經號:   
   (AN.5.28 更新)
增支部5集28經/五支經(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!我將教導聖五支正定的修習,你們要聽它!你們要好好作意!我將說了。」
  「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!而什麼是聖五支正定的修習呢?比丘們!這裡,比丘就從離諸欲後,從離諸不善法後……(中略)進入後住於……初禪,他以離而生喜、樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被離而生喜、樂佈滿的。比丘們!猶如熟練的澡堂師傅或澡堂師傅的徒弟在銅皿中撒佈沐浴粉後,以水一一澆注地混合,那個這沐浴粉團成為跟隨濕潤的、到達濕潤的,且內外被濕潤遍佈無漏出。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以離而生喜、樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被離而生喜、樂佈滿的,比丘們!這是聖五支正定的第一個修習。
  再者,比丘們!比丘從尋與伺的平息……(中略)進入後住於……第二禪,他以定而生喜、樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被定而生喜、樂佈滿的。比丘們!猶如有湧泉的深水池,其在東方無進水口,在西方無進水口,在北方無進水口,在南方無進水口,天又不能時常給予正確的水流,而那水池的冷水保持湧出後,那水池會被冷水潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿,全水池沒有任何地方不會被冷水遍滿。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以定而生喜、樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被定而生喜、樂佈滿的,比丘們!這是聖五支正定的第二個修習。
  再者,比丘們!比丘以喜的褪去……(中略)進入後住於……第三禪,他以無喜的樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被無喜的樂佈滿的。比丘們!猶如在青蓮池中,或在紅蓮池中,或在白蓮池中,一些在水中生的、在水中長的、跟隨水沈在裡面養育的青蓮或紅蓮或白蓮,那些從頂端直到根為止被冷水潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,那個全部青蓮或紅蓮或白蓮沒有任何不被冷水佈滿的。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以無喜的樂就使這個身體潤澤、繞流、充滿、遍滿,他的全身沒有任何不被無喜的樂佈滿的,比丘們!這是聖五支正定的第三個修習。
  再者,比丘們!比丘從樂的捨斷……(中略)進入後住於……第四禪,他以遍純淨的、皎潔的心就這個身佈滿後而坐,他的全身沒有任何不被遍純淨的、皎潔的心佈滿的。比丘們!猶如男子以白衣包含頭地裹覆後而坐,他的全身沒有任何不被白衣佈滿的。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以遍純淨的、皎潔的心就這個身佈滿後而坐,他的全身沒有任何不被遍純淨的、皎潔的心佈滿的。比丘們!這是聖五支正定的第四個修習。
  再者,比丘們!比丘以慧善把握、善作意、善考慮、善貫通觀察相,比丘們!猶如某位能觀察另一位:站立者能觀察坐下者,坐下者能觀察躺臥者。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以慧善把握、善作意、善考慮、善貫通觀察相,比丘們!這是聖五支正定的第五個修習。
  比丘們!當比丘這麼修習、這麼多作聖五支正定時,他對任何使心轉向應該被證智作證的法,在處一一存在時,對以智證的作證,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。比丘們!猶如水瓶放在固定架上,充滿水,滿到邊緣烏鴉能喝到的,如果有力氣的男子任意方向傾它,水會流出來嗎?」
  「是的,大德!」
  「同樣的,比丘們!當比丘這麼修習、這麼多作聖五支正定時,他對任何使心轉向應該被證智作證的法,在處一一存在時,對以智證的作證,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。比丘們!猶如在平整部分的土地上有蓮花池,四邊被堤防限制,充滿水,滿到池邊烏鴉能喝到的,如果有力氣的男子任意方向釋放其堤防,水會流出來嗎?」
  「是的,大德!」
  「同樣的,比丘們!當比丘這麼修習、這麼多作聖五支正定時,對任何他使心轉向應該被證智作證的法,在處一一存在時……(中略)。比丘們!猶如在平整地面十字路口處有已套上軛住立的、鞭子已放置的駿馬車,熟練的御者、馴馬師登上它後,以左手拿起繮繩、右手拿起鞭子後,去想要之處:凡想要的,使之前去,也使之回來。同樣的,比丘們!當比丘這麼修習、這麼多作聖五支正定時,他對任何使心轉向應該被證智作證的法,在處一一存在時,對以智證的作證,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我體驗各種神通種類:是一個後變成多個……(中略)以身體行使自在直到梵天世界。』在處一一存在時,他都一一在那裡能夠達成有能力見證的狀態。
  如果他希望:『願我以清淨、超越常人的天耳界聽到二者的聲音:「天與人,以及在遠處、近處。」』在處一一存在時,不論在哪裡,他都將能夠達到見證。
  如果他希望:『願我對其他眾生、其他個人以心熟知心後知道:有貪的心能了知為「有貪的心」,離貪的心能了知為「離貪的心」;有瞋的心……離瞋的心……有癡的心……離癡的心……收斂的心……散亂的心……廣大的心……未廣大的心……有更上的心……無更上的心……得定的心……未得定的心……已解脫的心……知道未解脫的心為「未解脫的心」。』在處一一存在時,不論在哪裡,他都將能夠達到見證。
  如果他希望:『願我回憶許多前世住處,即:一生、二生……(中略)像這樣,他能回憶許多有行相的、有境遇的前世住處。』在處一一存在時,不論在哪裡,他都將能夠達到見證。
  如果他希望:『願我以清淨、超越常人的天眼……(中略)知道依業到達的眾生。』在處一一存在時,不論在哪裡,他都將能夠達到見證。
  如果他希望:『願我以諸的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中能進入後住於無漏心解脫慧解脫。』在處一一存在時,不論在哪裡,他都將能夠達到見證。」
AN.5.28/ 8. Pañcaṅgikasuttaṃ
   28. “Ariyassa bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa bhāvanaṃ desessāmi. Taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Katamā ca, bhikkhave, ariyassa pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa bhāvanā? Idha, bhikkhave bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi …pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho nhāpako vā nhāpakantevāsī vā kaṃsathāle nhānīyacuṇṇāni ākiritvā udakena paripphosakaṃ paripphosakaṃ sanneyya. Sāyaṃ nhānīyapiṇḍi snehānugatā snehaparetā santarabāhirā phuṭā snehena, na ca paggharinī. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa ayaṃ paṭhamā bhāvanā.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā …pe… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, udakarahado gambhīro ubbhidodako. Tassa nevassa puratthimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na pacchimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na uttarāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na dakkhiṇāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, devo ca kālena kālaṃ sammā dhāraṃ nānuppaveccheyya. Atha kho tamhāva udakarahadā sītā vāridhārā ubbhijjitvā tameva udakarahadaṃ sītena vārinā abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripūreyya paripphareyya; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato udakarahadassa sītena vārinā apphuṭaṃ assa. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa ayaṃ dutiyā bhāvanā.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, uppaliniyaṃ vā paduminiyaṃ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṃ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṃvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni anto nimuggaposīni. Tāni yāva caggā yāva ca mūlā sītena vārinā abhisannāni parisannāni paripūrāni paripphuṭāni; nāssa kiñci sabbāvataṃ uppalānaṃ vā padumānaṃ vā puṇḍarīkānaṃ vā sītena vārinā apphuṭaṃ assa. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa ayaṃ tatiyā bhāvanā.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā …pe… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso odātena vatthena sasīsaṃ pārupitvā nisinno assa; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa odātena vatthena apphuṭaṃ assa. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa ayaṃ catutthā bhāvanā.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno paccavekkhaṇānimittaṃ suggahitaṃ hoti sumanasikataṃ sūpadhāritaṃ suppaṭividdhaṃ paññāya. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, aññova aññaṃ paccavekkheyya, ṭhito vā nisinnaṃ paccavekkheyya, nisinno vā nipannaṃ paccavekkheyya. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno paccavekkhaṇānimittaṃ suggahitaṃ hoti sumanasikataṃ sūpadhāritaṃ suppaṭividdhaṃ paññāya. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañcaṅgikassa sammāsamādhissa ayaṃ pañcamā bhāvanā. Evaṃ bhāvite kho bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariye pañcaṅgike sammāsamādhimhi evaṃ bahulīkate yassa yassa abhiññāsacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṃ abhininnāmeti abhiññāsacchikiriyāya, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, udakamaṇiko ādhāre ṭhapito pūro udakassa samatittiko kākapeyyo Tamenaṃ balavā puriso yato yato āvajjeyya, āgaccheyya udakan”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante” “Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ bhāvite ariye pañcaṅgike sammāsamādhimhi evaṃ bahulīkate yassa yassa abhiññāsacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṃ abhininnāmeti abhiññāsacchikiriyāya, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, same bhūmibhāge pokkharaṇī caturaṃsā ālibaddhā pūrā udakassa samatittikā kākapeyyā. Tamenaṃ balavā puriso yato yato āliṃ muñceyya, āgaccheyya udakan”ti? “Evaṃ, bhante”. “Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ bhāvite ariye pañcaṅgike sammāsamādhimhi evaṃ bahulīkate yassa yassa abhiññāsacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa …pe… sati sati āyatane.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, subhūmiyaṃ catumahāpathe ājaññaratho yutto assa ṭhito odhastapatodo Tamenaṃ dakkho yoggācariyo assadammasārathi abhiruhitvā vāmena hatthena rasmiyo gahetvā dakkhiṇena hatthena patodaṃ gahetvā yenicchakaṃ yadicchakaṃ sāreyyapi paccāsāreyyapi. Evamevaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ bhāvite ariye pañcaṅgike sammāsamādhimhi evaṃ bahulīkate yassa yassa abhiññāsacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṃ abhininnāmeti abhiññāsacchikiriyāya, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhaveyyaṃ ekopi hutvā bahudhā assaṃ …pe… yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṃ vatteyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇeyyaṃ– dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike cā’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace akaṅkhati– ‘parasattānaṃ parapuggalānaṃ cetasā ceto paricca pajāneyyaṃ– sarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ sarāgaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, vītarāgaṃ vā cittaṃ vītarāgaṃ cittanti pajāneyyaṃ, sadosaṃ vā cittaṃ… vītadosaṃ vā cittaṃ… samohaṃ vā cittaṃ… vītamohaṃ vā cittaṃ… saṃkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ… vikkhittaṃ vā cittaṃ… mahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ… amahaggataṃ vā cittaṃ… sa-uttaraṃ vā cittaṃ… anuttaraṃ vā cittaṃ… samāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ… asamāhitaṃ vā cittaṃ… vimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ… avimuttaṃ vā cittaṃ avimuttaṃ cittanti pajāneyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussareyyaṃ, seyyathidaṃ– ekampi jātiṃ, dvepi jātiyo …pe… iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussareyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena …pe… yathākammūpage satte pajāneyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane.
   “So sace ākaṅkhati– ‘āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyyan’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati sati āyatane”ti. Aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「省察相」(paccavekkhaṇānimittaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「省察之對象」(the object of reviewing, AN),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「省察之形跡」(the "reviewing" sign, DN)。按:「省察」(paccavekkhaṇa),另譯為「觀察」,《吉祥悅意》說,省察智名為省察相(Paccavekkhaṇañāṇaṃ paccavekkhaṇanimittaṃ nāma, DN.34),《滿足希求》說,就是省察智(paccavekkhaṇañāṇameva, AN.5.28),長老說,這比較像是被毘婆舍那檢察的相(the object being examined by insight),先生說是出禪定後的「省察識」(The 'reviewing consciousness' on emerging from jhāna)。