經號:   
   (AN.7.74 更新)
增支部7集74經/阿勒葛經(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!從前,有位名叫阿勒葛的大師,為在欲上離貪的開宗祖師,又,比丘們!阿勒葛大師有好幾百位弟子,阿勒葛大師教導弟子這樣的法:婆羅門!人的壽命是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如草尖上的露滴,在太陽升起時就急速地消失不久住。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如露滴,是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如在下大雨時,水泡急速地消失不久住。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如水泡,是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如棍棒在水面上畫的線急速地消失不久住。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如棍棒在水面上畫的線,是少的……(中略)生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如從山上發源的河流流向遠處,急流地、帶走被帶走的,剎那、頃刻、片刻不回頭而只向前流。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如從山上發源的河流,是少的……(中略)生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如有力氣的男子能輕易地唾出聚在舌端的唾團。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如唾團,是少的……(中略)生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如肉片被丟棄在中午曬得很熱的鐵鍋上,急速地消失不久住。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如肉片,是少的……(中略)生者無不死。
  婆羅門!猶如要被屠殺的母牛被帶到屠宰場時,每當牠一抬腳,就接近屠宰,就接近死亡。同樣的,婆羅門!人的壽命如要被屠殺的母牛,是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。
  比丘們!但,當時,人的壽命有六萬歲,五百歲女孩才適合結婚。比丘們!當時,人們的六種病是:寒、熱、飢、渴、大便、小便。比丘們!阿勒葛的大師在人這麼長壽、這麼久住、這麼少病下,這麼教導弟子法:『婆羅門!人的壽命是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。』
  比丘們!現在,當正確說時,應該說:『人的壽命是少的、有限的、疾速的,多苦、多絕望,聰明人應該覺醒,應該做善的,應該行梵行,生者無不死。』比丘們!因為,現在,活得長者[才]百歲或多些,比丘們!當活百歲時,他活了三百個季節:一百個冬季、一百個夏季、一百個雨季,比丘們!而當活三百個季節時,他活了一千二百個月:四百個冬月、四百個夏月、四百個雨月,比丘們!又當活一千二百個月時,他活了二千四百個半月:八百個冬半月、八百個夏半月、八百個雨半月,比丘們!又當活二千四百個半月時,他活了三萬六千個夜:一萬二千個冬夜、一萬二千個夏夜、一萬二千個雨夜,比丘們!又當活三萬六千個夜時,他吃了七萬二千餐:二萬四千個冬[季]餐、二萬四千個夏[季]餐、二萬四千個雨[季]餐,包含母乳期與飲食障礙。在這裡,這些是飲食障礙:發怒者不進食、悲傷者不進食、生病者不進食、齋戒者不進食、沒得到食物者不進食。比丘們!像這樣,對百歲壽命的人,我已估計[其]壽命、有限的壽命、季節、年、月、半月、夜、日、餐、飲食障礙。比丘們!凡出自憐愍應該被老師、利益者、憐愍者為了弟子作的,那個被我為你們做了。比丘們!有這些樹下、這些空屋,比丘們!你們要修禪,不要放逸,不要以後成為後悔者,這是我們對你們的教誡。」
  大品第七,其攝頌
  「慚、太陽、譬喻,知法者、晝度樹,
   恭敬、修習、火,善眼與阿勒葛。」
AN.7.74/ 10. Arakasuttaṃ
   74. “Bhūtapubbaṃ, bhikkhave, arako nāma satthā ahosi titthakaro kāmesu vītarāgo. Arakassa kho pana, bhikkhave, satthuno anekāni sāvakasatāni ahesuṃ. Arako satthā sāvakānaṃ evaṃ dhammaṃ deseti– appakaṃ, brāhmaṇa, jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi brāhmaṇa, tiṇagge ussāvabindu sūriye uggacchante khippaṃyeva paṭivigacchati, na ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, ussāvabindūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ, kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, thullaphusitake deve vassante udakabubbuḷaṃ khippaṃyeva paṭivigacchati, na ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, udakabubbuḷūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ, kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udake daṇḍarāji khippaṃyeva paṭivigacchati, na ciraṭṭhitikā hoti; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, udake daṇḍarājūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ …pe… natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, nadī pabbateyyā dūraṅgamā sīghasotā hārahārinī, natthi so khaṇo vā layo vā muhutto vā yaṃ sā āvattati, atha kho sā gacchateva vattateva sandateva; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, nadīpabbateyyūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ …pe… natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, balavā puriso jivhagge kheḷapiṇḍaṃ saṃyūhitvā akasireneva vameyya; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, kheḷapiṇḍūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ …pe… natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, divasaṃsantatte ayokaṭāhe maṃsapesi pakkhittā khippaṃyeva paṭivigacchati, na ciraṭṭhitikā hoti; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, maṃsapesūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ …pe… natthi jātassa amaraṇaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, gāvī vajjhā āghātanaṃ nīyamānā yaṃ yadeva pādaṃ uddharati, santikeva hoti vadhassa santikeva maraṇassa; evamevaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, govajjhūpamaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ, kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇan”ti.
   “Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena manussānaṃ saṭṭhivassasahassāni āyuppamāṇaṃ ahosi, pañcavassasatikā kumārikā alaṃpateyyā ahosi. Tena kho pana, bhikkhave, samayena manussānaṃ chaḷeva ābādhā ahesuṃ– sītaṃ, uṇhaṃ, jighacchā, pipāsā, uccāro, passāvo. So hi nāma, bhikkhave, arako satthā evaṃ dīghāyukesu manussesu evaṃ ciraṭṭhitikesu evaṃ appābādhesu sāvakānaṃ evaṃ dhammaṃ desessati– ‘appakaṃ, brāhmaṇa, jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ, kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇan’”ti.
   “Etarahi taṃ, bhikkhave, sammā vadamāno vadeyya– ‘appakaṃ jīvitaṃ manussānaṃ parittaṃ lahukaṃ bahudukkhaṃ bahupāyāsaṃ mantāyaṃ boddhabbaṃ, kattabbaṃ kusalaṃ, caritabbaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, natthi jātassa amaraṇan’ti. Etarahi, bhikkhave yo ciraṃ jīvati so vassasataṃ appaṃ vā bhiyyo. Vassasataṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, jīvanto tīṇiyeva utusatāni jīvati– utusataṃ hemantānaṃ, utusataṃ gimhānaṃ, utusataṃ vassānaṃ. Tīṇi kho pana, bhikkhave, utusatāni jīvanto dvādasa yeva māsasatāni jīvati– cattāri māsasatāni hemantānaṃ cattāri māsasatāni gimhānaṃ, cattāri māsasatāni vassānaṃ. Dvādasa kho pana, bhikkhave, māsasatāni jīvanto catuvīsatiyeva addhamāsasatāni jīvati– aṭṭhaddhamāsasatāni hemantānaṃ, aṭṭhaddhamāsasatāni gimhānaṃ, aṭṭhaddhamāsasatāni vassānaṃ. Catuvīsati kho pana, bhikkhave, addhamāsasatāni jīvanto chattiṃsaṃyeva rattisahassāni jīvati– dvādasa rattisahassāni hemantānaṃ, dvādasa rattisahassāni gimhānaṃ, dvādasa rattisahassāni vassānaṃ. Chattiṃsaṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, rattisahassāni jīvanto dvesattatiyeva bhattasahassāni bhuñjati– catuvīsati bhattasahassāni hemantānaṃ, catuvīsati bhattasahassāni gimhānaṃ, catuvīsati bhattasahassāni vassānaṃ saddhiṃ mātuthaññāya saddhiṃ bhattantarāyena.
   “Tatrime bhattantarāyā kapimiddhopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati, dukkhitopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati, byādhitopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati, uposathikopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati alābhakenapi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati. Iti kho, bhikkhave, mayā vassasatāyukassa manussassa āyupi saṅkhāto, āyuppamāṇampi saṅkhātaṃ, utūpi saṅkhātā, saṃvaccharāpi saṅkhātā, māsāpi saṅkhātā, addhamāsāpi saṅkhātā, rattipi saṅkhātā, divāpi saṅkhātā, bhattāpi saṅkhātā, bhattantarāyāpi saṅkhātā. Yaṃ, bhikkhave, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya; kataṃ vo taṃ mayā etāni, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlāni etāni suññāgārāni. Jhāyatha, bhikkhave, mā pamādattha; mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. Ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti. Dasamaṃ.
   Mahāvaggo sattamo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Hirīsūriyaṃ upamā, dhammaññū pārichattakaṃ;
   Sakkaccaṃ bhāvanā aggi, sunetta-arakena cāti.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「障礙(MA.160)」,南傳作「飲食障礙」(bhattantarāyena),菩提比丘長老英譯為「吃飯障礙」(obstacles to meals)。
  「瞋不食(MA.160)」,南傳作「發怒者不進食」(kapimiddhopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati, kupitopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati),菩提比丘長老依錫蘭版(kupitopi bhattaṃ na bhuñjati)英譯為「被攪亂者不吃」(one who is disturbed does not eat a meal)。按:緬甸版之kapimiddhopi意為「睡猴」,今依前後文準錫蘭版譯。
  「疾速的」(lahukaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「飛逝的;疾馳的;短暫的」(fleeting)。按:《滿足希求》以「生起後滅去」(uppajjitvā nirujjhanato)解說。
  「消失」(paṭivigacchati,原意為「再離去;再離開」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「消失」(vanish)。