經號:   
   (AN.9.4 更新)
增支部9集4經/難達葛經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  當時,尊者難達葛在講堂中對比丘們以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵、使歡喜
  那時,世尊傍晚時,從獨坐出來,去講堂。抵達後,站在門屋外面等候說完。
  那時,世尊站在外面的門屋等待說話結束。
  那時,世尊知道談論結束後,清喉嚨後叩門閂。那些比丘為世尊打開門。
  那時,世尊進入講堂後,在設置的座位坐下。坐下後,世尊對尊者難達葛說這個:
  「難達葛!你答覆比丘們的這個法的教說[很]長,當站在外面的門屋等談論完畢時,我的背都痛了。」
  在這麼說時,尊者難達葛帶著膽怯之色對世尊說這個:
  「大德!我們不知道:『世尊站在外面的門屋。』大德!因為,如果我們知道:『世尊站在外面的門屋。』我們不會答覆這麼多的。」
  那時,世尊知道尊者難達葛帶著膽怯之色後,對尊者難達葛說這個:
  「!好!難達葛!難達葛!對以信從在家出家成為無家者善男子的你們來說,這是適當的:你們能以法的談論共坐。難達葛!當你們集會時,兩種應該被做:法談,或聖沈默狀態
  難達葛!比丘是有信者,但非持戒者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,依此,那一部分應該被完成[而想]:『我如何成為有信者與持戒者呢?』難達葛!當比丘是有信者與持戒者時,這樣,他以那部分成為完全者。
  難達葛!比丘是有信者、持戒者,但非自己心定的得到者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,依此,那一部分應該被完成[而想]:『我如何成為有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者呢?』難達葛!當比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者時,這樣,他以那部分成為完全者。
  難達葛!比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者,但非觀法增上慧的得到者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,難達葛!猶如如果有四足的小生物,牠的一足低劣、無意義,這樣,牠以那部分成為不完全者。同樣的,難達葛!比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者,但非觀法增上慧的得到者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,依此,那一部分應該被完成[而想]:『我如何成為有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者、觀法增上慧的得到者呢?』難達葛!當比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的利得者、觀法增上慧的得到者時,這樣,他以那部分成為完全者。」
  世尊說這個,世尊說這個後,從座位起來後進入住處。
  那時,當世尊離開不久,尊者難達葛召喚比丘們:
  「學友們!現在,世尊以四語法說明完全圓滿、遍清淨的梵行後,從座位起來後已進入住處:『難達葛!比丘是有信者,但非持戒者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,依此,那一部分應該被完成[而想]:「我如何成為有信者與持戒者呢?」難達葛!當比丘是有信者與持戒者時,這樣,他以那部分成為完全者。難達葛!比丘是有信者、持戒者,但非自己心定的得到者……(中略)自己心定的得到者,但非觀法增上慧的得到者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,難達葛!猶如如果有四足的小生物,牠的一足低劣、無意義,這樣,牠以那部分成為不完全者。同樣的,難達葛!比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者,但非觀法增上慧的得到者,這樣,他以那部分成為不完全者,依此,那一部分應該被完成[而想]:「我如何成為有信者、持戒者、自己心定的得到者、觀法增上慧的得到者呢?」難達葛!當比丘是有信者、持戒者、自己心定的利得者、觀法增上慧的得到者時,這樣,他以那部分成為完全者。』
  學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法有這五種效益,哪五種呢?
  學友們!這裡,比丘教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍清淨的梵行法,學友們!無論比丘怎樣教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,大師對他來說都如是、如是成為可愛的、合意的、尊重的、崇敬的,學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是第一種效益。
  再者,學友們!比丘教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,學友們!無論比丘怎樣教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,他都如是、如是在那個法上成為義理與法的經驗者,學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是第二種效益。
  再者,學友們!比丘教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,學友們!無論比丘怎樣教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,他都如是、如是在那個法上以慧貫通後看見深的義理與句子,學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是第三種效益。
  再者,學友們!比丘教導比丘們開頭是善……(中略)遍清淨的梵行法,學友們!無論比丘怎樣教導比丘們開頭是善……(中略)遍清淨的梵行法,同梵行者都如是、如是更尊敬他:『這位尊者確實是到達者或上路者。』學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是第四種效益。
  再者,學友們!比丘教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,學友們!無論比丘怎樣教導比丘們開頭是善的、中間是善的、完結是善的;有意義的、有文字的法,說明完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行法,在那裡,凡那些心意未達成、住於希求著無上軛安穩有學比丘聽聞那個法後,他們為了未證得的之證得、未作證的之作證而激發活力,又,在那裡,凡那些諸漏已盡、修行已成、應該被作的已作、負擔已卸、自己的利益已達成有之結已被滅盡、以究竟智解脫的阿羅漢比丘聽聞那個法後,他們就只住於專修當生的樂住,學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是第五種效益。
  學友們!在適當時機聽聞法,在適當時機討論法,這是五種效益。」
AN.9.4/ 4. Nandakasuttaṃ
   4. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā nandako upaṭṭhānasālāyaṃ bhikkhū dhammiyā kathāya sandasseti samādapeti samuttejeti sampahaṃseti. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yenupaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bahidvārakoṭṭhake aṭṭhāsi kathāpariyosānaṃ āgamayamāno. Atha kho bhagavā kathāpariyosānaṃ viditvā ukkāsetvā aggaḷaṃ ākoṭesi. Vivariṃsu kho te bhikkhū bhagavato dvāraṃ.
   Atha kho bhagavā upaṭṭhānasālaṃ pavisitvā paññattāsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ nandakaṃ etadavoca– “dīgho kho tyāyaṃ, nandaka, dhammapariyāyo bhikkhūnaṃ paṭibhāsi. Api me piṭṭhi āgilāyati bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhitassa kathāpariyosānaṃ āgamayamānassā”ti.
   Evaṃ vutte āyasmā nandako sārajjamānarūpo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – “na kho pana mayaṃ, bhante, jānāma ‘bhagavā bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhito’ti. Sace hi mayaṃ, bhante, jāneyyāma ‘bhagavā bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhito’ti, ettakampi no nappaṭibhāseyyā”ti.
   Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ nandakaṃ sārajjamānarūpaṃ viditvā āyasmantaṃ nandakaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu, sādhu, nandaka! Etaṃ kho, nandaka, tumhākaṃ patirūpaṃ kulaputtānaṃ saddhāya agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitānaṃ, yaṃ tumhe dhammiyā kathāya sannisīdeyyātha. Sannipatitānaṃ vo, nandaka, dvayaṃ karaṇīyaṃ– dhammī vā kathā ariyo vā tuṇhībhāvo. Saddho ca, nandaka, bhikkhu hoti, no ca sīlavā. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Tena taṃ aṅgaṃ paripūretabbaṃ– ‘kintāhaṃ saddho ca assaṃ sīlavā cā’ti. Yato ca kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca, evaṃ so tenaṅgena paripūro hoti.
   “Saddho ca, nandaka, bhikkhu hoti sīlavā ca, no ca lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Tena taṃ aṅgaṃ paripūretabbaṃ– ‘kintāhaṃ saddho ca assaṃ sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissā’ti. Yato ca kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, evaṃ so tenaṅgena paripūro hoti.
   “Saddho ca, nandaka, bhikkhu hoti sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Seyyathāpi, nandaka, pāṇako catuppādako assa. Tassa eko pādo omako lāmako. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro assa. Evamevaṃ kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Tena taṃ aṅgaṃ paripūretabbaṃ– ‘kintāhaṃ saddho ca assaṃ sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāyā’”ti.
   “Yato ca kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, evaṃ so tenaṅgena paripūro hotī”ti. Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṃ pāvisi.
   Atha kho āyasmā nandako acirapakkantassa bhagavato bhikkhū āmantesi– “idāni, āvuso, bhagavā catūhi padehi kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṃ paviṭṭho– ‘saddho ca, nandaka, bhikkhu hoti, no ca sīlavā. Evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Tena taṃ aṅgaṃ paripūretabbaṃ– kintāhaṃ saddho ca assaṃ sīlavā cā’ti. Yato ca kho nandaka bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca, evaṃ so tenaṅgena paripūro hoti. Saddho ca nandaka bhikkhu hoti sīlavā ca, no ca lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa …pe… lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti. Seyyathāpi nandaka pāṇako catuppādako assa, tassa eko pādo omako lāmako, evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro assa. Evamevaṃ kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca, lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, na lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, evaṃ so tenaṅgena aparipūro hoti, tena taṃ aṅgaṃ paripūretabbaṃ ‘kintāhaṃ saddho ca assaṃ sīlavā ca, lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa, lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāyā’ti. Yato ca kho, nandaka, bhikkhu saddho ca hoti sīlavā ca lābhī ca ajjhattaṃ cetosamādhissa lābhī ca adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, evaṃ so tenaṅgena paripūro hotī”ti.
   “Pañcime, āvuso, ānisaṃsā kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya. Katame pañca? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti tathā tathā so satthu piyo ca hoti manāpo ca garu ca bhāvanīyo ca. Ayaṃ, āvuso, paṭhamo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ …pe… brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti, tathā tathā so tasmiṃ dhamme atthappaṭisaṃvedī ca hoti dhammappaṭisaṃvedī ca. Ayaṃ, āvuso, dutiyo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ …pe… brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti, tathā tathā so tasmiṃ dhamme gambhīraṃ atthapadaṃ paññāya ativijjha passati. Ayaṃ, āvuso, tatiyo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ …pe… brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ …pe… brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti, tathā tathā naṃ sabrahmacārī uttari sambhāventi– ‘addhā ayamāyasmā patto vā pajjati vā’. Ayaṃ, āvuso, catuttho ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhu bhikkhūnaṃ dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti, tattha ye kho bhikkhū sekhā appattamānasā anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ patthayamānā viharanti, te taṃ dhammaṃ sutvā vīriyaṃ ārabhanti appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. Ye pana tattha bhikkhū arahanto khīṇāsavā vusitavanto katakaraṇīyā ohitabhārā anuppattasadatthā parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojanā sammadaññāvimuttā, te taṃ dhammaṃ sutvā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṃyeva anuyuttā viharanti. Ayaṃ, āvuso, pañcamo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāya. Ime kho, āvuso, pañca ānisaṃsā kālena dhammassavane kālena dhammasākacchāyā”ti. Catutthaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「上路者」(pajjati,原意為「行去」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「將到達」(will attain)。按:《滿足希求》以「將到達」(pāpuṇissati)解說。