pisuṇavāco pharusavāco samphappalāpī abhijjhālu byāpannacitto micchādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā na-alamariyā na-alamariyasaṅkhātā kaṇhā kaṇhavipākā viññugarahitā, khattiyepi te idhekacce sandissanti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātī hoti adinnādāyī kāmesumicchācārī musāvādī pisuṇavāco pharusavāco samphappalāpī abhijjhālu byāpannacitto micchādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā …pe… kaṇhā kaṇhavipākā viññugarahitā; suddepi te idhekacce sandissanti.
   “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, adinnādānā paṭivirato, kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato, musāvādā paṭivirato, pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato, pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato, samphappalāpā paṭivirato, anabhijjhālu abyāpannacitto, sammādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā sukkā sukkavipākā viññuppasatthā, khattiyepi te idhekacce sandissanti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, idhekacco pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti …pe… anabhijjhālu abyāpannacitto, sammādiṭṭhī. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yeme dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā sukkā sukkavipākā viññuppasatthā; suddepi te idhekacce sandissanti.
   116. “Imesu kho, vāseṭṭha, catūsu vaṇṇesu evaṃ ubhayavokiṇṇesu vattamānesu kaṇhasukkesu dhammesu viññugarahitesu ceva viññuppasatthesu ca yadettha brāhmaṇā evamāhaṃsu– ‘brāhmaṇova seṭṭho vaṇṇo, hīnā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇova sukko vaṇṇo, kaṇhā aññe vaṇṇā; brāhmaṇāva sujjhanti, no abrāhmaṇā; brāhmaṇāva brahmuno puttā orasā mukhato jātā brahmajā brahmanimmitā brahmadāyādā’ti. Taṃ tesaṃ viññū nānujānanti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Imesañhi, vāseṭṭha, catunnaṃ vaṇṇānaṃ yo hoti bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññāvimutto, so nesaṃ aggamakkhāyati dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca
   117. “Tadamināpetaṃ, vāseṭṭha, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā dhammova seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
   “Jānāti kho, vāseṭṭha, rājā pasenadi kosalo– ‘samaṇo gotamo anantarā sakyakulā pabbajito’ti. Sakyā kho pana, vāseṭṭha, rañño pasenadissa kosalassa anuyuttā bhavanti. Karonti kho, vāseṭṭha, sakyā raññe pasenadimhi kosale nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, yaṃ karonti sakyā raññe pasenadimhi kosale nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ, karoti taṃ rājā pasenadi kosalo tathāgate nipaccakāraṃ abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ, na naṃ ‘sujāto samaṇo gotamo, dujjātohamasmi. Balavā samaṇo gotamo, dubbalohamasmi. Pāsādiko samaṇo gotamo, dubbaṇṇohamasmi. Mahesakkho samaṇo gotamo, appesakkhohamasmī’ti. Atha kho naṃ dhammaṃyeva sakkaronto dhammaṃ garuṃ karonto dhammaṃ mānento dhammaṃ pūjento dhammaṃ apacāyamāno evaṃ rājā pasenadi kosalo tathāgate nipaccakāraṃ karoti, abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ. Imināpi kho etaṃ, vāseṭṭha, pariyāyena veditabbaṃ, yathā dhammova seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
   118. “Tumhe khvattha, vāseṭṭha, nānājaccā nānānāmā nānāgottā nānākulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā. ‘Ke tumhe’ti– puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇā sakyaputtiyāmhā’ti– paṭijānātha. Yassa kho panassa, vāseṭṭha, tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā daḷhā asaṃhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, tassetaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘bhagavatomhi putto oraso mukhato jāto dhammajo dhammanimmito dhammadāyādo’ti. Taṃ kissa hetu? Tathāgatassa hetaṃ, vāseṭṭha, adhivacanaṃ ‘dhammakāyo’ itipi, ‘brahmakāyo’ itipi, ‘dhammabhūto’ itipi, ‘brahmabhūto’ itipi.
   119. “Hoti kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṃ loko saṃvaṭṭati. Saṃvaṭṭamāne loke yebhuyyena sattā ābhassarasaṃvattanikā honti. Te tattha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ tiṭṭhanti.
   “Hoti kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṃ loko vivaṭṭati. Vivaṭṭamāne loke yebhuyyena sattā ābhassarakāyā cavitvā itthattaṃ āgacchanti. Tedha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ tiṭṭhanti.
Rasapathavipātubhāvo
   120. “Ekodakībhūtaṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti andhakāro andhakāratimisā Na candimasūriyā paññāyanti, na nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni paññāyanti, na rattindivā paññāyanti, na māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyanti, na utusaṃvaccharā paññāyanti na itthipumā paññāyanti, sattā sattātveva saṅkhyaṃ gacchanti. Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena rasapathavī udakasmiṃ samatani; seyyathāpi nāma payaso tattassa nibbāyamānassa upari santānakaṃ hoti, evameva pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇā ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādā ahosi. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto lolajātiko– ‘ambho, kimevidaṃ bhavissatī’ti rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyi. Tassa rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyato acchādesi, taṇhā cassa okkami. Aññepi kho, vāseṭṭha, sattā tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamānā rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyiṃsu. Tesaṃ rasapathaviṃ aṅguliyā sāyataṃ acchādesi, taṇhā ca tesaṃ okkami.
Candimasūriyādipātubhāvo
   121. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Atha tesaṃ sattānaṃ sayaṃpabhā antaradhāyi. Sayaṃpabhāya antarahitāya candimasūriyā pāturahesuṃ. Candimasūriyesu pātubhūtesu nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni pāturahesuṃ. Nakkhattesu tārakarūpesu pātubhūtesu rattindivā paññāyiṃsu. Rattindivesu paññāyamānesu māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyiṃsu. Māsaḍḍhamāsesu paññāyamānesu utusaṃvaccharā paññāyiṃsu. Ettāvatā kho vāseṭṭha, ayaṃ loko puna vivaṭṭo hoti.
   122. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ (rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantānaṃ) kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ rasapathavī antaradhāyi. Rasāya pathaviyā antarahitāya sannipatiṃsu. Sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘aho rasaṃ, aho rasan’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā kañcideva surasaṃ labhitvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘aho rasaṃ, aho rasan’ti! Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti.
Bhūmipappaṭakapātubhāvo
   123. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ rasāya pathaviyā antarahitāya bhūmipappaṭako pāturahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma ahicchattako, evameva pāturahosi. So ahosi vaṇṇasampanno gandhasampanno rasasampanno, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇo ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādo ahosi.
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā bhūmipappaṭakaṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Te taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā bhūmipappaṭakaṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyoso mattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ bhūmipappaṭako antaradhāyi.
Padālatāpātubhāvo
   124. “Bhūmipappaṭake antarahite padālatā pāturahosi, seyyathāpi nāma kalambukā, evameva pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā, seyyathāpi nāma sampannaṃ vā sappi sampannaṃ vā navanītaṃ evaṃvaṇṇā ahosi. Seyyathāpi nāma khuddamadhuṃ aneḷakaṃ, evamassādā ahosi.
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā padālataṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Te taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā padālataṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyosomattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha. Ekidaṃ sattā vaṇṇavanto honti, ekidaṃ sattā dubbaṇṇā. Tattha ye te sattā vaṇṇavanto, te dubbaṇṇe satte atimaññanti– ‘mayametehi vaṇṇavantatarā, amhehete dubbaṇṇatarā’ti. Tesaṃ vaṇṇātimānapaccayā mānātimānajātikānaṃ padālatā antaradhāyi.
   “Padālatāya antarahitāya sannipatiṃsu. Sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘ahu vata no, ahāyi vata no padālatā’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā kenaci dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ahu vata no, ahāyi vata no’ti! Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti.
Akaṭṭhapākasālipātubhāvo
   125. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ padālatāya antarahitāya akaṭṭhapāko sāli pāturahosi akaṇo athuso suddho sugandho taṇḍulapphalo. Yaṃ taṃ sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya āharanti, pāto taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Yaṃ taṃ pāto pātarāsāya āharanti, sāyaṃ taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ; nāpadānaṃ paññāyati. Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu.
Itthipurisaliṅgapātubhāvo
   126. “Yathā yathā kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, tathā tathā tesaṃ sattānaṃ bhiyyosomattāya kharattañceva kāyasmiṃ okkami, vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā ca paññāyittha, itthiyā ca itthiliṅgaṃ pāturahosi purisassa ca purisaliṅgaṃ. Itthī ca purisaṃ ativelaṃ upanijjhāyati puriso ca itthiṃ. Tesaṃ ativelaṃ aññamaññaṃ upanijjhāyataṃ sārāgo udapādi, pariḷāho kāyasmiṃ okkami. Te pariḷāhapaccayā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭiseviṃsu.
   “Ye kho pana te, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena sattā passanti methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevante, aññe paṃsuṃ khipanti, aññe seṭṭhiṃ khipanti aññe gomayaṃ khipanti– ‘nassa asuci, nassa asucī’ti. ‘Kathañhi nāma satto sattassa evarūpaṃ karissatī’ti! Tadetarahipi manussā ekaccesu janapadesu vadhuyā nibbuyhamānāya aññe paṃsuṃ khipanti, aññe seṭṭhiṃ khipanti, aññe gomayaṃ khipanti. Tadeva porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ akkharaṃ anusaranti, na tvevassa atthaṃ ājānanti.
Methunadhammasamācāro
   127. “Adhammasammataṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti, tadetarahi dhammasammataṃ. Ye kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena sattā methunaṃ dhammaṃ paṭisevanti, te māsampi dvemāsampi na labhanti gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā pavisituṃ. Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā tasmiṃ asaddhamme ativelaṃ pātabyataṃ āpajjiṃsu. Atha agārāni upakkamiṃsu kātuṃ tasseva asaddhammassa paṭicchādanatthaṃ. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññatarassa sattassa alasajātikassa etadahosi– ‘ambho, kimevāhaṃ vihaññāmi sāliṃ āharanto sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya! Yaṃnūnāhaṃ sāliṃ āhareyyaṃ sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāyā’ti
   “Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāya. Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakiṃdeva sāyapātarāsāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva dvīhāya. ‘Evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti.
   “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakiṃdeva dvīhāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakiṃdeva catūhāya, ‘evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti.
   “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto yena so satto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ sattaṃ etadavoca– ‘ehi, bho satta, sālāhāraṃ gamissāmā’ti. ‘Alaṃ, bho satta, āhato me sāli sakideva catūhāyā’ti. Atha kho so, vāseṭṭha, satto tassa sattassa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjamāno sāliṃ āhāsi sakideva aṭṭhāhāya, ‘evampi kira, bho, sādhū’ti.
   “Yato kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannidhikārakaṃ sāliṃ upakkamiṃsu paribhuñjituṃ. Atha kaṇopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, thusopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi; lūnampi nappaṭivirūḷhaṃ apadānaṃ paññāyittha, saṇḍasaṇḍā sālayo aṭṭhaṃsu.
Sālivibhāgo
   128. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannipatiṃsu, sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘pāpakā vata, bho, dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā. Mayañhi pubbe manomayā ahumhā pītibhakkhā sayaṃpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino, ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no amhākaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena rasapathavī udakasmiṃ samatani. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā. Te mayaṃ rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ, tesaṃ no rasapathaviṃ hatthehi āluppakārakaṃ upakkamataṃ paribhuñjituṃ sayaṃpabhā antaradhāyi. Sayaṃpabhāya antarahitāya candimasūriyā pāturahesuṃ, candimasūriyesu pātubhūtesu nakkhattāni tārakarūpāni pāturahesuṃ, nakkhattesu tārakarūpesu pātubhūtesu rattindivā paññāyiṃsu, rattindivesu paññāyamānesu māsaḍḍhamāsā paññāyiṃsu. Māsaḍḍhamāsesu paññāyamānesu utusaṃvaccharā paññāyiṃsu. Te mayaṃ rasapathaviṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā rasapathavī antaradhāyi. Rasapathaviyā antarahitāya bhūmipappaṭako pāturahosi. So ahosi vaṇṇasampanno gandhasampanno rasasampanno. Te mayaṃ bhūmipappaṭakaṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ. Te mayaṃ taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā bhūmipappaṭako antaradhāyi. Bhūmipappaṭake antarahite padālatā pāturahosi. Sā ahosi vaṇṇasampannā gandhasampannā rasasampannā. Te mayaṃ padālataṃ upakkamimha paribhuñjituṃ. Te mayaṃ taṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā padālatā antaradhāyi. Padālatāya antarahitāya akaṭṭhapāko sāli pāturahosi akaṇo athuso suddho sugandho taṇḍulapphalo. Yaṃ taṃ sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya āharāma, pāto taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Yaṃ taṃ pāto pātarāsāya āharāma, sāyaṃ taṃ hoti pakkaṃ paṭivirūḷhaṃ. Nāpadānaṃ paññāyittha. Te mayaṃ akaṭṭhapākaṃ sāliṃ paribhuñjantā taṃbhakkhā tadāhārā ciraṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ aṭṭhamhā. Tesaṃ no pāpakānaṃyeva akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pātubhāvā kaṇopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, thusopi taṇḍulaṃ pariyonandhi, lūnampi nappaṭivirūḷhaṃ, apadānaṃ paññāyittha, saṇḍasaṇḍā sālayo ṭhitā. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ sāliṃ vibhajeyyāma, mariyādaṃ ṭhapeyyāmā’ti! Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sāliṃ vibhajiṃsu, mariyādaṃ ṭhapesuṃ.
   129. “Atha kho, vāseṭṭha, aññataro satto lolajātiko sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñji. Tamenaṃ aggahesuṃ, gahetvā etadavocuṃ– ‘pāpakaṃ vata, bho satta, karosi, yatra hi nāma sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñjasi. Māssu, bho satta, punapi evarūpamakāsī’ti. ‘Evaṃ, bho’ti kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto tesaṃ sattānaṃ paccassosi. Dutiyampi kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto …pe… tatiyampi kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñji. Tamenaṃ aggahesuṃ, gahetvā etadavocuṃ– ‘pāpakaṃ vata, bho satta, karosi, yatra hi nāma sakaṃ bhāgaṃ parirakkhanto aññataraṃ bhāgaṃ adinnaṃ ādiyitvā paribhuñjasi. Māssu, bho satta, punapi evarūpamakāsī’ti. Aññe pāṇinā pahariṃsu, aññe leḍḍunā pahariṃsu, aññe daṇḍena pahariṃsu. Tadagge kho, vāseṭṭha, adinnādānaṃ paññāyati, garahā paññāyati, musāvādo paññāyati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyati.
Mahāsammatarājā
   130. “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā sannipatiṃsu, sannipatitvā anutthuniṃsu– ‘pāpakā vata bho dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā, yatra hi nāma adinnādānaṃ paññāyissati, garahā paññāyissati, musāvādo paññāyissati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyissati. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ ekaṃ sattaṃ sammanneyyāma, yo no sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīyeyya, sammā garahitabbaṃ garaheyya, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājeyya. Mayaṃ panassa sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadassāmā’ti.
   “Atha kho te, vāseṭṭha, sattā yo nesaṃ satto abhirūpataro ca dassanīyataro ca pāsādikataro ca mahesakkhataro ca taṃ sattaṃ upasaṅkamitvā etadavocuṃ– ‘ehi, bho satta, sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīya, sammā garahitabbaṃ garaha, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājehi. Mayaṃ pana te sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadassāmā’ti. ‘Evaṃ, bho’ti kho, vāseṭṭha, so satto tesaṃ sattānaṃ paṭissuṇitvā sammā khīyitabbaṃ khīyi, sammā garahitabbaṃ garahi, sammā pabbājetabbaṃ pabbājesi. Te panassa sālīnaṃ bhāgaṃ anuppadaṃsu.
   131. “Mahājanasammatoti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘mahāsammato, mahāsammato’ tveva paṭhamaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Khettānaṃ adhipatīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘khattiyo, khattiyo’ tveva dutiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Dhammena pare rañjetīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘rājā, rājā’ tveva tatiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa khattiyamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ, anaññesaṃ. Sadisānaṃyeva, no asadisānaṃ. Dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
Brāhmaṇamaṇḍalaṃ
   132. “Atha kho tesaṃ, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃyeva ekaccānaṃ etadahosi– ‘pāpakā vata, bho, dhammā sattesu pātubhūtā, yatra hi nāma adinnādānaṃ paññāyissati, garahā paññāyissati, musāvādo paññāyissati, daṇḍādānaṃ paññāyissati, pabbājanaṃ paññāyissati. Yaṃnūna mayaṃ pāpake akusale dhamme vāheyyāmā’ti. Te pāpake akusale dhamme vāhesuṃ Pāpake akusale dhamme vāhentīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘brāhmaṇā, brāhmaṇā’ tveva paṭhamaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Te araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭiyo karitvā paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti vītaṅgārā vītadhūmā pannamusalā sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya gāmanigamarājadhāniyo osaranti ghāsamesamānā. Te ghāsaṃ paṭilabhitvā punadeva araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti. Tamenaṃ manussā disvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ime kho, bho, sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭiyo karitvā paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyanti, vītaṅgārā vītadhūmā pannamusalā sāyaṃ sāyamāsāya pāto pātarāsāya gāmanigamarājadhāniyo osaranti ghāsamesamānā. Te ghāsaṃ paṭilabhitvā punadeva araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu jhāyantī’ti, jhāyantīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘jhāyakā, jhāyakā’ tveva dutiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Tesaṃyeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ekacce sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu taṃ jhānaṃ anabhisambhuṇamānā gāmasāmantaṃ nigamasāmantaṃ osaritvā ganthe karontā acchanti. Tamenaṃ manussā disvā evamāhaṃsu– ‘ime kho, bho, sattā araññāyatane paṇṇakuṭīsu taṃ jhānaṃ anabhisambhuṇamānā gāmasāmantaṃ nigamasāmantaṃ osaritvā ganthe karontā acchanti, na dānime jhāyantī’ti. Na dānime jhāyantīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘ajjhāyakā ajjhāyakā’ tveva tatiyaṃ akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Hīnasammataṃ kho pana, vāseṭṭha, tena samayena hoti, tadetarahi seṭṭhasammataṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa brāhmaṇamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
Vessamaṇḍalaṃ
   133. “Tesaṃyeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ekacce sattā methunaṃ dhammaṃ samādāya visukammante payojesuṃ. Methunaṃ dhammaṃ samādāya visukammante payojentīti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘vessā, vessā’ tveva akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa vessamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaññeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
Suddamaṇḍalaṃ
   134. “Tesaññeva kho, vāseṭṭha, sattānaṃ ye te sattā avasesā te luddācārā khuddācārā ahesuṃ. Luddācārā khuddācārāti kho, vāseṭṭha, ‘suddā, suddā’ tveva akkharaṃ upanibbattaṃ. Iti kho, vāseṭṭha, evametassa suddamaṇḍalassa porāṇena aggaññena akkharena abhinibbatti ahosi tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ, sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva, no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
   135. “Ahu kho so, vāseṭṭha, samayo, yaṃ khattiyopi sakaṃ dhammaṃ garahamāno agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati– ‘samaṇo bhavissāmī’ti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha, sakaṃ dhammaṃ garahamāno agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajati– ‘samaṇo bhavissāmī’ti. Imehi kho, vāseṭṭha, catūhi maṇḍalehi samaṇamaṇḍalassa abhinibbatti ahosi, tesaṃyeva sattānaṃ anaññesaṃ, sadisānaṃyeva no asadisānaṃ, dhammeneva no adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
Duccaritādikathā
   136. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena duccaritaṃ caritvā vācāya duccaritaṃ caritvā manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā micchādiṭṭhiko micchādiṭṭhikammasamādāno micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena duccaritaṃ caritvā vācāya duccaritaṃ caritvā manasā duccaritaṃ caritvā micchādiṭṭhiko micchādiṭṭhikammasamādāno micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati.
   “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena sucaritaṃ caritvā vācāya sucaritaṃ caritvā manasā sucaritaṃ caritvā sammādiṭṭhiko sammādiṭṭhikammasamādāno sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena sucaritaṃ caritvā vācāya sucaritaṃ caritvā manasā sucaritaṃ caritvā sammādiṭṭhiko sammādiṭṭhikammasamādāno sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati.
   137. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena dvayakārī, vācāya dvayakārī, manasā dvayakārī, vimissadiṭṭhiko vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādāno vimissadiṭṭhikamma-samādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī hoti. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho, vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha… samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena dvayakārī vācāya dvayakārī, manasā dvayakārī, vimissadiṭṭhiko vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādāno vimissadiṭṭhikammasamādānahetu kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī hoti.
Bodhipakkhiyabhāvanā
   138. “Khattiyopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena saṃvuto vācāya saṃvuto manasā saṃvuto sattannaṃ bodhipakkhiyānaṃ dhammānaṃ bhāvanamanvāya diṭṭheva dhamme parinibbāyati. Brāhmaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha …pe… vessopi kho vāseṭṭha… suddopi kho, vāseṭṭha samaṇopi kho, vāseṭṭha, kāyena saṃvuto vācāya saṃvuto manasā saṃvuto sattannaṃ bodhipakkhiyānaṃ dhammānaṃ bhāvanamanvāya diṭṭheva dhamme parinibbāyati.
   139. “Imesañhi, vāseṭṭha, catunnaṃ vaṇṇānaṃ yo hoti bhikkhu arahaṃ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojano sammadaññā vimutto so nesaṃ aggamakkhāyati dhammeneva. No adhammena. Dhammo hi, vāseṭṭha, seṭṭho janetasmiṃ diṭṭhe ceva dhamme abhisamparāyañca.
   140. “Brahmunā pesā, vāseṭṭha, sanaṅkumārena gāthā bhāsitā–
   ‘Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, ye gottapaṭisārino;
   Vijjācaraṇasampanno, so seṭṭho devamānuse’ti.
   “Sā kho panesā, vāseṭṭha, brahmunā sanaṅkumārena gāthā sugītā, no duggītā. Subhāsitā, no dubbhāsitā. Atthasaṃhitā, no anatthasaṃhitā. Anumatā mayā. Ahampi, vāseṭṭha, evaṃ vadāmi–
   ‘Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṃ, ye gottapaṭisārino;
   Vijjācaraṇasampanno, so seṭṭho devamānuse’ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā vāseṭṭhabhāradvājā bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Aggaññasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ catutthaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「地味(MA/DA.30);地甘泉(DA.5)」,南傳作「地味」(rasapathavī),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「風味極佳的地」(savoury earth)。
  「地肥(MA.154/DA.5);地皮(DA.30)」,南傳作「地餅」(bhūmipappaṭako),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「蕈類」(a fungus)。按:「餅」(pappaṭako),另譯為「水草的一種[名稱]」或「磨菇;菇;蕈」(a mushroom)。
  「婆羅(MA.154);地膚(DA.30)」,南傳作「蔓藤」(padālatā, saddālatā, badālatā),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「蔓草」(creepers)。按:《吉祥悅意》說,一種有氣味、味道的好蔓草(ekā madhurarasā bhaddālatā),註疏說,padā(足)這樣的名字為一種蔓藤(ekā latā, 會攀爬如足),具備美貌氣味、味道(sampannavaṇṇagandharasā)被稱為「好蔓草」。
  「自然粳米(MA.154/DA.5)」,南傳作「非耕種的熟米」(akaṭṭhapāko sāli),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「出現在開放空間的米」(rice appeared in open spaces)。
  「女形(MA.154)」,南傳作「女性特徵」(itthiliṅgaṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「女性性別器官」(female sex-organs)。
  「本所可憎,今所可愛(MA.154)」,南傳作「當時被認定非法,然後,現在被認定合法」(Adhammasammataṃ…tena samayena hoti, tadetarahi dhammasammataṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「那當時認為壞的形式者,現在認為好的形式」(what was considered bad form in those days is now considered good form)。按:《吉祥悅意》說,被認為「非法」而有塵土的投擲。
  「舊第一智(MA.154)」,南傳作「往昔的世界開端」(porāṇaṃ aggaññaṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「…之起源」(the origin of),或「開端的知識」(on knowledge of beginnings)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「世界的開端」(lokassa agga, DN.24),或「世界再生起時」(lokuppattisamaye, DN.27)解說aggaññaṃ,DA.15譯為「眾生始」。
  「立標{牓}[榜](MA.154);別立幖幟(DA.5)」,南傳作「使邊界設立」(mariyādaṃ ṭhapesuṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「帶有邊界」(with boundaries)。按:「邊界」(mariyādaṃ),《吉祥悅意》以「地界」(sīmaṃ)解說。
  「剎利種(MA.154);剎利名(DA.5)」,南傳作「剎帝利圈」(khattiyamaṇḍalassa),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「剎帝利階級;剎帝利種類」(the class of Khattiyas)。
  「二行(MA.154);二種(DA.5)」,南傳作「作二種者」(dvayakārī),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「實行二種行為者」(who has performed deeds of both kinds)。按:《吉祥悅意》說,有時作善的,有時作不善的,這樣為作二種者。
  「網」(santānakaṃ,原意為「蜘蛛的巢;pāturahosi蛛網」),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「皮」(the skin)。
  「使之包起來」(acchādesi),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「變得被味道迷住」(it became taken with the flavour)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「在舌端停留的量,眾生成為與味蕾一起彌漫合意的後存續。」解說。
  「容色衰退情況」(vaṇṇavevaṇṇatā),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「在他們之中發展成不同的外觀」(a difference in looks developed among them)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「容色的衰退情況」(vaṇṇassa vivaṇṇabhāvo)解說。
  「語言」(akkharaṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「正式頭銜」(regular title)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「語言」(nirutti)解說,今準此譯。
  「蔓草」(kalambukā, kalambakā),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「竹子」(bamboo)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「長管的」(nāḷikā)解說,註疏以「長管的蔓草(燈心草)」(nāḷivalli)解說「長管的」。
  「苦法」(dukkhadhammena),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「煩亂」(upset)。
  「無收割」(nāpadānaṃ,原意為「無除去),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「無收割的形跡」(with no sign of reaping)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「成為無收割的後仍是無欠缺的」(alāyitaṃ hutvā anūnameva)解說,今準此譯。
  「灰」(seṭṭhiṃ),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「灰」(ashes)。《吉祥悅意》以「灰」(chārikaṃ)解說,今準此譯。