經號:   
   (AN.9.35 更新)
增支部9集35經/母牛譬喻經(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!猶如山中愚笨、無能、無經驗、不熟練的母牛行走在不平正的山中,牠這麼想:『讓我走到以前未到達的方位,吃以前未吃過的草,喝以前未喝過的水。』牠沒使前腳善住立確立後,會抬起後腳,牠不能走到以前未到達的地方,不能吃以前未吃過的草,不能喝以前未喝過的水,牠也不能平安地回到那站立而想:『讓我走到以前未到達的地方,吃以前未吃過的草,喝以前未喝過的水。』的地方,那是什麼原因呢?比丘們!因為,山中愚笨、無能、無經驗、不熟練的母牛行走在不平正的山中。比丘們!同樣的,這裡,某位愚笨、無能、無經驗、不熟練的比丘就從離諸欲後,從離諸不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺離而生喜、樂的初禪,他不實行那個相,不修習、不多作、不善確立地確立。
  他這麼想:『讓我從尋與伺的平息,自身內的明淨心的專一性,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪。』他不能從尋與伺的平息……(中略)第二禪。他這麼想:『讓我就從離諸欲後,從離諸不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺,離而生喜、樂的初禪。』他不能從離欲……(中略)初禪,比丘們!這被稱為:兩者都落下、兩者都欠缺的比丘,猶如那隻山中愚笨、無能、無經驗、不熟練的母牛行走在不平正的山中。
  比丘們!猶如山中賢智、聰明、有經驗、熟練的母牛行走在不平正的山中,牠這麼想:『讓我走到以前未到達的方位,吃以前未吃過的草,喝以前未喝過的水。』牠使前腳善住立確立後,會抬起後腳,牠能走到以前未到達的地方,能吃以前未吃過的草,能喝以前未喝過的水,牠也能平安地回到那站立而想:『讓我走到以前未到達的方位,吃以前未吃過的草,喝以前未喝過的水。』那是什麼原因呢?比丘們!因為,賢智、聰明、有經驗、熟練的母牛行走在不平正的山中。比丘們!同樣的,這裡,某位賢智、聰明、有經驗、熟練的比丘就從離諸欲後,從離諸不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺,離而生喜、樂的初禪,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我從尋與伺的平息,自身內的明淨,心的專一性,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪。』他不殺害第二禪,從尋與伺的平息……(中略)第二禪,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我從喜的褪去、住於平靜、有念正知、以身體感受樂,進入後住於這聖弟子宣說:『他是平靜、具念、住於樂者』的第三禪。』他不殺害第三禪,從喜的褪去……(中略)的第三禪,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我從樂的捨斷與從苦的捨斷,就在之前諸喜悅、憂的滅沒,進入後住於不苦不樂,由平靜而遍淨之念的第四禪。』他不殺害第四禪,從樂的捨斷……(中略)第四禪,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我從一切色想的超越,從有對想的滅沒,從不作意種種想[而知]:「虛空是無邊的」,進入後住於虛空無邊處。』他不殺害虛空無邊處,以一切色想的超越……(中略)進入後住於虛空無邊處,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我超越一切虛空無邊處後[而知]:「識是無邊的」,進入後住於識無邊處。』他不殺害識無邊處,超越一切虛空無邊處後[而知]:「識是無邊的」,進入後住於識無邊處,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我超越一切識無邊處後[而知]:「什麼都沒有」,進入後住於無所有處。』他不殺害無所有處,超越一切識無邊處後[而知]:「什麼都沒有」,進入後住於無所有處,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我超越一切無所有處後,進入後住於非想非非想處。』他不殺害非想非非想處,超越一切無所有處後,進入後住於非想非非想處,他實行那個相,修習、多作、善確立地確立。
   他這麼想:『讓我超越一切非想非非想處後,進入後住於想受滅。』他不殺害想受滅,超越一切非想非非想處後,進入後住於想受滅。
   比丘們!當他進或出這個等至時,他的心成為柔軟的與適合作業的,以柔軟與適合作業的心,[他的]定成為無量的、善修習的;他以無量的、善修習的定,對任何使心轉向應該被證智作證的法,在處一一存在時,對以智證的作證,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我體驗各種神通種類:是一個後變成多個,是多個後變成一個……(中略)以身體行使自在直到梵天世界。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我以清淨、超越常人的天耳界聽到二者的聲音:「天與人,以及在遠處、近處。」』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我對其他眾生、其他個人以心熟知心後知道:有貪的心能了知為「有貪的心」,離貪的心能了知為「離貪的心」;有瞋的心能了知為「有瞋的心」,離瞋的心能了知為「離瞋的心」;有癡的心能了知為「有癡的心」,離癡的心……收斂的心……散亂的心……廣大的心……未廣大的心……有更上的心……無更上的心……得定的心……未得定的心……已解脫的心……未解脫的心能了知為「未解脫的心」。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我回憶許多前世住處,即:一生、二生……(中略)像這樣,他能回憶許多有行相的、有境遇的前世住處。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我以清淨、超越常人的天眼……(中略)知道依業到達的眾生。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我以諸漏的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中能進入後住於無漏心解脫慧解脫。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。」
AN.9.35/ 4. Gāvī-upamāsuttaṃ
   35. “Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ. Tassā evamassa– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyyan’ti. Sā purimaṃ pādaṃ na suppatiṭṭhitaṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā pacchimaṃ pādaṃ uddhareyya. Sā na ceva agatapubbaṃ disaṃ gaccheyya, na ca akhāditapubbāni tiṇāni khādeyya, na ca apītapubbāni pānīyāni piveyya; yasmiṃ cassā padese ṭhitāya evamassa– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyyan’ti tañca padesaṃ na sotthinā paccāgaccheyya. Taṃ kissa hetu? Tathā hi sā, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco bhikkhu bālo abyatto akhettaññū akusalo vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati; so taṃ nimittaṃ na āsevati na bhāveti na bahulīkaroti na svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So na sakkoti vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā …pe… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So na sakkoti vivicceva kāmehi …pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharituṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ‘bhikkhu ubhato bhaṭṭho ubhato parihīno, seyyathāpi sā gāvī pabbateyyā bālā abyattā akhettaññū akusalā visame pabbate carituṃ’”.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā paṇḍitā byattā khettaññū kusalā visame pabbate carituṃ. Tassā evamassa– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyyan’ti. Sā purimaṃ pādaṃ suppatiṭṭhitaṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā pacchimaṃ pādaṃ uddhareyya. Sā agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyya, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyya, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyya. Yasmiṃ cassā padese ṭhitāya evamassa– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ agatapubbañceva disaṃ gaccheyyaṃ, akhāditapubbāni ca tiṇāni khādeyyaṃ, apītapubbāni ca pānīyāni piveyyan’ti tañca padesaṃ sotthinā paccāgaccheyya. Taṃ kissa hetu? Tathā hi sā, bhikkhave, gāvī pabbateyyā paṇḍitā byattā khettaññū kusalā visame pabbate carituṃ. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, idhekacco bhikkhu paṇḍito byatto khettaññū kusalo vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca vihareyyaṃ sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeyyaṃ yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti– upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno pītiyā ca virāgā …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So catutthaṃ jhānaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sukhassa ca pahānā …pe… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ananto ākāsoti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā …pe… ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma anantaṃ viññāṇanti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma natthi kiñcīti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So taṃ nimittaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti.
   “Tassa evaṃ hoti– ‘yaṃnūnāhaṃ sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. So saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ anabhihiṃsamāno sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati.
   “Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu taṃ tadeva samāpattiṃ samāpajjatipi vuṭṭhātipi, tassa mudu cittaṃ hoti kammaññaṃ. Mudunā kammaññena cittena appamāṇo samādhi hoti subhāvito. So appamāṇena samādhinā subhāvitena yassa yassa abhiññāsacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṃ abhininnāmeti abhiññāsacchikiriyāya tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhaveyyaṃ, ekopi hutvā bahudhā assaṃ, bahudhāpi hutvā eko assaṃ …pe… yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṃ vatteyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– dibbāya sotadhātuyā …pe… sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘parasattānaṃ parapuggalānaṃ cetasā ceto paricca pajāneyyaṃ, sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ sarāgaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, vītarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ vītarāgaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, sadosaṃ vā cittaṃ sadosaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, vītadosaṃ vā cittaṃ vītadosaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, samohaṃ vā cittaṃ samohaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, vītamohaṃ vā cittaṃ… saṃkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ… vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ… mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ… amahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ… sa-uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ… anuttaraṃ vā cittaṃ… samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ… asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ… vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ… avimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ avimuttaṃ cittanti pajāneyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussareyyaṃ, seyyathidaṃ– ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo …pe… iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussareyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena …pe… yathākammūpage satte pajāneyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane”ti. Catutthaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不殺害」(anabhihiṃsamāno, an-abhi-hiṃsamāno),菩提比丘長老英譯為「不傷害」(Not injuring)。按:《滿足希求》以「不襲擊、不傷害」(na sarajjanasabhāvaṃ)解說,長老認為,此指不強迫自己過早地邁向(aim)更高成就,在移到下一個前先精通目前的。