經號:   
   (AN.4.61 更新)
(7) 2.有收獲行為品
增支部4集61經/有收獲行為經(莊春江譯)
  那時,屋主給孤獨去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁坐下。世尊對在一旁坐下的屋主給孤獨說這個:
  「屋主!世間中有這想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的四法,哪四個呢?『願我的財富合法地生起。』這是世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的第一法。
  當合法地得到財富後,『願我的名聲連同親族、和尚[的名聲]到來。』這是世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的第二法。
  當合法地得到財富,連同親族、和尚得到名聲後,『願我活得長久,保持長壽。』這是世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的第三法。
  當合法地得到財富,連同親族、和尚得到名聲,活得長久,保持長壽後,『願我以身體的崩解,死後往生善趣、天界。』這是世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的第四法。
  屋主!有四法轉起這些世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的四法之得到,哪四個呢?信具足、戒具足、施捨具足、慧具足。
  屋主!如何是信具足呢?屋主!這裡,聖弟子是有信者,他信如來的:『像這樣,那位世尊阿羅漢、遍正覺者、明行具足者善逝世間知者應該被調御人的無上調御者天人之師佛陀、世尊。』屋主!這被稱為信具足。
  屋主!如何是戒具足呢?屋主!這裡,聖弟子是離殺生者……(中略)離榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處者,屋主!這被稱為戒具足。
  屋主!如何是施捨具足呢?屋主!這裡,聖弟子以離慳垢之心住於在家,是自由施捨者,親手施與的,樂於棄捨的,回應乞求,樂於布施物均分者,屋主!這被稱為施捨具足。
  屋主!如何是慧具足呢?屋主!當以被貪婪不正貪征服的心而住時,他作不應該作的,違犯應該作的;當作不應該作的,違犯應該作的時,使名聲與安樂滅亡。屋主!當以被惡意征服的心而住時,他作不應該作的,違犯應該作的;當作不應該作的,違犯應該作的時,使名聲與安樂滅亡。屋主!當以被惛沈睡眠征服的心而住時,他作不應該作的,違犯應該作的;當作不應該作的,違犯應該作的時,使名聲與安樂滅亡。屋主!當以被掉舉後悔征服的心而住時,他作不應該作的,違犯應該作的;當作不應該作的,違犯應該作的時,使名聲與安樂滅亡。屋主!當以被疑惑征服的心而住時,他作不應該作的,違犯應該作的;當作不應該作的,違犯應該作的時,使名聲與安樂滅亡。
  屋主!『貪婪、不正貪是心的隨雜染。』聖弟子像這樣知道後,捨斷貪婪、不正貪之心的隨雜染。『惡意是心的隨雜染。』聖弟子像這樣知道後,捨斷惡意之心的隨雜染。『惛沈睡眠是心的隨雜染。』聖弟子像這樣知道後,捨斷惛沈睡眠之心的隨雜染。『掉舉後悔是心的隨雜染。』聖弟子像這樣知道後,捨斷掉舉後悔之心的隨雜染。『疑惑是心的隨雜染。』聖弟子像這樣知道後,捨斷疑惑之心的隨雜染。
  屋主!『貪婪、不正貪是心的隨雜染。』當聖弟子像這樣知道後,是貪婪、不正貪之心的隨雜染已捨斷者。『惡意是心的隨雜染。』當聖弟子像這樣知道後,是惡意之心的隨雜染已捨斷者。『惛沈睡眠是心的隨雜染。』當聖弟子像這樣知道後,是惛沈睡眠之心的隨雜染已捨斷者。『掉舉後悔是心的隨雜染。』當聖弟子像這樣知道後,是掉舉後悔之心的隨雜染已捨斷者。『疑惑是心的隨雜染。』當聖弟子像這樣知道後,是疑惑之心的隨雜染已捨斷者。屋主!這被稱為大慧、廣慧、看見視野、慧具足的聖弟子,屋主!這被稱為慧具足。
  屋主!這是四法轉起這些世間中想要的、所愛的、合意的、難得的四法之得到。
  屋主!聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富,成為四種有收獲行為的作者,哪四種呢?
  屋主!這裡,聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富使自己快樂、喜悅、適當地維持快樂;使父母快樂、喜悅、適當地維持快樂;使妻兒、奴僕、工人、傭人快樂、喜悅、適當地維持快樂;使朋友、同事快樂、喜悅、適當地維持快樂,這是其第一個來到正確的地方、來到有益、有因地被使用
  再者,屋主!聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富,凡是那些災禍:或火或水或國王或盜賊或不愛的繼承人,他在像那樣的災禍上作防禦,為自己作安穩,這是其第二個來到正確的地方、來到有益、有因地被使用。
  再者,屋主!聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富,是五種供祭的作者:親族的供祭、賓客的供祭、祖靈的供祭、國王的供祭、天神的供祭,這是其第三個來到正確的地方、來到有益、有因地被使用。
  再者,屋主!聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富,凡那些已離憍慢放逸,忍耐與柔和已住立,個個使自己調御,個個使自己平息,個個使自己般涅槃的沙門婆羅門,在像這樣的沙門、婆羅門上建立目標崇高的、天的、安樂果報的、導向天界的供養,這是其第四個來到正確的地方、來到有益、有因地被使用。
  屋主!聖弟子以活力的努力所得,以腕力所積聚,以流汗所得,如法所得的如法利得財富,這是四種有收獲行為的作者。屋主!凡任何人的財富以這四種有收獲行為以外走到遍盡者,屋主!這些財富被稱為來到不正確的地方、來到無益、非因地被使用,屋主!凡任何人的財富以這四種有收獲行為走到遍盡者,屋主!這些財富被稱為來到正確的地方、來到有益、有因地被使用。」
  「我是財富受用者、依存者的養育者,度脫災禍者,
   目標崇高的供養之施與者,還是五種供祭的作者,
   對[自我]抑制之梵行者,持戒者的供養者。
   居家的賢智者,凡能欲求財富的利益,
   我的那個利益已達到,已被作而無後悔。
   不免一死的人憶念這個,在聖者之法中已住立的人,
   就在這裡他們讚賞他,死後他在天界歡喜。」
(7) 2. Pattakammavaggo
AN.4.61/ 1. Pattakammasuttaṃ
   61. Atha kho anāthapiṇḍiko gahapati yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho anāthapiṇḍikaṃ gahapatiṃ bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Cattārome gahapati, dhammā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā dullabhā lokasmiṃ. Katame cattāro? Bhogā me uppajjantu sahadhammenāti, ayaṃ paṭhamo dhammo iṭṭho kanto manāpo dullabho lokasmiṃ.
   “Bhoge laddhā sahadhammena yaso me āgacchatu saha ñātīhi saha upajjhāyehīti, ayaṃ dutiyo dhammo iṭṭho kanto manāpo dullabho lokasmiṃ.
   “Bhoge laddhā sahadhammena yasaṃ laddhā saha ñātīhi saha upajjhāyehi ciraṃ jīvāmi dīghamāyuṃ pālemīti, ayaṃ tatiyo dhammo iṭṭho kanto manāpo dullabho lokasmiṃ.
   “Bhoge laddhā sahadhammena yasaṃ laddhā saha ñātīhi saha upajjhāyehi ciraṃ jīvitvā dīghamāyuṃ pāletvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjāmīti, ayaṃ catuttho dhammo iṭṭho kanto manāpo dullabho lokasmiṃ. Ime kho, gahapati, cattāro dhammā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā dullabhā lokasmiṃ.
   “Imesaṃ kho, gahapati, catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ dullabhānaṃ lokasmiṃ cattāro dhammā paṭilābhāya saṃvattanti. Katame cattāro? Saddhāsampadā, sīlasampadā, cāgasampadā, paññāsampadā.
   “Katamā ca, gahapati, saddhāsampadā? Idha, gahapati, ariyasāvako saddho hoti, saddahati tathāgatassa bodhiṃ– ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi, satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapati, saddhāsampadā.
   “Katamā ca, gahapati, sīlasampadā? Idha, gahapati, ariyasāvako pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti …pe… surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapati, sīlasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, gahapati, cāgasampadā? Idha, gahapati, ariyasāvako vigatamalamaccherena cetasā agāraṃ ajjhāvasati muttacāgo payatapāṇi vosaggarato yācayogo dānasaṃvibhāgarato. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapati, cāgasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, gahapati, paññāsampadā? Abhijjhāvisamalobhābhibhūtena gahapati, cetasā viharanto akiccaṃ karoti, kiccaṃ aparādheti. Akiccaṃ karonto kiccaṃ aparādhento yasā ca sukhā ca dhaṃsati. Byāpādābhibhūtena, gahapati, cetasā viharanto akiccaṃ karoti, kiccaṃ aparādheti. Akiccaṃ karonto kiccaṃ aparādhento yasā ca sukhā ca dhaṃsati. Thinamiddhābhibhūtena, gahapati, cetasā viharanto akiccaṃ karoti kiccaṃ aparādheti. Akiccaṃ karonto kiccaṃ aparādhento yasā ca sukhā ca dhaṃsati. Uddhaccakukkuccābhibhūtena, gahapati, cetasā viharanto akiccaṃ karoti, kiccaṃ aparādheti. Akiccaṃ karonto kiccaṃ aparādhento yasā ca sukhā ca dhaṃsati. Vicikicchābhibhūtena, gahapati, cetasā viharanto akiccaṃ karoti, kiccaṃ aparādheti. Akiccaṃ karonto kiccaṃ aparādhento yasā ca sukhā ca dhaṃsati.
   “Sa kho so, gahapati, ariyasāvako abhijjhāvisamalobho cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā abhijjhāvisamalobhaṃ cittassa upakkilesaṃ pajahati. Byāpādo cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā byāpādaṃ cittassa upakkilesaṃ pajahati. Thinamiddhaṃ cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā thinamiddhaṃ cittassa upakkilesaṃ pajahati. Uddhaccakukkuccaṃ cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā uddhaccakukkuccaṃ cittassa upakkilesaṃ pajahati. Vicikicchā cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā vicikicchaṃ cittassa upakkilesaṃ pajahati.
   “Yato ca kho, gahapati, ariyasāvakassa abhijjhāvisamalobho cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā abhijjhāvisamalobho cittassa upakkileso pahīno hoti. Byāpādo cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā byāpādo cittassa upakkileso pahīno hoti. Thinamiddhaṃ cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā thinamiddhaṃ cittassa upakkileso pahīno hoti. Uddhaccakukkuccaṃ cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā uddhaccakukkuccaṃ cittassa upakkileso pahīno hoti. Vicikicchā cittassa upakkilesoti, iti viditvā vicikicchā cittassa upakkileso pahīno hoti. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapati, ariyasāvako mahāpañño puthupañño āpātadaso paññāsampanno. Ayaṃ vuccati, gahapati paññāsampadā. Imesaṃ kho, gahapati, catunnaṃ dhammānaṃ iṭṭhānaṃ kantānaṃ manāpānaṃ dullabhānaṃ lokasmiṃ ime cattāro dhammā paṭilābhāya saṃvattanti.
   “Sa kho so, gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi cattāri pattakammāni kattā hoti. Katamāni cattāri? Idha gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi attānaṃ sukheti pīṇeti sammā sukhaṃ pariharati. Mātāpitaro sukheti pīṇeti sammā sukhaṃ pariharati. Puttadāradāsakammakaraporise sukheti pīṇeti sammā sukhaṃ pariharati. Mittāmacce sukheti pīṇeti sammā sukhaṃ pariharati. Idamassa paṭhamaṃ ṭhānagataṃ hoti pattagataṃ āyatanaso paribhuttaṃ.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi yā tā honti āpadā aggito vā udakato vā rājato vā corato vā appiyato vā dāyādato, tathārūpāsu āpadāsu pariyodhāya saṃvattati. Sotthiṃ attānaṃ karoti. Idamassa dutiyaṃ ṭhānagataṃ hoti pattagataṃ āyatanaso paribhuttaṃ.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi pañcabaliṃ kattā hoti– ñātibaliṃ, atithibaliṃ, pubbapetabaliṃ, rājabaliṃ, devatābaliṃ. Idamassa tatiyaṃ ṭhānagataṃ hoti pattagataṃ āyatanaso paribhuttaṃ.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā madappamādā paṭiviratā khantisoracce niviṭṭhā ekamattānaṃ damenti, ekamattānaṃ samenti, ekamattānaṃ parinibbāpenti, tathārūpesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu uddhaggikaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ patiṭṭhāpeti sovaggikaṃ sukhavipākaṃ saggasaṃvattanikaṃ Idamassa catutthaṃ ṭhānagataṃ hoti pattagataṃ āyatanaso paribhuttaṃ.
   “Sa kho so, gahapati, ariyasāvako uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatehi bhogehi bāhābalaparicitehi sedāvakkhittehi dhammikehi dhammaladdhehi imāni cattāri pattakammāni kattā hoti. Yassa kassaci, gahapati, aññatra imehi catūhi pattakammehi bhogā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ime vuccanti, gahapati, bhogā aṭṭhānagatā apattagatā anāyatanaso paribhuttā. Yassa kassaci, gahapati, imehi catūhi pattakammehi bhogā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ime vuccanti, gahapati, bhogā ṭhānagatā pattagatā āyatanaso paribhuttā”ti.
  “Bhuttā bhogā bhatā bhaccā, vitiṇṇā āpadāsu me;
  Uddhaggā dakkhiṇā dinnā, atho pañcabalī katā.
  Upaṭṭhitā sīlavanto, saññatā brahmacārayo.
  “Yadatthaṃ bhogaṃ iccheyya, paṇḍito gharamāvasaṃ;
  So me attho anuppatto, kataṃ ananutāpiyaṃ.
  “Etaṃ anussaraṃ macco, ariyadhamme ṭhito naro;
  Idheva naṃ pasaṃsanti, pecca sagge pamodatī”ti. Paṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「看見視野」(āpātadaso, āpāthadaso),菩提比丘長老英譯為「看見範圍者」(one who sees the range)。按:《滿足希求》以「每一個目標(atthaṃ)進入視野(āpāteti, āpātheti)他就看見,即使生起精細目標(sukhumampissa atthajātaṃ)來到視野(āpātaṃ āgacchatiyevāti)」解說。
  「有收獲行為」(Pattakamma),菩提比丘長老英譯為「有價值的行為」(Worthy Deeds)。按:《滿足希求》以「上軛的行為;能相應的行為」(yuttakammāni anucchavikakammāni)解說。
  「有因地被使用」(āyatanaso paribhuttaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「為了有價值理由而被使用」(used for a worthy cause)。按:āyatana在經文中多數指「處、入處」,如「六(入)處」(saḷāyatana),而水野弘元將anāyatana譯為「非因,無努力」,故這裡將āyatanaso譯為「有因地」,《滿足希求》也以「生起的財物被有理由地受用」(kāraṇeneva paribhuttaṃ bhogajātaṃ hoti)解說。