經號:   
   (AN.4.22 更新)
增支部4集22經/優樓頻螺經第二(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!有這一次,初現正覺的這個我住在優樓頻螺,尼連禪河邊牧羊人的榕樹處。比丘們!那時,眾多是衰老的、年老的、高齡的、老年的、到達老年的婆羅門來見我,抵達後,與我一起互相問候。交換應該被互相問候的友好交談後,在一旁坐下。比丘們!在一旁坐下的那些婆羅對我說這個:『喬達摩尊師!這被我們聽聞:「沙門喬達摩對衰老的、年老的、高齡的婆羅門們不問訊,或起立迎接,或以座位邀請。」喬達摩尊師!那個這個就像那樣的:因為喬達摩尊師對衰老的、年老的、高齡的婆羅門們不問訊,或起立迎接,或以座位邀請,喬達摩尊師!那個這個就是不適當的(不具足的)。』
  比丘們!那個我想這個:『這些尊者們不知道上座或作為上座之法。』比丘們!即使是年老者:從出生八十歲的,或九十歲的,或一百歲的,但他是不適當時機之說者、非事實之說者、無利益之說者,非法之說者、非律之說者、無價值(無貯藏)的言語之說者:在不適當時機的、無理由的、無節制的、伴隨無利益的,那時,他就名為(就走到稱呼)『愚癡的上座』。
  比丘們!即使他是年輕的,黑髮的青年,具備青春的幸福,在人生初期,但他是適當時機之說者、事實之說者、有益之說者、如法之說者、如律之說者、有價值(有貯藏)的言語之說者:在適當時機的、有理由的、有節制的、伴隨利益的,那時,他就名為『賢智的上座』。
  比丘們!有這四個作為上座之法,哪四個?比丘們!這裡,比丘是持戒者,住於被波羅提木叉自制自制,具足正行行境,在諸微罪中看見可怕的,在諸學處上受持後學習;是多聞者、所聽聞的憶持者、所聽聞的蓄積者,凡那些開頭是善的、中間是善的、結尾是善的;有意義的有文字的諸法:那些宣說完全圓滿、遍純淨的梵行,像這樣的諸法被他多聞、被憶持、被言語累積被心隨觀察被見善貫通;是增上心、當生樂住處之四禪的隨欲得到者、不困難得到者、無困難得到者;以諸的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無漏心解脫慧解脫,比丘們!這是四個作為上座之法。」
  「凡以掉舉心,而說許多雜穢的,
   思惟不定置者,樂於非正法的愚人,
   [持]惡見無敬意者,他從上座地位遠離。
   但凡戒具足者,有聽聞者、有辯才者,
   抑制者、在諸法上堅固者,以慧作觀義理,
   一切法的到彼岸者,無荒蕪者、有辯才者。
   生死已被捨斷者,梵行完全者,
   我說他是『上座』,凡其諸不存在,
   漏盡比丘,他被說為『上座』。」
AN.4.22/ 2. Dutiya-uruvelasuttaṃ
   22. “Ekamidāhaṃ bhikkhave, samayaṃ uruvelāyaṃ viharāmi najjā nerañjarāya tīre ajapālanigrodhe paṭhamābhisambuddho. Atha kho, bhikkhave, sambahulā brāhmaṇā jiṇṇā vuddhā mahallakā addhagatā vayo-anuppattā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā mayā saddhiṃ sammodiṃsu. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho, bhikkhave, te brāhmaṇā maṃ etadavocuṃ– ‘sutaṃ netaṃ, bho gotama– na samaṇo gotamo brāhmaṇe jiṇṇe vuddhe mahallake addhagate vayo-anuppatte abhivādeti vā paccuṭṭheti vā āsanena vā nimantetīti. Tayidaṃ, bho gotama, tatheva. Na hi bhavaṃ gotamo brāhmaṇe jiṇṇe vuddhe mahallake addhagate vayo-anuppatte abhivādeti vā paccuṭṭheti vā āsanena vā nimanteti. Tayidaṃ, bho gotama, na sampannamevā’”ti.
   “Tassa mayhaṃ, bhikkhave, etadahosi– ‘nayime āyasmanto jānanti theraṃ vā therakaraṇe vā dhamme’ti. Vuddho cepi, bhikkhave, hoti āsītiko vā nāvutiko vā vassasatiko vā jātiyā. So ca hoti akālavādī abhūtavādī anatthavādī adhammavādī avinayavādī, anidhānavatiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā akālena anapadesaṃ apariyantavatiṃ anatthasaṃhitaṃ. Atha kho so ‘bālo thero’tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati.
   “Daharo cepi, bhikkhave, hoti yuvā susukāḷakeso bhadrena yobbanena samannāgato paṭhamena vayasā So ca hoti kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī nidhānavatiṃ vācaṃ bhāsitā kālena sāpadesaṃ pariyantavatiṃ atthasaṃhitaṃ. Atha kho so ‘paṇḍito thero’tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati.
   “Cattārome bhikkhave, therakaraṇā dhammā. Katame cattāro? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti, pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu, bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasannicayo, ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ abhivadanti, tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā, diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā, catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ ābhicetasikānaṃ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṃ nikāmalābhī hoti akicchalābhī akasiralābhī, āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro therakaraṇā dhammā”ti.
  “Yo uddhatena cittena, samphañca bahu bhāsati;
  Asamāhitasaṅkappo, asaddhammarato mago.
  Ārā so thāvareyyamhā, pāpadiṭṭhi anādaro.
  “Yo ca sīlena sampanno, sutavā paṭibhānavā;
  Saññato dhīro dhammesu, paññāyatthaṃ vipassati.
  “Pāragū sabbadhammānaṃ, akhilo paṭibhānavā;
  Pahīnajātimaraṇo, brahmacariyassa kevalī.
  “Tamahaṃ vadāmi theroti, yassa no santi āsavā;
  Āsavānaṃ khayā bhikkhu, so theroti pavuccatī”ti. Dutiyaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):