北傳:長阿含25經 南傳:長部8經 關涉主題:(略) (更新)
長阿含25經/倮形梵志經(第三分)(莊春江標點)
  如是我聞
  一時在委若國金槃鹿野林中,與大比丘千二百五十人俱。
  時,有倮形梵志姓迦葉,詣世尊所,問訊已,一面坐。倮形迦葉白佛言:
  「我聞沙門瞿曇呵責一切諸祭祀法,罵諸苦行人以為弊穢。瞿曇!若有言:『沙門瞿曇呵責一切諸祭祀法,罵苦行人以為弊穢。』作此言者,是為法語法法成就,不誹謗沙門瞿曇耶?」
  佛言:
  「迦葉!彼若言:『沙門瞿曇呵責一切諸祭祀法,罵苦行人以為弊穢。』者,彼非法言,非法法成就,為誹謗我,非誠實言,所以者何?迦葉!我見彼等苦行人,有身壞命終墮地獄中者,又見苦行人身壞命終生天善處者,或見苦行人樂為苦行,身壞命終生地獄中者,或見苦行人樂為苦行,身壞命終生天善處者。迦葉!我於此二趣所受報處,盡知、盡見,我寧可呵責諸苦行者以為弊穢耶?我正說是,彼則言非,我正說非,彼則言是。
  迦葉!有法沙門婆羅門同,有法沙門、婆羅門不同。迦葉!彼不同者,我則捨置,以此法不與沙門、婆羅門同故。迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀,沙門瞿曇於不善法、重濁、黑冥、非賢聖法,彼異眾師於不善法、重濁、黑冥、非賢聖法,誰能堪任滅此法者?迦葉!彼有智者作是觀時,如是知見:唯沙門瞿曇能滅是法。迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是推求、如是論時,我於此中則有名稱。
  復次,迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀:沙門瞿曇弟子於不善法、重濁、黑冥、非賢聖法,彼異眾師弟子於不善法、重濁、黑冥、非賢聖法,誰能堪任滅此法者?迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是知見:唯沙門瞿曇弟子能滅是法。迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是推求、如是論時,我弟子則得名稱。
  復次,迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀:沙門瞿曇於諸善法、清白、微妙及賢聖法,彼異眾師於諸善法、清白、微妙及賢聖法,誰能堪任增廣修行者?迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是知見:唯有沙門瞿曇堪任增長修行是法。迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是推求、如是論時,我於此中則有名稱。
  迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀:沙門瞿曇弟子於諸善法、清白、微妙及賢聖法,彼異眾師弟子於諸善法、清白、微妙及賢聖法,誰能堪任增長修行者?迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是知見:唯有沙門瞿曇弟子能堪任增長修行是法。迦葉!彼有智者作如是觀、如是推求、如是論時,於我弟子則有名稱。
  迦葉!有道、有迹,比丘於中修行,則自知、自見:沙門瞿曇時說、實說、義說、法說、律說。迦葉!何等是道?何等是迹?比丘於中修行,自知、自見:沙門瞿曇時說、實說、義說、法說、律說。迦葉!於是,比丘修念覺意,依止息,依無欲,依出要,修精進、定、捨覺意,依止息,依無欲,依出要。迦葉!是為道,是為迹,比丘於中修行,自知自見,沙門瞿曇時說、實說、義說、法說、律說。」
  迦葉言:
  「瞿曇!唯有是道、是迹,比丘於中修行,自知、自見:沙門瞿曇時說、實說、義說、法說、律說。但苦行穢污,有得婆羅門名,有得沙門名,何等是苦行穢污,有得婆羅門名,有得沙門名?瞿曇!離服倮形,以手自障蔽,不受{夜}[瓨]食,不受{朽}[杅]食,不受兩壁中間食,不受{三}[二?]人中間食,不受兩刀中間食,不受兩杇中間食,不受共食家食,不受懷姙家食,狗在門前不食其食,不受有蠅家食,不受請食。他言先識則不受其{飡}[食?],不食魚,不食肉,不飲酒,不兩器食,一飡一咽,至七飡止,受人益食,不過七益,或一日一食,或二日、三日、四日、五日、六日、七日一食。或復食果,或復食莠,或食飯汁,或食麻米,或食𥠆稻,或食牛糞,或食鹿糞,或食樹根枝葉花實,或食自落果,或披衣,或披莎衣,或衣樹皮,或草襜身,或衣鹿皮,或留髮,或被毛編,或著塚間衣,或有常舉手者,或不坐床席,或有常蹲者,或有剃髮留髭鬚者,或有臥荊棘上者,或有臥果蓏上者,或有倮形臥牛糞上者,或一日三浴,或一夜三浴,以無數苦,苦役此身。瞿曇!是為苦行穢污,或得沙門名,或得婆羅門名。」
  佛言:
  「迦葉!離服倮形者,以無數方便苦役此身,彼戒不具足、見不具足,不能勤修,亦不廣普。」
  迦葉白佛言:
  「云何為戒具足?云何為見具足?過諸苦行,微妙第一。」
  佛告迦葉:
  「諦聽,善思念之,當為汝說。」
  迦葉言:
  「唯然,瞿曇!願樂欲聞。」
  佛告迦葉:
  「若如來至真出現於世,……乃至四禪,於現法中而得快樂,所以者何?斯由精勤,專念一心,樂於閑靜,不放逸故。迦葉!是為戒具足、見具足,勝諸苦行,微妙第一。」
  迦葉言:
  「瞿曇!雖曰戒具足、見具足過諸苦行,微妙第一,但沙門法難,婆羅門法難。」
  佛言:
  「迦葉!此是世間不共法,所謂:沙門法、婆羅門法難,迦葉!乃至優婆夷亦能知此法:離服倮形,……乃至無數方便苦役此身,但不知其心:為有恚心、為無恚心,有恨心、無恨心,有害心、無害心?若知此心者,不名沙門、婆羅門為難,以不知故,沙門、婆羅門為難。」
  爾時,迦葉白佛言:
  「何等是沙門、何等是婆羅門,戒具足、見具足,為上為勝,微妙第一?」
  佛告迦葉:
  「諦聽,諦聽,善思念之,當為汝說。」
  迦葉言:
  「唯然。瞿曇!願樂欲聞。」
  佛言:
  「迦葉!彼比丘以三昧心,……乃至得三明,滅諸癡冥,生智慧明,所謂漏盡智生,所以者何?斯由精勤,專念不忘,樂獨閑靜,不放逸故。迦葉!此名沙門、婆羅門,戒具足、見具足,最勝最上,微妙第一。」
  迦葉言:
  「瞿曇!雖言是沙門、婆羅門,見具足、戒具足為上為勝,微妙第一,但,沙門、婆羅門法甚難、甚難;沙門亦難知,婆羅門亦難知。」
  佛告迦葉:
  「優婆塞亦能修行此法。」{白}[自]言:『我從今日能離服倮形,……乃至以無數方便苦役此身。』不可以此行名為沙門、婆羅門,若當以此行名為沙門、婆羅門者,不得言沙門甚難,婆羅門甚難,不以此行為沙門、婆羅門故,言:『沙門甚難,婆羅門甚難。』」
  佛告迦葉:
  「我昔一時在羅閱祇,於高山七葉窟中,曾為尼俱陀梵志說清淨苦行。時,梵志生歡喜心,得清淨信,供養我、稱讚我,第一供養稱讚於我。」
  迦葉言:
  「瞿曇!誰於瞿曇不生第一歡喜、淨信、供養、稱讚者?我今於瞿曇亦生第一歡喜,得清淨信,供養、稱讚,歸依瞿曇。」
  佛告迦葉:
  「諸世間諸所有戒,無有與此增上戒等者,況欲出其上?諸有三昧、智慧、解脫、見解脫慧,無有與此增上三昧、智慧、解脫、見解脫慧等者,況欲出其上?迦葉!所謂師子者,是如來、至真、等正覺,如來於大眾中廣說法時,自在無畏,故號師子。云何?迦葉!汝謂如來師子吼時不勇捍耶?勿造斯觀,如來師子吼勇捍無畏。迦葉!汝謂如來勇捍師子吼時不在大眾中耶?勿造斯觀,如來在大眾中勇捍師子吼。迦葉!汝謂如來在大眾中作師子吼不能說法耶?勿造斯觀,所以者何?如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,作師子吼,善能說法。云何?迦葉!汝謂如來於大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,善能說法,眾{曾}[會?]聽者不一心耶?勿造斯觀,所以者何?如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,善能說法,諸來會者皆一心聽。云何?迦葉!汝謂如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,善能說法,諸來會者皆一心聽,而不歡喜信受行耶?勿造斯觀,所以者何?如來在大眾中勇捍{多力}[無畏],能師子吼,善能說法,諸來會者皆一心聽,歡喜信受。迦葉!汝謂如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,善能說法,諸來會者歡喜信受,而不供養耶?勿造斯觀,如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,善能說法,諸來會者皆一心聽,歡喜信受,而設供養。迦葉!汝謂如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,為師子吼,乃至信敬供養,而不剃除鬚髮,服三法衣,出家修道耶?勿造斯觀,所以者何?如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,乃至信敬供養,剃除鬚髮,服三法衣,出家修道。迦葉!汝謂如來在大眾中勇捍無畏,……乃至出家修道,而不究竟梵行,至安隱處,無餘泥洹耶?勿造斯觀,所以者何?如來於大眾中勇捍無畏,乃至出家修道,究竟梵行,至安隱處,無餘泥洹。」
  時,迦葉白佛言:
  「云何?瞿曇!我得於此法中出家受具戒不?」
  佛告迦葉:
  「若異學欲來入我法中出家修道者,當留四月觀察,稱可眾意,然後當得出家受戒。迦葉!雖有是法,亦觀其人耳。」
  迦葉言:
  「若有異學欲來入佛法中修梵行者,當留四月觀察,稱可眾意,然後當得出家受戒,我今能於佛法中四歲觀察,稱可眾意,然後乃出家受戒。」
  佛告迦葉:
  「我已有言,但觀其人耳。」
  爾時,迦葉即於佛法中出家受具足戒。
  時,迦葉受戒未久,以淨信心修無上梵行,[於]現法中自身作證:生死已盡梵行已立所作已辦不受後有,即成阿羅漢
  爾時,迦葉聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

長部8經/獅子吼大經(戒蘊品[第一])(莊春江譯)
裸行者迦葉的事
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在巫魯領之葛那葛得勒的鹿野苑。
  那時,裸行者迦葉去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊互相歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,裸行者迦葉對世尊這麼說:
  「我聽聞喬達摩先生:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地責備、呵叱一切苦行者、弊穢生活者。』喬達摩先生!凡那些這麼說:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地責備、呵叱一切苦行者、弊穢生活者。』者,喬達摩先生!那些是否為世尊的所說之說,而且不以不實而毀謗世尊,他們法、隨法地解說了,而任何如法的種種說不來到應該被呵責處嗎?我們不想誹謗喬達摩尊師。」(381)
  「迦葉!凡那些這麼說:『沙門喬達摩呵責一切苦行,一向地責備、呵叱一切苦行者、弊穢生活者。』者,那些不是我的所說之說,而且他們以不存在、虛偽、不實而毀謗我。迦葉!這裡,我以清淨、超越人的天眼看見某位苦行者、弊穢生活者以身體的崩解,死後往生到苦界惡趣下界、地獄,又,迦葉!這裡,我以清淨、超越人的天眼看見某位苦行者、弊穢生活者以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界。(382)
  迦葉!這裡,我以清淨、超越人的天眼看見某位苦行者、少苦之住者以身體的崩解,死後往生到苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄,又,迦葉!這裡,我以清淨、超越人的天眼看見某位苦行者、少苦之住者以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界。迦葉!我這麼如實了知這些苦行者的來處、趣處、死沒、往生,我怎麼會呵責一切苦行,一向地責備、呵叱一切苦行者、弊穢生活者呢?(383)
  迦葉!有某些賢智、聰敏、知異論、犀利的沙門、婆羅門,他們的確以慧的狀態漫遊破壞著惡見,他們在某些地方與我共同同意,在某些地方則不同意,某一些他們說『!』的,我們也說『好!』,某一些他們說『不好!』的,我們也說『不好!』,某一些他們說『好!』的,我們說『不好!』,某一些他們說『不好!』的,我們說『好!』。
  某一些我們說『好!』的,其他人也說『好!』,某一些我們說『不好!』的,其他人也說『不好!』,某一些我們說『不好!』的,其他人說『好!』,某一些我們說『好!』的,其他人說『不好!』(384)
審問的談說
  我去見他們後,這麼說:『道友們!關於那些我們不同意的地方,讓那些地方存續,關於那些我們同意的地方,在那裡,令智者們以大師比對大師、僧團比對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應實行的、名為不應實行的;對聖者不適當的、名為對聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,誰在這些法上完整地捨斷後轉起?沙門喬達摩呢?還是其他團體的老師尊師們呢?』(385)
  迦葉!這是可能的,智者們經審問、質問、追究,會這麼說:『凡尊師們的這些不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應實行的、名為不應實行的;對聖者不適當的、名為對聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,沙門喬達摩在這些法上完整地捨斷後轉起,[而非]其他團體的老師尊師們。』迦葉!像這樣,智者們經審問、質問、追究,在那裡,他們大多數會讚賞我們。(386)
  其次,迦葉!令智者們以大師比對大師、僧團比對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應實行的、名為應實行的;對聖者適當的、名為對聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,誰在這些法上完整地受持後轉起?沙門喬達摩呢?還是其他團體的老師尊師們呢?』(387)
  迦葉!這是可能的,智者們經審問、質問、追究,會這麼說:『凡尊師們的這些善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應實行的、名為應實行的;對聖者適當的、名為對聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,沙門喬達摩在這些法上完整地受持後轉起,[而非]其他團體的老師尊師們。』迦葉!像這樣,智者們經審問、質問、追究,在那裡,他們大多數會讚賞我們。(388)
  其次,令智者們以大師比對大師、僧團比對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應實行的、名為不應實行的;對聖者不適當的、名為對聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,誰在這些法上完整地捨斷後轉起?喬達摩的弟子僧團呢?還是其他團體老師尊師們的弟子僧團呢?』(389)
  迦葉!這是可能的,智者們經審問、質問、追究,會這麼說:『凡尊師們的這些不善法、名為不善的;有罪過的、名為有罪過的;不應實行的、名為不應實行的;對聖者不適當的、名為對聖者不適當的;黑的、名為黑的,喬達摩的弟子僧團在這些法上完整地捨斷後轉起,[而非]其他團體的老師尊師們的弟子僧團。』迦葉!像這樣,智者們經審問、質問、追究,在那裡,他們大多數會讚賞我們。(390)
  其次,迦葉!令智者們以大師比對大師、僧團比對僧團地審問、質問、追究:『凡尊師們的這些善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應實行的、名為應實行的;對聖者適當的、名為對聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,誰在這些法上完整地受持後轉起?喬達摩的弟子僧團呢?還是其他團體的老師尊師們的弟子僧團呢?』(391)
  迦葉!這是可能的,智者們經審問、質問、追究,會這麼說:『凡尊師們的這些善法、名為善的;無罪過的、名為無罪過的;應實行的、名為應實行的;對聖者適當的、名為對聖者適當的;白的、名為白的,喬達摩的弟子僧團在這些法上完整地受持後轉起,[而非]其他團體的老師尊師們的弟子僧團。』迦葉!像這樣,智者們經審問、質問、追究,在那裡,他們大多數會讚賞我們。(392)
八支聖道
  迦葉!有道、有道跡,依之而行者就自己知道、自己看見:『沙門喬達摩是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益處之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』迦葉!哪個道、哪個道跡,依之而行者就自己知道、自己看見:『沙門喬達摩是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益處之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』呢?是這八支聖道,即:正見、正志、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定,迦葉!這個道、這個道跡,依之而行者就自己知道、自己看見:『沙門喬達摩是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益處之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者。』」(393)
苦行著手者的談說
  當這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊這麼說:
  「喬達摩道友!這些是苦行著手者,這些沙門、婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分的:他是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、受邀不來者受邀不住立者,不受用帶來的、特別作的、招待的[食物]者,他不從瓶口取食,不從鍋口取食,不[從]門檻中間、棍棒中間、杵中間、正在吃的兩人、孕婦、授乳女、與男子生活者[取食],不從撿拾收集的食物處、有狗現前處、蒼蠅群集處[取食],不[吃]魚、肉,不飲榖酒、果酒、[發酵]酸粥,他[托鉢]一家[吃]一口、二家二口……(中略)七家七口,他[每天]以一小碟[食物]維生、二小碟維生……七小碟維生,一天吃一餐、二天吃一餐……七天吃一餐,像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],他住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐。(394)
  喬達摩道友!這些是苦行著手者,這些沙門、婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分的:他是食生菜者,或食稗子者,或食生米者,或食大度拉米者,或食蘇苔者,或食米糠者,或食飯汁者,或食胡麻粉者[,或食草者, Ni.15,174偈],或食牛糞者,他以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物。(395)
  喬達摩道友!這些是苦行著手者,這些沙門、婆羅門的名為沙門身分與名為婆羅門身分的:他穿麻衣、麻的混織物、裹屍布、糞掃衣、低力刀樹[之樹皮]、羚羊皮、羊皮、茅草衣、樹皮衣、木片衣、頭髮編織衣、猛獸毛皮衣、貓頭鷹羽毛衣,他是拔髮鬚者、致力於拔髮鬚之實踐者、常站立者、拒絕座位者、蹲踞者、勤奮於蹲踞的實踐者、臥荊棘者,他睡荊棘睡墊、板床、堅硬地面,他是住露地者、隨處住者,他是吃腐壞食物者、致力於吃腐壞食物的實踐者,他是不喝飲料者、不喝飲料狀態的實踐者,他住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者。」(396)
無利益的苦行著手者的談說
  「迦葉!他是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、……(中略)像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],他住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐,如果他是這戒具足、心具足、慧具足的未修習者、未作證者,則他遠離沙門身分、遠離婆羅門身分。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他是食生菜者、食稗子者、……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物,如果他是這戒具足、心具足、慧具足的未修習者、未作證者,則他遠離沙門身分、遠離婆羅門身分。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他穿麻衣、麻的混織物、……(中略)他住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者,如果他是這戒具足、心具足、慧具足的未修習者、未作證者,則他遠離沙門身分、遠離婆羅門身分。迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。」(397)
  當這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊這麼說:
  「喬達摩先生!沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。」
  「迦葉!在世間中,這是自然[的]:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』迦葉!他是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、……(中略)像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],他住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是困難的、非常困難的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能做:『來吧!我要成為裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、……(中略)像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],我要住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他是食生菜者、食稗子者、……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是困難的、非常困難的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能做:『來吧!我要成為食生菜者、食稗子者、……(中略)我要以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物踐。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他穿麻衣、麻的混織物、……(中略)他住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是困難的、非常困難的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能做:『來吧!我要穿麻衣、麻的混織物、……(中略)我要住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是困難的,婆羅門身分是困難的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。(398)
  當這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊這麼說:
  「喬達摩先生!沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。」
  「迦葉!在世間中,這是自然[的]:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』迦葉!他是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、……(中略)像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],他住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難知的、非常難知的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能知道:『這位是裸行者、脫離正行者、舔手者、……(中略)像這樣,半個月[吃一餐],他住於致力於定期吃食物的實踐。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他是食生菜者、食稗子者、……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難知的、非常難知的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能知道:『這位是食生菜者、食稗子者、……(中略)他以森林的根與果實食物維生,以落下的果實為食物踐。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。
  迦葉!他穿麻衣、麻的混織物、……(中略)他住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者,迦葉!如果以這個程度、以這個苦行的著手而成為沙門身分或婆羅門身分是難知的、非常難知的,則這不是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』這個,以屋主或屋主之子,乃至汲水的女僕也能知道:『這位穿麻衣、麻的混織物、……(中略)他住於致力於黃昏前水浴三次的實踐者。』迦葉!因為就在以這個程度之外、以這苦行的著手之外,沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的,依此,這是適當的言說:『沙門身分是難知的,婆羅門身分是難知的。』迦葉!當比丘修習無怨恨、無惱害的慈心時,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,當生以證智自作證後,進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,迦葉!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』。(399)
戒定慧具足
  當這麼說時,裸行者迦葉對世尊這麼說:
  「喬達摩先生!什麼是戒具足?什麼是心具足?什麼是慧具足?」
  「迦葉!這裡,如來阿羅漢遍正覺者明與行具足者善逝世間知者應該被調御人的無上調御者人天之師佛陀世尊出現於世間,……(中略)(在簡略中應該如同190-193[譯者按:此指DN.2「更勝妙的沙門果」]段落使之詳細)在微罪中看見可怕,在學處上受持後學習,他具備善的身業、語業,清淨的生活維持,戒具足,守護根門,具備念與正知,已知足。(400)
  「迦葉!比丘如何是戒具足者呢?迦葉!這裡,比丘捨斷殺生後,他是離殺生者,他住於已捨離棍棒、已捨離刀劍、有羞恥的、同情的、對一切活的生物憐愍的,這是他的戒具足。……(中略)(在簡略中如同194-210[譯者按:此指DN.2「小戒」段落])
  又或如有些沙門、婆羅門受用信施的食物後,這樣,他們以畜生明邪命謀生,即:透過神而使變得寂靜的儀式、誓願儀式、……(中略)(在簡略中如同211[譯者按:此指DN.2「大戒」段落])藥草、瀉劑等,這樣,他是離以畜生明邪命謀生者,這也是他的戒具足。
  迦葉!那位這樣戒具足的比丘在任何地方都不看見戒自制的恐怖,迦葉!猶如敵人已被殺害的剎帝利灌頂王,在任何地方都不看見怨敵的恐怖,同樣的,迦葉!那位這樣戒具足的比丘在任何地方都不看見戒自制的恐怖。已具備這聖戒蘊,他自身內感受無罪過的安樂,迦葉!這樣,比丘是戒具足者,迦葉!這是戒具足。……(中略)進入後住於初禪,這是關於心具足。……(中略)第二禪……(中略)第三禪……(中略)進入後住於第四禪,這也是關於心具足,迦葉!這是他的心具足。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、……(中略)他抽出心使轉向智與見,這是關於慧具足,……(中略)他了知:『出生已盡梵行已完成應該作的已作不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。』這也是關於慧具足,迦葉!這是他的慧具足。
  迦葉!沒有其它戒具足、心具足、慧具足比這個戒具足、心具足、慧具足更優勝或勝妙的了。(401)
獅子吼的談說
  迦葉!有一些沙門、婆羅門是戒論者,他們以許多法門稱讚戒,迦葉!所有最高聖戒之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同,從哪裡而更好呢?而在這裡,我有更好的增上戒。
  迦葉!有一些沙門、婆羅門是苦行與嫌惡論者,他們以許多法門稱讚苦行與嫌惡,迦葉!所有最高聖苦行與嫌惡之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同,從哪裡而更好呢?而在這裡,我有更好的增上嫌惡
  迦葉!有一些沙門、婆羅門是慧論者,他們以許多法門稱讚慧,迦葉!所有最高聖慧之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同,從哪裡而更好呢?而在這裡,我有更好的增上慧。
  迦葉!有一些沙門、婆羅門是解脫論者,他們以許多法門稱讚解脫,迦葉!所有最高聖解脫之所及,在那裡,我不見與自己的完全相同,從哪裡而更好呢?而在這裡,我有更好的增上解脫。(402)
  迦葉!這是可能的:其他外道遊行者會這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,但在那空屋中吼,非在群眾中。』應該對他們說:『不要這麼[說]!』迦葉!應該這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,但在那空屋中吼,也在群眾中吼。』
  迦葉!這是可能的:其他外道遊行者會這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,在群眾中吼,而沒有自信地吼。』應該對他們說:『不要這麼[說]!』迦葉!應該這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,在群眾中吼,也有自信地吼。』
  迦葉!這是可能的:其他外道遊行者會這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,在群眾中吼,有自信地吼,但他們不詢問他問題。……(中略)他們詢問他問題,但他不回答他們詢問的問題。……(中略)他回答他們詢問的問題,但他不以問題的回答使[他們]心滿意。……(中略)他以問題的回答使[他們]心滿意,但他們認為不應該聽。……(中略)他們認為應該聽,但聽了後他們沒得到淨信。……(中略)聽了後他們得到淨信,但他們不作有淨信的行為。……(中略)他們作有淨信的行為,但他們不走向真實。……(中略)他們走向真實,但他們不滿意行道。』應該對他們說:『不要這麼[說]!』迦葉!應該這麼說:『沙門喬達摩吼師子吼,在群眾中吼,有自信地吼,他們詢問他問題,他回答他們詢問的問題,他以問題的回答使[他們]心滿意,他們認為應該聽,聽了後他們得到淨信,他們作有淨信的行為,他們走向真實,他們滿意行道。』(403)
外道別住的談說
  迦葉!這裡,有一次,我住在王舍城耆闍崛山,在那裡,某位名叫尼拘律的苦行梵行者詢問我關於增上嫌惡的問題,我回答他所詢問關於增上嫌惡的問題,他對我的回答極為心滿意足。」
  「大德!誰聽聞世尊的法後,不會極為心滿意足的呢?大德!我聽聞世尊的法後,也極為心滿意足。大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如能扶正顛倒的,能顯現被隱藏的,能告知迷途者的路,能在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者看得見諸色』。同樣的,法被世尊以種種法門說明。大德!我歸依世尊、法、比丘僧團,大德!願我得在世尊面前出家,願我得受具足戒。」(404)
  「迦葉!凡先前為其他外道者,希望在這法、律中出家;希望受具足戒,他要四個月別住。經四個月後,獲得比丘們同意,令他出家受具足戒成為比丘,但個別例外由我確認。」
  「大德!如果先前為其他外道者,希望在這法、律中出家;希望受具足戒,要滿四個月別住。經四個月後獲得比丘們同意,令他出家受具足戒成為比丘,我將四年別住,經四年後,獲得比丘們同意,使我出家受具足戒成為比丘。」
  裸行者迦葉得到在世尊的面前出家、受具足戒。
  受具足戒後不久,當尊者迦葉住於獨處、隱退、不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,不久,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於善男子之所以從在家而正確地出家,成為非家生活的那個無上梵行目標,他證知:「出生已盡,梵行已完成,應該作的已作,不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。」
  尊者迦葉成為眾阿羅漢之一。(405)
  獅子吼大經第八終了。

 
巴利語經文(台灣嘉義法雨道場流通的word版本)
DN.8/(8) Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ
Acelakassapavatthu
   381. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā uruññāyaṃ viharati kaṇṇakatthale migadāye. Atha kho acelo kassapo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sutaṃ metaṃ, bho gotama– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti. Ye te, bho gotama, evamāhaṃsu– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti, kacci te bhoto gotamassa vuttavādino, na ca bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ abhūtena abbhācikkhanti, dhammassa cānudhammaṃ byākaronti, na ca koci sahadhammiko vādānuvādo gārayhaṃ ṭhānaṃ āgacchati? Anabbhakkhātukāmā hi mayaṃ bhavantaṃ gotaman”ti.
   382. “Ye te, kassapa, evamāhaṃsu– ‘samaṇo gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati, sabbaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosati upavadatī’ti, na me te vuttavādino, abbhācikkhanti ca pana maṃ te asatā abhūtena. Idhāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannaṃ. Idha panāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ.
   383. “Idhāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ appadukkhavihāriṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannaṃ. Idha panāhaṃ, kassapa, ekaccaṃ tapassiṃ appadukkhavihāriṃ passāmi dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannaṃ. Yohaṃ, kassapa, imesaṃ tapassīnaṃ evaṃ āgatiñca gatiñca cutiñca upapattiñca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāmi sohaṃ kiṃ sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahissāmi, sabbaṃ vā tapassiṃ lūkhājīviṃ ekaṃsena upakkosissāmi upavadissāmi?
   384. “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā paṇḍitā nipuṇā kataparappavādā vālavedhirūpā. Te bhindantā maññe caranti paññāgatena diṭṭhigatāni. Tehipi me saddhiṃ ekaccesu ṭhānesu sameti, ekaccesu ṭhānesu na sameti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti, mayampi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti, mayampi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti, mayaṃ taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ te ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti, mayaṃ taṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti.
   “Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti, parepi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti, parepi taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘na sādhū’ti, pare taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘sādhū’ti. Yaṃ mayaṃ ekaccaṃ vadema ‘sādhū’ti, pare taṃ ekaccaṃ vadanti ‘na sādhū’ti.
Samanuyuñjāpanakathā
   385. “Tyāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadāmi– yesu no, āvuso, ṭhānesu na sameti, tiṭṭhantu tāni ṭhānāni. Yesu ṭhānesu sameti, tattha viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, samaṇo vā gotamo, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyā’ti?
   386. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā Samaṇo gotamo ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   387. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, samaṇo vā gotamo, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyā’ ti?
   388. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Samaṇo gotamo ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   389. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, gotamasāvakasaṅgho vā, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti?
   390. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā akusalā akusalasaṅkhātā, sāvajjā sāvajjasaṅkhātā, asevitabbā asevitabbasaṅkhātā, na alamariyā na alamariyasaṅkhātā, kaṇhā kaṇhasaṅkhātā. Gotamasāvakasaṅgho ime dhamme anavasesaṃ pahāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
   391. “Aparampi no, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantaṃ samanugāhantaṃ samanubhāsantaṃ satthārā vā satthāraṃ saṅghena vā saṅghaṃ. ‘Ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Ko ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, gotamasāvakasaṅgho vā, pare vā pana bhonto gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti?
   392. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘ye imesaṃ bhavataṃ dhammā kusalā kusalasaṅkhātā, anavajjā anavajjasaṅkhātā, sevitabbā sevitabbasaṅkhātā, alamariyā alamariyasaṅkhātā, sukkā sukkasaṅkhātā. Gotamasāvakasaṅgho ime dhamme anavasesaṃ samādāya vattati, yaṃ vā pana bhonto pare gaṇācariyasāvakasaṅghā’ti. Itiha, kassapa, viññū samanuyuñjantā samanugāhantā samanubhāsantā amheva tattha yebhuyyena pasaṃseyyuṃ.
Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo
   393. “Atthi, kassapa, maggo atthi paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati – ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’ti. Katamo ca, kassapa, maggo, katamā ca paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati– ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’ti? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṃ– sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, maggo, ayaṃ paṭipadā, yathāpaṭipanno sāmaṃyeva ñassati sāmaṃ dakkhati ‘samaṇova gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī’”ti.
Tapopakkamakathā
   394. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Acelako hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano, na ehibhaddantiko, na tiṭṭhabhaddantiko, nābhihaṭaṃ, na uddissakataṃ, na nimantanaṃ sādiyati. So na kumbhimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na kaḷopimukhā paṭiggaṇhāti, na eḷakamantaraṃ, na daṇḍamantaraṃ, na musalamantaraṃ, na dvinnaṃ bhuñjamānānaṃ, na gabbhiniyā, na pāyamānāya, na purisantaragatāya, na saṅkittīsu, na yattha sā upaṭṭhito hoti, na yattha makkhikā saṇḍasaṇḍacārinī, na macchaṃ, na maṃsaṃ, na suraṃ, na merayaṃ, na thusodakaṃ pivati. So ekāgāriko vā hoti ekālopiko, dvāgāriko vā hoti dvālopiko …pe… sattāgāriko vā hoti sattālopiko ekissāpi dattiyā yāpeti, dvīhipi dattīhi yāpeti… sattahipi dattīhi yāpeti; ekāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti, dvīhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti… sattāhikampi āhāraṃ āhāreti. Iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati.
   395. “Imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Sākabhakkho vā hoti, sāmākabhakkho vā hoti, nīvārabhakkho vā hoti, daddulabhakkho vā hoti, haṭabhakkho vā hoti, kaṇabhakkho vā hoti, ācāmabhakkho vā hoti, piññākabhakkho vā hoti, tiṇabhakkho vā hoti, gomayabhakkho vā hoti, vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī.
   396. “Imepi kho, āvuso gotama, tapopakkamā etesaṃ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ sāmaññasaṅkhātā ca brahmaññasaṅkhātā ca. Sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti, chavadussānipi dhāreti, paṃsukūlānipi dhāreti, tirīṭānipi dhāreti, ajinampi dhāreti, ajinakkhipampi dhāreti, kusacīrampi dhāreti, vākacīrampi dhāreti, phalakacīrampi dhāreti, kesakambalampi dhāreti, vāḷakambalampi dhāreti, ulūkapakkhikampi dhāreti, kesamassulocakopi hoti kesamassulocanānuyogamanuyutto, ubbhaṭṭhakopi hoti āsanapaṭikkhitto, ukkuṭikopi hoti ukkuṭikappadhānamanuyutto, kaṇṭakāpassayikopi hoti kaṇṭakāpassaye seyyaṃ kappeti, phalakaseyyampi kappeti, thaṇḍilaseyyampi kappeti, ekapassayikopi hoti rajojalladharo, abbhokāsikopi hoti yathāsanthatiko vekaṭikopi hoti vikaṭabhojanānuyogamanuyutto, apānakopi hoti apānakattamanuyutto, sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī”ti.
Tapopakkamaniratthakathā
   397. “Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti, sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Tassa cāyaṃ sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā abhāvitā hoti asacchikatā. Atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā ārakāva brahmaññā Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
   398. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “dukkaraṃ, bho gotama, sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan”ti. “Pakati kho esā, kassapa, lokasmiṃ ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ acelako homi, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti, sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ sākabhakkho vā homi, sāmākabhakkho vā …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpemi pavattaphalabhojī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā abhavissa brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya – ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti.
   “Sakkā ca panetaṃ abhavissa kātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘handāhaṃ sāṇānipi dhāremi, masāṇānipi dhāremi …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharāmī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena sāmaññaṃ vā hoti brahmaññaṃ vā dukkaraṃ sudukkaraṃ, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dukkaraṃ sāmaññaṃ dukkaraṃ brahmaññan’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
   399. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “dujjāno, bho gotama, samaṇo, dujjāno brāhmaṇo”ti. “Pakati kho esā, kassapa, lokasmiṃ ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Acelako cepi, kassapa, hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ acelako hoti, muttācāro, hatthāpalekhano …pe… iti evarūpaṃ addhamāsikampi pariyāyabhattabhojanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sākabhakkho cepi, kassapa, hoti sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ sākabhakkho vā hoti sāmākabhakkho …pe… vanamūlaphalāhāro yāpeti pavattaphalabhojī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa, bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipi.
   “Sāṇāni cepi, kassapa, dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharati. Imāya ca, kassapa, mattāya iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā abhavissa brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, netaṃ abhavissa kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti.
   “Sakkā ca paneso abhavissa ñātuṃ gahapatinā vā gahapatiputtena vā antamaso kumbhadāsiyāpi– ‘ayaṃ sāṇānipi dhāreti, masāṇānipi dhāreti …pe… sāyatatiyakampi udakorohanānuyogamanuyutto viharatī’ti.
   “Yasmā ca kho, kassapa, aññatreva imāya mattāya aññatra iminā tapopakkamena samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā dujjāno sudujjāno, tasmā etaṃ kallaṃ vacanāya– ‘dujjāno samaṇo dujjāno brāhmaṇo’ti. Yato kho, kassapa, bhikkhu averaṃ abyāpajjaṃ mettacittaṃ bhāveti, āsavānañca khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ vuccati, kassapa bhikkhu samaṇo itipi brāhmaṇo itipī”ti.
Sīlasamādhipaññāsampadā
   400. Evaṃ vutte, acelo kassapo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “katamā pana sā, bho gotama, sīlasampadā, katamā cittasampadā, katamā paññāsampadā”ti? “Idha, kassapa, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṃ, sammāsambuddho …pe… (yathā 190-193 anucchedesu, evaṃ vitthāretabbaṃ) bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu, kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena parisuddhājīvo sīlasampanno indriyesu guttadvāro satisampajaññena samannāgato santuṭṭho.
   401. “Kathañca, kassapa, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti? Idha, kassapa, bhikkhu pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. Idampissa hoti sīlasampadāya …pe… (yathā 194yāva 210anucchedesu)
   “Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṃ kappenti Seyyathidaṃ– santikammaṃ paṇidhikammaṃ …pe… (yathā 211anucchede) osadhīnaṃ patimokkho iti vā iti, evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasampadāya.
   “Sa kho so, kassapa, bhikkhu evaṃ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ sīlasaṃvarato. Seyyathāpi, kassapa, rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto nihatapaccāmitto na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ paccatthikato. Evameva kho, kassapa, bhikkhu evaṃ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṃ samanupassati, yadidaṃ sīlasaṃvarato. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṃ anavajjasukhaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti. Evaṃ kho, kassapa, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, sīlasampadā …pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Idampissa hoti cittasampadāya …pe… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ …pe… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Idampissa hoti cittasampadāya. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, cittasampadā.
   “So evaṃ samāhite citte …pe… ñāṇadassanāya cittaṃ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti …pe… idampissa hoti paññāsampadāya …pe… nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti …pe… idampissa hoti paññāsampadāya. Ayaṃ kho, kassapa, paññāsampadā.
   “Imāya ca, kassapa, sīlasampadāya cittasampadāya paññāsampadāya aññā sīlasampadā cittasampadā paññāsampadā uttaritarā vā paṇītatarā vā natthi.
Sīhanādakathā
   402. “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sīlavādā. Te anekapariyāyena sīlassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyaṃ paramaṃ sīlaṃ, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhisīlaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā tapojigucchāvādā. Te anekapariyāyena tapojigucchāya vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā tapojigucchā, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhijegucchaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā paññāvādā. Te anekapariyāyena paññāya vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā paññā, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhipaññaṃ.
   “Santi, kassapa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā vimuttivādā. Te anekapariyāyena vimuttiyā vaṇṇaṃ bhāsanti. Yāvatā, kassapa, ariyā paramā vimutti, nāhaṃ tattha attano samasamaṃ samanupassāmi, kuto bhiyyo! Atha kho ahameva tattha bhiyyo, yadidaṃ adhivimutti.
   403. “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādaṃ kho samaṇo gotamo nadati, tañca kho suññāgāre nadati, no parisāsū’ti. Te – ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadatī’ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
   “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, no ca kho visārado nadatī’ti Te– ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadatī”ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
   “Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, kassapa, vijjati, yaṃ aññatitthiyā paribbājakā evaṃ vadeyyuṃ– ‘sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadati, no ca kho naṃ pañhaṃ pucchanti …pe… pañhañca naṃ pucchanti; no ca kho nesaṃ pañhaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti …pe… pañhañca nesaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti; no ca kho pañhassa veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti …pe… pañhassa ca veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti; no ca kho sotabbaṃ maññanti …pe… sotabbañcassa maññanti; no ca kho sutvā pasīdanti …pe… sutvā cassa pasīdanti no ca kho pasannākāraṃ karonti …pe… pasannākārañca karonti; no ca kho tathattāya paṭipajjanti …pe… tathattāya ca paṭipajjanti; no ca kho paṭipannā ārādhentī’ti. Te – ‘mā hevan’tissu vacanīyā. ‘Sīhanādañca samaṇo gotamo nadati, parisāsu ca nadati, visārado ca nadati, pañhañca naṃ pucchanti, pañhañca nesaṃ puṭṭho byākaroti, pañhassa ca veyyākaraṇena cittaṃ ārādheti, sotabbañcassa maññanti, sutvā cassa pasīdanti, pasannākārañca karonti, tathattāya ca paṭipajjanti, paṭipannā ca ārādhentī’ti evamassu, kassapa, vacanīyā.
Titthiyaparivāsakathā
   404. “Ekamidāhaṃ, kassapa, samayaṃ rājagahe viharāmi gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Tatra maṃ aññataro tapabrahmacārī nigrodho nāma adhijegucche pañhaṃ apucchi. Tassāhaṃ adhijegucche pañhaṃ puṭṭho byākāsiṃ. Byākate ca pana me attamano ahosi paraṃ viya mattāyā”ti. “Ko hi, bhante, bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā na attamano assa paraṃ viya mattāya? Ahampi hi, bhante, bhagavato dhammaṃ sutvā attamano paraṃ viya mattāya. Abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya– ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyaṃ upasampadan”ti.
   405. “Yo kho, kassapa, aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhati upasampadaṃ, so cattāro māse parivasati, catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti, upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatā viditā”ti. “Sace, bhante, aññatitthiyapubbā imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhanti pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhanti upasampadaṃ, cattāro māse parivasanti, catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti, upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Ahaṃ cattāri vassāni parivasissāmi, catunnaṃ vassānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājentu, upasampādentu bhikkhubhāvāyā”ti.
   Alattha kho acelo kassapo bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ alattha upasampadaṃ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā kassapo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto na cirasseva– yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṃ– brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti– abbhaññāsi. Aññataro kho panāyasmā kassapo arahataṃ ahosīti.
   Mahāsīhanādasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ.
南北傳經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不共法」,南傳作「自然[的]」(Pakati,另譯為「自性;本性;初因」,名詞),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「他們那樣說」(So they say)。
  「極為心滿意足」(attamano ahosi paraṃ viya mattāyāti,直譯為「心滿意足如超量」),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「喜悅超越所有測量」(delighted…beyond all measure)。按:《吉祥悅意》以「極大量的」(atimahanteneva pamāṇenāti)解說「如超量」(Paraṃ viya mattāyāti)。