經號:   
   (長部8經 更新)
長部8經/獅子吼大經(戒蘊品[第一])(莊春江譯)[DA.25]
裸行者迦葉的事
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在巫魯領之葛那葛得勒的鹿林。
  那時,裸行者迦葉去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊一起互相問候。交換應該被互相問候的友好交談後,在一旁站立。在一旁站立的裸行者迦葉對世尊說這個:
  「喬達摩尊師!這被我聽聞:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地呵斥、責備一切粗弊生活的苦行者。』喬達摩尊師!凡他們這麼說:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地呵斥、責備一切粗弊生活的苦行者。』者,喬達摩尊師!是否他們是世尊的所說之說者,而且不以不實的誹謗世尊,以及法隨法地解說,而任何如法的種種說不來到應該被呵責處?我們不想誹謗喬達摩尊師。」(381)
  「迦葉!凡他們這麼說:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地呵斥、責備一切粗弊生活的苦行者。』他們不是我的所說之說者,而且他們以不存在的、不實的誹謗我。迦葉!又,這裡,我以清淨、超越常人的天眼看見某一類粗弊生活的苦行者以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界惡趣下界、地獄。迦葉!又,這裡,我以清淨、超越常人的天眼看見某一類粗弊生活的苦行者以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。(382)
  迦葉!這裡,我以清淨、超越常人的天眼看見某一類處在少苦情況(少苦住)的苦行者以身體的崩解,死後往生苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄,迦葉!又,這裡,我以清淨、超越常人的天眼看見某一類處在少苦情況的苦行者以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。迦葉!凡我這麼如實知道這些苦行者的來處、趣處、死沒、往生,那個我怎麼會呵責一切苦行,或一向地呵斥、責備一切粗弊生活的苦行者?(383)
  迦葉!有某些賢智的、聰敏的、知異論的[MN.27]、犀利的(馬毛貫穿形色的)沙門婆羅門,他們確實以來到慧破壞著惡見雲遊。我的也與他們一起在某些地方同意,在某些地方不同意:凡他們對某事說『』,我們也對那個某事說『好』,凡他們對某事說『不好』,我們也對那個某事說『不好』,凡他們對某事說『好』,我們對那個某事說『不好』,凡他們對某事說『不好』,我們對那個某事說『好』。
  凡我們對某事說『好』,其他人們也對某事說『好』,凡我們對某事說『不好』,其他人們也對某事說『不好』,凡我們對某事說『不好』,其他人們對某事說『好』,凡我們對某事說『好』,其他人們也對某事說『不好』。(384)
審問的談論
  我去見他們後,這麼說:『道友們!是否在那些地方不同意,讓那些地方保持,在那些地方同意,在那裡,請智者們以大師對大師、以僧團對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡這些尊師們的不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應該被實行的、名為不應該被實行的;聖者不適當的、名為聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,誰無殘留地捨斷這些法後轉起?沙門喬達摩?又或其他團體的老師尊師們?』(385)
  迦葉!又,這存在可能性,凡審問的、質問的、追究的智者們這麼說:『凡這些尊師們的不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應該被實行的、名為不應該被實行的;聖者不適當的、名為聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,沙門喬達摩無殘留地捨斷這些法後轉起:比凡又或其他團體的老師尊師們。』迦葉!像這樣,在這裡,審問的、質問的、追究的智者們在那裡就大多數稱讚我們。(386)
  其次,迦葉!也請智者們以大師對大師、以僧團對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡這些尊師們的善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應該被實行的、名為應該被實行的;聖者適當的、名為聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,誰無殘留地受持後轉起這些法?沙門喬達摩?又或其他團體的老師尊師們?』(387)
  迦葉!又,這存在可能性,凡審問的、質問的、追究的智者們這麼說:『凡這些尊師們的善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應該被實行的、名為應該被實行的;聖者適當的、名為聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,沙門喬達摩無殘留受持後轉起這些法:比凡又或其他團體的老師尊師們。』迦葉!像這樣,在這裡,審問的、質問的、追究的智者們在那裡就大多數稱讚我們。(388)
  其次,也請智者們以大師對大師、以僧團對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應該被實行的、名為不應該被實行的;聖者不適當的、名為聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,誰無殘留地捨斷這些法後轉起?喬達摩的弟子僧團?又或其他團體老師尊師們的弟子僧團?』(389)
  迦葉!又,這存在可能性,凡審問的、質問的、追究的智者們這麼說:『凡這些尊師們的不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應該被實行的、名為不應該被實行的;聖者不適當的、名為對聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,喬達摩的弟子僧團無殘留地捨斷這些法後轉起:比凡又或其他團體老師尊師們的弟子僧團。』迦葉!像這樣,在這裡,審問的、質問的、追究的智者們在那裡就大多數稱讚我們。(390)
  其次,迦葉!也請智者們以大師對大師、以僧團對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應實行的、名為應實行的;聖者適當的、名為聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,誰在這些法上完整地受持後轉起?喬達摩的弟子僧團?又或其他團體老師尊師們的弟子僧團?』(391)
  迦葉!又,這存在可能性,凡審問的、質問的、追究的智者們這麼說:『凡這些尊師們的善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應該被實行的、名為應該被實行的;聖者適當的、名為聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,喬達摩的弟子僧團無殘留受持後轉起這些法:比凡又或其他團體的老師尊師們。』迦葉!像這樣,在這裡,審問的、質問的、追究的智者們在那裡就大多數稱讚我們。(392)
八支聖道
  迦葉!有道、有道跡,如是行道者就將自己知道,將自己看見:『沙門喬達摩正是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』迦葉!哪個道以及哪個道跡,如是行道者就將自己知道,將自己看見:『沙門喬達摩是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』呢?就是這八支聖道,即:正見、正志、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定,迦葉!這是道、這是道跡,如是行道者就將自己知道,將自己看見:『沙門喬達摩是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』」(393)
苦行著手的談論
  在這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊說這個:「喬達摩道友!這些苦行著手是這些沙門婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分:他是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、受邀不來者受邀不住立者。他受用非帶來的、非被個別招請的、非邀請的。那個他不從甕口領受,不從鍋口領受,非門檻中間、非棍棒中間、非杵中間、非正在吃的兩人、非從孕婦、非從授乳女、非從與男子生活女、非在饑饉時被收集的食物處、非狗出現的場所、非蒼蠅群集的場所。非魚、非肉,飲非榖酒、非果酒、非酸粥。那個他是一家一口團食者,或是二家二口團食者……(中略)或是七家七口者。以一處施物維生,也以二處施物維生……(中略),也以七處施物維生。一天吃一餐,也二天吃一餐……(中略)也七天吃一餐,像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。(394)
  喬達摩道友!這些苦行著手也是這些沙門婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分:他是食蔬菜者,或是食稗子者,或是食生米者,或是食大度拉米者,或是食蘇苔者,或是食米糠者,或是食飯汁者,或是食胡麻粉者[,或食草者, MN.12,155段],或是食牛糞者,以樹林的根與果實食物維生,落下果實為食物者。(395)
  喬達摩道友!這些苦行著手也是這些沙門婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分:他穿麻的混織物,也穿裹屍布,也穿糞掃衣,也穿低力刀樹皮,也穿羚羊皮,也穿羊皮,也穿茅草衣,也穿樹皮衣,也穿木片衣,也穿髮毛織物,也穿獸毛織物,也穿貓頭鷹羽毛衣。也是拔髮鬚者、拔髮鬚致力實踐者,也是常站立者、拒絕座位者,也是蹲踞者、蹲踞勤奮實踐者。也躺臥睡在荊棘床墊上,也躺臥在板床上,也躺臥在堅硬地面上,也是單側躺臥者、著塵垢者。也是住露地者、隨處住者。也是吃污物者、腐壞食物的致力實踐者,也是不喝飲料者、不喝飲料狀態的實踐者。也住於為黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐者。」(396)
苦行著手無益的談論
  「迦葉!即使是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者……(中略)像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐,而他的這個戒具足、心具足、慧具足未被修習、未被作證,那時他是從沙門身分遠離的、從婆羅門身分遠離的。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使是食生菜者、食稗子者……(中略)他以樹林的根與果實食物維生,落下果實為食物者,而他的這個戒具足、心具足、慧具足未被修習、未被作證,那時他是從沙門身分遠離的、從婆羅門身分遠離的。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使穿麻衣、麻的混織物……(中略)他住於黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐的,而他的這個戒具足、心具足、慧具足未被修習、未被作證,那時他是從沙門身分遠離的、從婆羅門身分遠離的。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。」(397)
  在這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊說這個:「喬達摩尊師!沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。」「迦葉!在世間中,這是一般的說法:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』迦葉!即使是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者……(中略)像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠做這個:『來吧!我成為裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者……(中略)像像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,我住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使是食生菜者、食稗子者……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,落下果實為食物者,迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠做這個:『來吧!我成為食生菜者、食稗子者……(中略)我以森林的根與果實食物維生,食落下果實者踐。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使穿麻衣、麻的混織物……(中略)他住於黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐的,迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠做這個:『來吧!我穿麻衣、麻的混織物……(中略)我住於黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐的。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難做的、極難做的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門身分是難做的,婆羅門身分是難做的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。(398)
  在這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊說這個:「喬達摩尊師!沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。」「迦葉!在世間中,這是一般的說法:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』迦葉!即使是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者……(中略)像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠知道這個:『這位裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者……(中略)像像這樣,也半個月像這樣形色的,他住於致力定期吃食物的實踐。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使是食生菜者、食稗子者……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,落下果實為食物者,迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠知道這個:『這位是食生菜者、食稗子者……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,食落下果實者踐。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!即使穿麻衣、麻的混織物……(中略)他住於黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐的,迦葉!而如果以這個程度、以這個苦行著手,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,這不是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』
  還有,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能夠知道這個:『他穿麻衣、麻的混織物……(中略)他住於黃昏第三次入水洗浴的致力實踐的。』
  迦葉!但因為就在以這個程度之外、以這個苦行著手之外,沙門或婆羅門是難知的、極難知的,因此,這是適當的言語:『沙門是難知的,婆羅門是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心,且以諸漏的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無漏心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』及『婆羅門』。」(399)
戒定慧的具足
  在這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊說這個:「喬達摩尊師!哪個是戒具足?哪個是心具足?哪個是慧具足?」「迦葉!這裡,如來阿羅漢遍正覺者明行具足者善逝世間知者應該被調御人的無上調御者天-人們的大師佛陀世尊在世間出現……(中略)(在簡略中應該如同190-193[DN.2「更勝妙的沙門果」]段落使之被細說)在諸微罪中看見可怕的,在諸學處上受持後學習,他具備善的身業、語業,清淨的生活維持,戒具足,在諸根上守護門,具備念與正知,已知足。(400)
  「迦葉!而怎樣比丘是戒具足者?迦葉!這裡,比丘捨斷殺生後,是離殺生者,住於放下棍棒的、放下刀的、有羞恥的、來到同情的、對一切活的生命類有憐愍的,這是他的戒具足……(中略)(在簡略中如同194-210[DN.2「小戒」段落])
  又或,如一些沙門婆羅門尊師吃信施物後,他們像這樣以畜生明邪命謀生,即:祈願儀式、誓願儀式……(中略)(在簡略中如同211[DN.2「大戒」段落])藥草、瀉劑等,像這樣,是離以畜生明邪命謀生者,這也是他的戒具足。
  迦葉!那位這樣戒具足的比丘他在任何地方都不看見恐怖,即:從戒的自制。迦葉!猶如剎帝利灌頂王在任何地方都不看見恐怖,即:從敵人。同樣的,迦葉!那位這樣戒具足的比丘他在任何地方都不看見恐怖,即:從戒的自制。他具備這個聖戒蘊,感受自身內無過失的安樂,迦葉!這樣,比丘是戒具足者,迦葉!這是戒具足……(中略)進入後住於初禪,這是他的心具足……(中略)第二禪……(中略)的第三禪……(中略)進入後住於第四禪,這也是他的心具足,迦葉!這是心具足。
  在心是這樣入定的……(中略)他抽出心使轉向智與見,這是他的慧具足……(中略)他知道:『出生已盡梵行已完成應該被作的已作不再有此處[輪迴]的狀態。』這也是他的慧具足,迦葉!這是慧具足。
  迦葉!而沒有其它戒具足、心具足、慧具足比這個戒具足、心具足、慧具足更上的或更勝妙的。(401)
獅子吼的談論
  迦葉!有一些沙門婆羅門是戒論者,他們以種種法門稱讚戒,迦葉!最高聖戒之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同的,從哪裡有更好的?而在這裡,我就是更好的,即:增上戒。
  迦葉!有一些沙門婆羅門是苦行與嫌惡論者,他們以種種法門稱讚苦行與嫌惡,迦葉!最高聖苦行與嫌惡之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同的,從哪裡有更好的?而在這裡,我就是更好的,即:增上嫌惡
  迦葉!有一些沙門婆羅門是慧論者,他們以種種法門稱讚慧,迦葉!最高聖慧之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同的,從哪裡有更好的?而在這裡,我就是更好的,即:增上慧。
  迦葉!有一些沙門婆羅門是解脫論者,他們以種種法門稱讚解脫,迦葉!最高聖解脫之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同的,從哪裡有更好的?而在這裡,我就是更好的,即:增上解脫。(402)
  迦葉!這存在可能性:凡其他外道遊行者會說這個:『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼,但他在那屋中吼,非在群眾中。』『不要這樣[說]!』他們應該被回答。『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼,與在群眾中吼。』迦葉!應該這麼被回答。
  迦葉!這存在可能性:凡其他外道遊行者這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼,與在群眾中吼,但非自信地吼。』『不要這樣!』他們應該被回答。『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼,與在群眾中吼,以及自信地吼。』迦葉!應該這麼被回答。
  迦葉!這存在可能性:凡其他外道遊行者這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼,與在群眾中吼,以及有自信地吼,但他們不詢問他問題……(中略)以及他們詢問他問題,但他不回答他們詢問的問題……(中略)以及他回答他們詢問的問題,但他不以問題的回答使心喜歡……(中略)以及他以問題的回答使心喜歡,但他們認為不應該被聽聞……(中略)以及他們認為應該被聽聞,但聽聞後他們不明淨……(中略)以及聽聞後他們明淨,但他們不作淨信的行為……(中略)以及他們作淨信的行為,但他們不照著實行……(中略)以及他們照著實行,但不使實行們喜歡。』『不要這樣!』他們應該被回答。『沙門喬達摩吼獅子吼、在群眾中吼、有自信地吼、他們詢問他問題、他回答他們詢問的問題、他以問題的回答使心喜歡、他們認為應該被聽聞,聽聞後他們得明淨、他們作淨信的行為、他們照著實行、使實行們喜歡。』迦葉!應該這麼被回答。(403)
外道別住的談論
  迦葉!有這一次,我住在王舍城耆闍崛山。在那裡,某位名叫尼拘律的苦行梵行者在增上嫌惡上詢問我問題,我在增上嫌惡上回答他詢問的問題,而且,在回答的上對我成為極悅意的。」「大德!誰聽聞世尊的法後,不會成為極悅意的呢?大德!我聽聞世尊的法後,也成為極悅意的。大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如扶正顛倒的,或揭開隱藏的,或告知迷路者的道路,或在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者們看見諸色。』同樣的,法被世尊以種種法門說明。大德!這個我歸依世尊、法、比丘僧團,大德!願我得到在世尊的面前出家,願我得到具足戒。」(404)
  「迦葉!凡先前為其他外道希望在這法律中出家;希望受具足戒,他別住四個月。經四個月後,發心的比丘們使出家;使受具足戒為比丘狀態,但個人差異由我發現。」[SN.12.17]
  「大德!如果先前為其他外道希望在這法律中出家者;希望受具足戒者別住四個月。經四個月後,發心的比丘們使之出家;使之受具足戒為比丘狀態,我將別住四年。經四年後,請發心的比丘們使出家;使受具足戒為比丘狀態。」
  裸行者迦葉得到在世尊的面前出家、受具足戒。
  還有,已受具足戒不久,住於單獨的、隱離的、不放逸的、熱心的、自我努力的尊者迦葉不久就以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於善男子們為了利益正確地從在家出家成為無家者的那個無上梵行結尾,他證知:「出生已盡,梵行已完成,應該被作的已作,不再有此處[輪迴]的狀態。」然後尊者迦葉成為阿羅漢之一。(405)
  獅子吼大經第八終了。
DN.8/(8) Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ
Acelakassapavatthu
   381. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā uruññāyaṃ viharati kaṇṇakatthale migadāye. Atha kho acelo kassapo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sutaṃ metaṃ, bho gotama– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti. Ye te, bho gotama, evamāhaṃsu– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti, kacci te bhoto gotamassa vuttavādino, na ca bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ abhūtena abbhācikkhanti, dhammassa cānudhammaṃ byākaronti, na ca koci sahadhammiko vādānuvādo gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ āgacchati? Anabbhakkhātukāmā hi mayaṃ bhavantaṃ gotaman”ti.
   382. “Ye te, kassapa, evamāhaṃsu– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti, na me te vuttavādino, abbhācikkhanti ca pana maṃ te asatā abhūtena. Idhāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannaṃ. Idha panāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ.
   383. “Idhāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ appadukkhavihāriṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannaṃ. Idha panāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ appadukkhavihāriṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ. Yohaṃ, kassapa, imesaṃ tapassīnaṃ evaṃ āgatiñca gatiñca cutiñca upapattiñca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāmi sohaṃ kiṃ sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahissāmi, sabbaṃ vā tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosissāmi upavadissāmi?
   384. “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā paṇḍitā nipuṇā kataparappavādā vālavedhirūpā. Te bhindantā maññe caranti paññāgatena diṭṭhigatāni. Tehipi me saddhiṃ ekaccesu ṭhānesu sameti, ekaccesu ṭhānesu na sameti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti, mayampi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti, mayampi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti, mayaṃ taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti, mayaṃ taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti.
   “Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti, parepi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti, parepi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti, pare taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti, pare taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti.
Samanuyuñjāpanakathā
   385. “Tyāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi– yesu no, āvuso, ṭhānesu na sameti, tiṭṭhantu tāni ṭhānāni. Yesu ṭhānesu sameti, tattha viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, samaṇo vā gotamo, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyā’ti?
   386. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā Samaṇo gotamo ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   387. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, samaṇo vā gotamo, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyā’ ti?
   388. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Samaṇo gotamo ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   389. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, gotamasāvakasaṅgho vā, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti?
   390. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Gotamasāvakasaṅgho ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   391. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ. ‘Ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, gotamasāvakasaṅgho vā, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti?
   392. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Gotamasāvakasaṅgho ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo
   393. “Atthi, kassapa, maggo atthi paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati – ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’ti. Katamo ca, kassapa, maggo, katamā ca paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati– ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’ti? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṃ– sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, maggo, ayaṃ paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’”ti.
Tapopakkamakathā
   394. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Acelako hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano, na ehibhaddantiko, na tiṭṭhabhaddantiko, nābhihaṭaṃ, na uddissakataṃ, na nimantanaṃ sādiyati. So na kumbhimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na kaḷopimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na eḷakamantaraṃ, na daṇḍamantaraṃ, na musalamantaraṃ, na dvinnaṃ bhuñjamānānaṃ, na gabbhiniyā, na pāyamānāya, na purisantaragatāya, na saṅkittīsu, na yattha sā upaṭṭhito hoti, na yattha makkhikā saṇḍasaṇḍacārinī, na macchaṃ, na maṃsaṃ, na suraṃ, na merayaṃ, na thusodakaṃ pivati. So ekāgāriko vā hoti ekālopiko, dvāgāriko vā hoti dvālopiko …pe… sattāgāriko vā hoti sattālopiko ekissāpi dattiyā yāpeti, dvīhipi dattīhi yāpeti… sattahipi dattīhi yāpeti; ekāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti, dvīhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti… sattāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti. Iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati.
   395. “Imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Sākabhakkho vā hoti, sāmākabhakkho vā hoti, nīvārabhakkho vā hoti, daddulabhakkho vā hoti, haṭabhakkho vā hoti, kaṇabhakkho vā hoti, ācāmabhakkho vā hoti, piññākabhakkho vā hoti, tiṇabhakkho vā hoti, gomayabhakkho vā hoti, vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī.
   396. “Imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti, chavadussānipi dhāreti, paṃsukūlānipi dhāreti, tirīṭānipi dhāreti, ajinampi dhāreti, ajinakkhipampi dhāreti, kusacīrampi dhāreti, vākacīrampi dhāreti, phalakacīrampi dhāreti, kesakambalampi dhāreti, vāḷakambalampi dhāreti, ulūkapakkhikampi dhāreti, kesamassulocakopi hoti kesamassulocanānuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaṭṭhakopi hoti āsanapaṭikkhitto, ukkuṭikopi hoti ukkuṭikappadhānamanuyutto, kaṇṭakāpassayikopi hoti kaṇṭakāpassaye seyyaṃ kappeti, phalakaseyyampi kappeti, thaṇḍilaseyyampi kappeti, ekapassayikopi hoti rajojalladharo, abbhokāsikopi hoti yathāsanthatiko vekaṭikopi hoti vikaṭabhojanānuyogamanuyutto, apānakopi hoti apānakattamanuyutto, sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī”ti.
Tapopakkamaniratthakathā
   397. “Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti, sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
   398. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “dukkaraṃ, bho gotama, sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan”ti. “Pakati kho esā, kassapa, lokasmiṃ ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ acelako homi, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti, sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ sākabhakkho vā homi, sāmākabhakkho vā …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpemi pavattaphalabhojī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya – ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ sāṇānipi dhāremi, masāṇānipi dhāremi …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
   399. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “dujjāno, bho gotama, samaṇo, dujjāno brāhmaṇo”ti. “Pakati kho esā, kassapa, lokasmiṃ ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ acelako hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ sākabhakkho vā hoti sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
Sīlasamādhipaññāsampadā
   400. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “katamā pana sā, bho gotama, sīlasampadā, katamā cittasampadā, katamā paññāsampadā”ti? “Idha, kassapa, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ, sammāsambuddho …pe… (yathā 190-193 anucchedesu, evaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ) bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu, kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena parisuddhājīvo sīlasampanno indriyesu guttadvāro satisampajaññena samannāgato santuṭṭho.
   401. “Kathañca, kassapa, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti? Idha, kassapa, bhikkhu pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. Idampissa hoti sīlasampadāya …pe… (yathā 194yāva 210anucchedesu)
   “Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṃ kappenti Seyyathidaṃ– santikammaṃ paṇidhikammaṃ …pe… (yathā 211anucchede) osadhīnaṃ patimokkho iti vā iti, evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasampadāya.
   “Sa kho so, kassapa, bhikkhu evaṃ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ sīlasaṃvarato. Seyyathāpi, kassapa, rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto nihatapaccāmitto na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ paccatthikato. Evameva kho, kassapa, bhikkhu evaṃ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ sīlasaṃvarato. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṃ anavajjasukhaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. Evaṃ kho, kassapa, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, sīlasampadā …pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Idampissa hoti cittasampadāya …pe… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ …pe… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Idampissa hoti cittasampadāya. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, cittasampadā.
   “So evaṃ samāhite citte …pe… ñāṇadassanāya cittaṃ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti …pe… idampissa hoti paññāsampadāya …pe… nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti …pe… idampissa hoti paññāsampadāya. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, paññāsampadā.
   “Imāya ca, kassapa, sīlasampadāya cittasampadāya paññāsampadāya aññā sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā uttaritarā vā paṇītatarā vā natthi.
Sīhanādakathā
   402. “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sīlavādā. Te anekapariyāyena sīlassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyaṃ paramaṃ sīlaṃ, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhisīlaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā tapojigucchāvādā. Te anekapariyāyena tapojigucchāya vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā tapojigucchā, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhijegucchaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā paññāvādā. Te anekapariyāyena paññāya vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā paññā, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhipaññaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā vimuttivādā. Te anekapariyāyena vimuttiyā vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā vimutti, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhivimutti.
   403. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādaṃ kho samaṇo gotamo nadati, tañca kho suññāgāre nadati, no parisāsū’ti. Te – ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadatī’ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
   “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, no ca kho visārado nadatī’ti Te– ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadatī”ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
   “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadati, no ca kho naṃ pañhaṃ pucchanti …pe… pañhañca naṃ pucchanti; no ca kho nesaṃ pañhaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti …pe… pañhañca nesaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti; no ca kho pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti …pe… pañhassa ca veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti; no ca kho sotabbaṃ maññanti …pe… sotabbañcassa maññanti; no ca kho sutvā pasīdanti …pe… sutvā cassa pasīdanti no ca kho pasannākāraṃ karonti …pe… pasannākārañca karonti; no ca kho tathattāya paṭipajjanti …pe… tathattāya ca paṭipajjanti; no ca kho paṭipannā ārādhentī’ti. Te – ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadati, pañhañca naṃ pucchanti, pañhañca nesaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti, pañhassa ca veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti, sotabbañcassa maññanti, sutvā cassa pasīdanti, pasannākārañca karonti, tathattāya ca paṭipajjanti, paṭipannā ca ārādhentī’ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
Titthiyaparivāsakathā
   404. “Ekamidāhaṃ, kassapa, samayaṃ rājagahe viharāmi gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Tatra maṃ aññataro tapabrahmacārī nigrodho nāma adhijegucche pañhaṃ apucchi. Tassāhaṃ adhijegucche pañhaṃ puṭṭho byākāsiṃ. Byākate ca pana me attamano ahosi paraṃ viya mattāyā”ti. “Ko hi, bhante, bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā na attamano assa paraṃ viya mattāya? Ahampi hi, bhante, bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā attamano paraṃ viya mattāya. Abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya– ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyaṃ upasampadan”ti.
   405. “Yo kho, kassapa, aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhati upasampadaṃ, so cattāro māse parivasati, catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti, upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatā viditā”ti. “Sace, bhante, aññatitthiyapubbā imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhanti pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhanti upasampadaṃ, cattāro māse parivasanti, catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti, upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Ahaṃ cattāri vassāni parivasissāmi, catunnaṃ vassānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājentu, upasampādentu bhikkhubhāvāyā”ti.
   Alattha kho acelo kassapo bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ alattha upasampadaṃ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā kassapo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto na cirasseva– yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṃ– brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti– abbhaññāsi. Aññataro kho panāyasmā kassapo arahataṃ ahosīti.
   Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不共法(DA.25)」,南傳作「一般的說法」(Pakati,另一個意思為「自然」),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「他們那樣說」(So they say)。
  「成為極悅意的」(attamano ahosi paraṃ viya mattāyāti,直譯為「成為如以超越量悅意的」),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「喜悅超越所有測量」(delighted…beyond all measure)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「就以極大量的」(atimahanteneva pamāṇenāti)解說「如超量」(Paraṃ viya mattāyāti)。