經號:   
   (AN.7.66 更新)
增支部7集66經/七個太陽經(莊春江譯)
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在毘舍離蓭婆巴利的園林。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!諸行是無常的;比丘們!諸行是不堅固的;比丘們!諸行是無蘇息的,比丘們!到那個程度,這就足以在一切諸行上,足以離染,足以解脫。
  比丘們!須彌山山王有八萬四千由旬長、八萬四千由旬寬,八萬四千由旬深入大海、八萬四千由旬高出大海,比丘們!有那個時候,凡偶爾經過長時間:好幾年、好幾百年、好幾千年、好幾十萬年天不下雨。比丘們!而當天不下雨時,凡任何種子類、草木類、藥草、大樹,它們乾枯、枯萎而不存在。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常;比丘們!諸行是這麼的不堅固……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第二個太陽出現。比丘們!以第二個太陽的出現,凡任何小河、小坑,它們乾枯、枯萎而不存在。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第三個太陽出現。比丘們!以第三個太陽的出現,凡任何大河,即:恒河、耶牟那河、阿致羅筏底河、薩羅浮河、摩醯河,它們乾枯、枯萎而不存在。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第四個太陽出現。比丘們!以第四個太陽的出現,凡那些大湖,從那裡那些大河發生,即:阿耨達湖、獅崖湖、車匠湖、角禿湖、杜鵑湖、六牙湖、曼陀吉尼湖,它們乾枯、枯萎而不存在。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第五個太陽出現。比丘們!以第五個太陽的出現,大海裡一百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡二百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡三百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡四百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡五百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡六百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡七百由旬的水下沈了,大海裡的水立於七棵棕櫚樹的高度、六棵棕櫚樹的高度、五棵棕櫚樹的高度、四棵棕櫚樹的高度、三棵棕櫚樹的高度、二棵棕櫚樹的高度,大海裡的水立於一棵棕櫚樹的高度,大海裡的水立於七人高的高度、六人高的高度、五人高的高度、四人高的高度、三人高的高度、二人高的高度、一人高的高度、半人高的高度、腰部高的高度、膝部高的高度,大海裡的水立於腳踝高的高度,比丘們!猶如秋天下大雨時,水處處立於牛腳印中。同樣的,比丘們!大海裡的水處處立於腳踝高的高度。比丘們!以第五個太陽的出現,大海裡的水沒有手指節高的高度,比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第六個太陽出現。比丘們!以第六個太陽的出現,這大地與須彌山王冒煙、完全冒煙、完全出煙。比丘們!猶如陶工起火,首先冒煙、完全冒煙、完全出煙。同樣的,比丘們!以第六個太陽的出現,這大地與須彌山王冒煙、完全冒煙、完全出煙。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常……(中略)足以解脫。
  比丘們!有那個時候,凡經過長時間偶爾第七個太陽出現。比丘們!以第七個太陽的出現,這大地與須彌山王被熾燒、燃燒、起火焰。比丘們!當這大地與須彌山王著火、燃燒時,火焰被風拋擲,一直走到梵天世界。比丘們!當須彌山王著火、燃燒、滅亡時,它被大火聚征服:山頂一百由旬被破壞,二百由旬、三百由旬、四百由旬,山頂五百由旬被破壞。比丘們!當這大地與須彌山王著火、燃燒時,既無灰燼也無灰末被發現。比丘們!猶如當熟酥或油著火、燃燒時,既無灰燼也無灰末被發現。同樣的,比丘們!當這大地與須彌山王著火、燃燒時,既無灰燼也無灰末被發現。比丘們!諸行是這麼的無常;諸行是這麼的不堅固;比丘們!諸行是這麼無蘇息的,比丘們!到那個程度,這就足以在一切諸行上厭,足以離染,足以解脫。
  比丘們!在這裡,誰考量、誰相信:『這大地與須彌山王將被燒、被滅而不存在。』呢?除了已見足跡者外。
  比丘們!從前,有位名叫善眼的大師,為在欲上離貪的開宗祖師。比丘們!又,善眼大師有好幾百位弟子,比丘們!善眼大師教導弟子與梵天界共住的法。比丘們!而當善眼大師教導弟子與梵天世界共住的法時,那些完全了知教說者,他們以身體的崩解,死後往生梵天世界善趣,那些不完全了知教說者,他們以身體的崩解,死後一些往生他化自在天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生化樂天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生兜率天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生夜摩天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生忉利天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生四大王天諸天們的共住狀態,一些往生有大財富之剎帝利們的共住狀態,一些往生有大財富之婆羅門們的共住狀態,一些往生有大財富之屋主們的共住狀態。
  比丘們!那時,善眼大師想這個:『那對我不適當:我在來世與弟子會有完全相同的趣處,讓我更加修習慈。』
  比丘們!那時,善眼大師修習慈心七年。修習慈心七年後,在七個壞成劫中不返此世界,比丘們!當世界破壞時,他到光音天,當世界形成時,他往生空的梵天宮殿。比丘們!在那裡,他是梵天、大梵天、征服者、不被征服者、全見者自在者。比丘們!又,他成為天帝釋三十六次,成為轉輪王好幾百次:是如法法王、征服四邊者、達到國土安定者、具備七寶者。又他有超過千位勇敢的、英雄樣子的、碎破敵對者的兒子,他以非棍棒,以非刀劍,以法征服海洋為邊界的這個土地後居住。比丘們!名為善眼的大師這麼長壽、這麼久住,我說他仍未從生、老、死、愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望被解脫;未從苦被解脫,那是什麼原因?以四法的不隨覺、不通達,哪四法呢?比丘們!以聖戒的不隨覺、不通達,以聖定的不隨覺、不通達,以聖慧的不隨覺、不通達,以聖解脫的不隨覺、不通達。
  比丘們!那個這個聖戒已隨覺、已通達,聖定已隨覺、已通達,聖慧已隨覺、已通達,聖解脫已隨覺、已通達,有的渴愛已被切斷,有之管道已盡,現在,沒有再有。」
  世尊說這個,說這個後,善逝、大師又更進一步說這個:
  「戒、與慧,以及無上解脫,
   這些法,被有名聲的喬達摩隨覺。
   像這樣佛陀證知後,對比丘們告知法,
   苦的結束之大師,有眼者般涅槃。[DN.16, 186段, AN.4.1]」
AN.7.66/ 2. Sattasūriyasuttaṃ
   66. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati ambapālivane. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Aniccā bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; anassāsikā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṃ alaṃ virajjituṃ alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Sineru, bhikkhave, pabbatarājā caturāsītiyojanasahassāni āyāmena, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni vitthārena, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni mahāsamudde ajjhogāḷho, caturāsītiyojanasahassāni mahāsamuddā accuggato. Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena bahūni vassāni bahūni vassasatāni bahūni vassasahassāni bahūni vassasatasahassāni devo na vassati. Deve kho pana, bhikkhave, avassante ye kecime bījagāmabhūtagāmā osadhitiṇavanappatayo te ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena dutiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. Dutiyassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yā kāci kunnadiyo kusobbhā tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena tatiyo sūriyo pātubhavati. Tatiyassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yā kāci mahānadiyo, seyyathidaṃ– gaṅgā, yamunā, aciravatī, sarabhū, mahī, tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena catuttho sūriyo pātubhavati. Catutthassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ye te mahāsarā yato imā mahānadiyo pavattanti, seyyathidaṃ– anotattā, sīhapapātā, rathakārā, kaṇṇamuṇḍā, kuṇālā, chaddantā, mandākiniyā, tā ussussanti visussanti, na bhavanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena pañcamo sūriyo pātubhavati. Pañcamassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā yojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti, dviyojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti, tiyojanasatikānipi, catuyojanasatikānipi, pañcayojanasatikānipi, chayojanasatikānipi, sattayojanasatikānipi mahāsamudde udakāni ogacchanti; sattatālampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chatālampi, pañcatālampi, catutālampi, titālampi, dvitālampi tālamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti; sattaporisampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chaporisampi, pañcaporisampi, catuporisampi, tiporisampi, dviporisampi, porisampi, aḍḍhaporisampi, kaṭimattampi, jaṇṇukāmattampi, gopphakamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, saradasamaye thullaphusitake deve vassante tattha tattha gopadesu udakāni ṭhitāni honti; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tattha tattha gopphakamattāni mahāsamudde udakāni ṭhitāni honti. Pañcamassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā aṅgulipabbamattampi mahāsamudde udakaṃ na hoti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena chaṭṭho sūriyo pātubhavati. Chaṭṭhassa, bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dhūmāyanti saṃdhūmāyanti sampadhūmāyanti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, kumbhakārapāko ālepito paṭhamaṃ dhūmeti saṃdhūmeti sampadhūmeti; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, chaṭṭhassa sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dhūmāyanti saṃdhūmāyanti sampadhūmāyanti. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā …pe… alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena sattamo sūriyo pātubhavati. Sattamassa bhikkhave, sūriyassa pātubhāvā ayañca mahāpathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā ādippanti pajjalanti ekajālā bhavanti. Imissā ca, bhikkhave, mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ acci vātena khittā yāva brahmalokāpi gacchati. Sinerussa, bhikkhave, pabbatarājassa jhāyamānassa dayhamānassa vinassamānassa mahatā tejokhandhena abhibhūtassa yojanasatikānipi kūṭāni palujjanti dviyojanasatikānipi, tiyojanasatikānipi, catuyojanasatikānipi, pañcayojanasatikānipi kūṭāni palujjanti. Imissā ca, bhikkhave, mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ neva chārikā paññāyati na masi. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, sappissa vā telassa vā jhāyamānassa dayhamānassa neva chārikā paññāyati na masi; evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, imissā ca mahāpathaviyā sinerussa ca pabbatarājassa jhāyamānānaṃ dayhamānānaṃ neva chārikā paññāyati na masi. Evaṃ aniccā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ adhuvā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā; evaṃ anassāsikā, bhikkhave, saṅkhārā. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva sabbasaṅkhāresu nibbindituṃ alaṃ virajjituṃ alaṃ vimuccituṃ.
   “Tatra, bhikkhave, ko mantā ko saddhātā– ‘ayañca pathavī sineru ca pabbatarājā dayhissanti vinassissanti, na bhavissantī’ti aññatra diṭṭhapadehi?
   “Bhūtapubbaṃ, bhikkhave, sunetto nāma satthā ahosi titthakaro kāmesu vītarāgo. Sunettassa kho pana, bhikkhave satthuno anekāni sāvakasatāni ahesuṃ. Sunetto, bhikkhave, satthā sāvakānaṃ brahmalokasahabyatāya dhammaṃ desesi. Ye kho pana, bhikkhave, sunettassa satthuno brahmalokasahabyatāya dhammaṃ desentassa sabbena sabbaṃ sāsanaṃ ājāniṃsu te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ brahmalokaṃ upapajjiṃsu. Ye na sabbena sabbaṃ sāsanaṃ ājāniṃsu te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā appekacce paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce tusitānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce yāmānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu appekacce tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu appekacce cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce khattiyamahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu, appekacce gahapatimahāsālānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjiṃsu.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, sunettassa satthuno etadahosi– ‘na kho metaṃ patirūpaṃ yohaṃ sāvakānaṃ samasamagatiyo assaṃ abhisamparāyaṃ, yaṃnūnāhaṃ uttari mettaṃ bhāveyyan’”ti.
   “Atha kho, bhikkhave, sunetto satthā satta vassāni mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvesi. Satta vassāni mettaṃ cittaṃ bhāvetvā satta saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe nayimaṃ lokaṃ punarāgamāsi. Saṃvaṭṭamāne sudaṃ, bhikkhave loke ābhassarūpago hoti. Vivaṭṭamāne loke suññaṃ brahmavimānaṃ upapajjati. Tatra sudaṃ, bhikkhave, brahmā hoti mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī. Chattiṃsakkhattuṃ kho pana, bhikkhave, sakko ahosi devānamindo. Anekasatakkhattuṃ rājā ahosi cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato. Parosahassaṃ kho panassa puttā ahesuṃ sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā. So imaṃ pathaviṃ sāgarapariyantaṃ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasi. So hi nāma, bhikkhave, sunetto satthā evaṃ dīghāyuko samāno evaṃ ciraṭṭhitiko aparimutto ahosi– ‘jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, aparimutto dukkhasmā’ti vadāmi”.
   “Taṃ kissa hetu? Catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Ariyassa, bhikkhave, sīlassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyassa samādhissa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyāya paññāya ananubodhā appaṭivedhā, ariyāya vimuttiyā ananubodhā appaṭivedhā. Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ sīlaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ariyo samādhi anubodho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubodhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubodhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo”ti. Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā–
  “Sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca, vimutti ca anuttarā;
  Anubuddhā ime dhammā, gotamena yasassinā.
  “Iti buddho abhiññāya, dhammamakkhāsi bhikkhunaṃ;
  Dukkhassantakaro satthā, cakkhumā parinibbuto”ti. Dutiyaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「(一切行)不可倚法(MA.8)」,南傳作「諸行是無蘇息的」(anassāsikā…saṅkhārā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「條件所成的現象是不可靠的」(conditioned phenomena are unreliable)。按:《滿足希求》以「因非常恆性而無蘇息的」(asassatabhāvena assāsarahitā)解說「無蘇息的」。
  「不足沒指(MA.8)」,南傳作「沒有手指節高的高度」(aṅgulipabbamattampi…na hoti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「甚至不足到達一個人的手指節」(is not enough even to reach the joints of one's fingers)。「沒指」,應讀作「莫指」。