經號:   
   優陀那31經 更新
4.昧其亞品
優陀那31經/昧其亞經(4.昧其亞品)(莊春江譯)
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在者里葛的者里葛山。當時,尊者昧其亞為世尊的侍者。
  那時,尊者昧其亞去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁站立。在一旁站立的尊者昧其亞對世尊說這個:
  「大德!我想要為食物進入若堵村。」
  「昧其亞!現在是那個你考量的時間。」
  那時,尊者昧其亞午前時穿衣、取衣鉢後,為了托鉢進入若堵村。
  在若堵村為了托鉢行走後,餐後已從施食返回,前往基咪葛拉河河岸。在基咪葛拉河河岸徒步狀態散步、漫步的尊者昧其亞看見清淨的、合意的、能被喜樂的芒果園。看見後,想這個:
  「這芒果園確實是清淨的、合意的、能被喜樂的,這裡對欲求勤奮的善男子來說,確實是適合的勤奮處,如果世尊允許我,我應該來這芒果園勤奮處。」
  那時,尊者昧其亞去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐下的尊者昧其亞對世尊說這個:
  「大德!這裡,我午前時穿衣、取衣鉢後,為了托鉢進入若堵村。在若堵村為了托鉢行走後,餐後已從施食返回,前往基咪葛拉河河岸。大德!在基咪葛拉河河岸徒步狀態散步、漫步的我看見清淨的、合意的、能被喜樂的芒果園,看見後,我想這個:『這芒果園確實是清淨的、合意的、能被喜樂的,這裡對欲求勤奮的善男子來說,確實是適合的勤奮處,如果世尊允許我,我應該來這芒果園勤奮處。』如果世尊允許我,我應該去那芒果園勤奮處。」
  在這麼說時,世尊對尊者昧其亞說這個:「昧其亞!我只有一個人,請你等其他比丘來了再去。」
  第二次,尊者昧其亞對世尊說這個:
  「大德!世尊不再有任何更進一步應作的,對已作的不再有增加,大德!但我還有更進一步應作的,對已作的[還]存在增大,如果世尊允許我,我應該去那芒果園勤奮處。」
  第二次,世尊又對尊者昧其亞說這個:「昧其亞!我只有一個人,請你等其他比丘來了再去。」
  第三次,尊者昧其亞對世尊說這個:
  「大德!世尊不再有任何更進一步應作的,對已作的不再有增加,大德!但我還有更進一步應作的,對已作的[還]存在增大,如果世尊允許我,我應該去那芒果園勤奮處。」
  「昧其亞!你一直說『勤奮』,我們還能說什麼!昧其亞!現在,你考量的時間[出發]吧。」
  那時,尊者昧其亞從座位起來、向世尊問訊後,作右繞,接著前往那芒果園。抵達後,進入那芒果園,坐在某棵樹下為白天的住處。那時,當尊者昧其亞住在那芒果園時,多數時候生起三惡不善尋,即:欲尋、惡意尋、加害尋
  那時,尊者昧其亞想這個:「實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有啊,先生!我確實以信從在家出家成為無家者,但卻仍被這三惡不善尋,即:被欲尋、惡意尋、加害尋染著。」
  那時,尊者昧其亞傍晚時,從獨坐出來,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐下的尊者昧其亞對世尊說這個:
  「大德!這裡,當我住在那芒果園時,多數時候生起三惡不善尋,即:欲尋、惡意尋、加害尋。大德!那個我想這個:『實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有啊,先生!我確實以信從在家出家成為無家者,但卻仍被這三惡不善尋,即:被欲尋、惡意尋、加害尋染著。』」
  「昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,有五法轉起成熟,哪五個呢?
  昧其亞!這裡,比丘有善友、善伴侶、善同志,昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這是第一個轉起成熟之法。
  再者,昧其亞!比丘是持戒者,住於被波羅提木叉自制防護,具足正行行境,在諸微罪中看見可怕的,在諸學處上受持後學習,昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這是第二個轉起成熟之法。
  再者,昧其亞!凡這削減、有益心離蓋、轉起一向離貪、寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的談論,即:少欲論、知足論、獨居論不交際論、活力激發論、戒論、定論、慧論、解脫論、解脫智見論,是像這樣談論的隨欲得到者、不困難得到者、無困難得到者,昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這是第三個轉起成熟之法。
  再者,昧其亞!比丘為了不善法的捨斷、為了善法的具足,住於活力已被發動的、剛毅的、堅固努力的、在諸善法上不放下負擔的,昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這是第四個轉起成熟之法。
  再者,昧其亞!比丘是有慧者,具備導向生起與滅沒、聖、洞察、導向苦的完全滅盡之慧,昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這是第五個轉起成熟之法。昧其亞!當心解脫未成熟時,這些是五個轉起成熟之法。
  昧其亞!有善友、善伴侶、善同志比丘的這個能被預期:他必將是持戒者,必將住於被波羅提木叉自制防護,具足正行與行境,在諸微罪中看見可怕的,必將在諸學處上受持後學習。
  昧其亞!有善友、善伴侶、善同志比丘的這個能被預期:凡這削減、隨應於心離蓋、轉起一向厭、離貪滅、寂靜、證智正覺、涅槃的談論,即:少欲論、知足論、獨居論、不交際論、活力激發論、戒論、定論、慧論、解脫論、解脫智見論,對像這樣之論他必將是隨欲得到者、不困難得到者、無困難得到者。
  昧其亞!有善友、善伴侶、善同志比丘的這個能被預期:他必將為了不善法的捨斷、為了善法的具足,住於活力已被發動的、剛毅的、堅固努力的、在諸善法上不放下負擔的。
  昧其亞!有善友、善伴侶、善同志比丘的這個能被預期:他必將是有慧者,具備導向生起與滅沒之慧;聖、洞察,導向苦的完全滅盡[之慧]。
  又,昧其亞!比丘在這五法上住立後,應該更進一步修習四法:應該為捨斷貪修習不淨、應該為捨斷惡意修習慈、應該為斷絕尋修習入出息念、應該為根除我是之慢修習無常想。昧其亞!對無常想者來說,無我想確立,無我想者根除了我是之慢,當生到達涅槃。」[AN.9.3]
  那時,世尊知道這件事後,在那時候吟出這個優陀那
  「小的尋、細的尋,當被伴隨時有意的浮揚,
   當這些意的尋不被知道時,迷走的心從一處到另一處跑。
   當這些意的尋被知道時,熱心者、有念者防護,
   在被伴隨而有意的浮揚時,覺者完全地捨斷這些。」


參考:
 1.佛常為眾生作善知識(SA.1238)。
 2.不淨vs.入出息念(SA.809)。
 3.修不淨觀斷貪欲,慈心斷瞋恚,無常想斷我慢,安那般那念斷覺想(SA.815)。
 4.捨斷浮揚-以思行漸減其念(MA.101)。
 5.出曜經心意品(T.4p.761)/法集要頌經護心品(T.4p.795)
 亂觀及正觀,皆由意所生,
 能覺知心觀,愚心數數亂。
 智者如是觀,念者專為行,
 咄嗟意無著,唯佛能滅此/惟佛能滅此。
 3/13/2021
4. Meghiyavaggo
Ud.31/1. Meghiyasuttaṃ
  31. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā cālikāyaṃ viharati cālike pabbate. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā meghiyo bhagavato upaṭṭhāko hoti. Atha kho āyasmā meghiyo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho āyasmā meghiyo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘icchāmahaṃ, bhante, jantugāmaṃ piṇḍāya pavisitu’’nti. ‘‘Yassadāni tvaṃ, meghiya, kālaṃ maññasī’’ti.
  Atha kho āyasmā meghiyo pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya jantugāmaṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Jantugāme piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto yena kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīraṃ tenupasaṅkami. [upasaṅkamitvā (sabbattha) a. ni. 9.3 passitabbaṃ] Addasā kho āyasmā meghiyo [upasaṅkamitvā (sabbattha) a. ni. 9.3 passitabbaṃ] kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīre jaṅghāvihāraṃ [jaṅghavihāraṃ (ka.)] anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno [anuvicaramāno addasā kho (sī. syā. pī.), anuvicaramāno addasa (ka.)] ambavanaṃ pāsādikaṃ manuññaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ. Disvānassa etadahosi – ‘‘pāsādikaṃ vatidaṃ ambavanaṃ manuññaṃ [idaṃ padaṃ videsapotthakesu natthi, aṅguttarepi] ramaṇīyaṃ. Alaṃ vatidaṃ kulaputtassa padhānatthikassa padhānāya. Sace maṃ bhagavā anujāneyya, āgaccheyyāhaṃ imaṃ ambavanaṃ padhānāyā’’ti.
  Atha kho āyasmā meghiyo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā meghiyo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca –
  ‘‘Idhāhaṃ, bhante, pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya jantugāmaṃ piṇḍāya pāvisiṃ. Jantugāme piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto yena kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīraṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃ [upasaṅkamitvā (sabbattha)]. Addasaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante [upasaṅkamitvā (sabbattha)], kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīre jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno [anuvicaramāno addasaṃ (sabbattha)] ambavanaṃ pāsādikaṃ manuññaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ. Disvāna me etadahosi – ‘pāsādikaṃ vatidaṃ ambavanaṃ manuññaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ. Alaṃ vatidaṃ kulaputtassa padhānatthikassa padhānāya. Sace maṃ bhagavā anujāneyya, āgaccheyyāhaṃ imaṃ ambavanaṃ padhānāyā’ti. Sace maṃ, bhante, bhagavā anujānāti [anujāneyya (a. ni. 9.3)], gaccheyyāhaṃ taṃ ambavanaṃ padhānāyā’’ti.
  Evaṃ vutte, bhagavā āyasmantaṃ meghiyaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘āgamehi tāva, meghiya, ekakamhi [ekakamhā (sī. pī.), ekakomhi (syā.)] tāva, yāva aññopi koci bhikkhu āgacchatī’’ti.
  Dutiyampi kho āyasmā meghiyo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘bhagavato, bhante, natthi kiñci uttari [uttariṃ (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.)] karaṇīyaṃ, natthi katassa vā paticayo. Mayhaṃ kho pana, bhante, atthi uttari karaṇīyaṃ, atthi katassa paticayo. Sace maṃ bhagavā anujānāti, gaccheyyāhaṃ taṃ ambavanaṃ padhānāyā’’ti. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ meghiyaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘āgamehi tāva, meghiya, ekakamhi tāva, yāva aññopi koci bhikkhu āgacchatī’’ti.
  Tatiyampi kho āyasmā meghiyo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘bhagavato, bhante, natthi kiñci uttari karaṇīyaṃ, natthi katassa vā paticayo. Mayhaṃ kho pana, bhante, atthi uttari karaṇīyaṃ, atthi katassa paticayo. Sace maṃ bhagavā anujānāti, gaccheyyāhaṃ taṃ ambavanaṃ padhānāyā’’ti. ‘‘Padhānanti kho, meghiya, vadamānaṃ kinti vadeyyāma? Yassadāni tvaṃ, meghiya, kālaṃ maññasī’’ti.
  Atha kho āyasmā meghiyo uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā yena taṃ ambavanaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ ambavanaṃ ajjhogāhetvā [ajjhogahetvā (sī. syā. pī.)] aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle divāvihāraṃ nisīdi. Atha kho āyasmato meghiyassa tasmiṃ ambavane viharantassa yebhuyyena tayo pāpakā akusalā vitakkā samudācaranti, seyyathidaṃ – kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko [vitakkoti (sī. pī. ka.)].
  Atha kho āyasmato meghiyassa etadahosi – ‘‘acchariyaṃ vata bho, abbhutaṃ vata bho! Saddhāya ca vatamhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā. Atha ca panimehi tīhi pāpakehi akusalehi vitakkehi anvāsattā, seyyathidaṃ – kāmavitakkena, byāpādavitakkena, vihiṃsāvitakkena’’.
  Atha kho āyasmā meghiyo sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā meghiyo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘idha mayhaṃ, bhante, tasmiṃ ambavane viharantassa yebhuyyena tayo pāpakā akusalā vitakkā samudācaranti, seyyathidaṃ – kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko . Tassa mayhaṃ, bhante, etadahosi – ‘acchariyaṃ vata, bho, abbhutaṃ vata, bho! Saddhāya ca vatamhā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitā. Atha ca panimehi tīhi pāpakehi akusalehi vitakkehi anvāsattā, seyyathidaṃ – kāmavitakkena, byāpādavitakkena, vihiṃsāvitakkena’’’.
  ‘‘Aparipakkāya , meghiya, cetovimuttiyā pañca dhammā paripākāya saṃvattanti. Katame pañca?
  ‘‘Idha, meghiya, bhikkhu kalyāṇamitto hoti kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Aparipakkāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ayaṃ paṭhamo dhammo paripākāya saṃvattati.
  ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, meghiya, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti, pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. Aparipakkāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ayaṃ dutiyo dhammo paripākāya saṃvattati.
  ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, meghiya, bhikkhu yāyaṃ kathā abhisallekhikā cetovivaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ – appicchakathā, santuṭṭhikathā, pavivekakathā, asaṃsaggakathā, vīriyārambhakathā, sīlakathā, samādhikathā, paññākathā, vimuttikathā, vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā; evarūpāya kathāya nikāmalābhī hoti akicchalābhī akasiralābhī. Aparipākāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ayaṃ tatiyo dhammo paripākāya saṃvattati.
  ‘‘Puna caparaṃ , meghiya, bhikkhu āraddhavīriyo viharati, akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadāya [uppādāya (syā.)], thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. Aparipakkāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ayaṃ catuttho dhammo paripākāya saṃvattati.
  ‘‘Puna caparaṃ, meghiya, bhikkhu paññavā hoti udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammā dukkhakkhayagāminiyā. Aparipakkāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ayaṃ pañcamo dhammo paripākāya saṃvattati. Aparipakkāya, meghiya, cetovimuttiyā ime pañca dhammā paripākāya saṃvattanti.
  ‘‘Kalyāṇamittassetaṃ , meghiya, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ kalyāṇasahāyassa kalyāṇasampavaṅkassa yaṃ sīlavā bhavissati, pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharissati, ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhissati sikkhāpadesu.
  ‘‘Kalyāṇamittassetaṃ , meghiya, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ kalyāṇasahāyassa kalyāṇasampavaṅkassa yaṃ yāyaṃ kathā abhisallekhikā cetovivaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati, seyyathidaṃ – appicchakathā, santuṭṭhikathā, pavivekakathā, asaṃsaggakathā, vīriyārambhakathā, sīlakathā, samādhikathā, paññākathā, vimuttikathā, vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā; evarūpāya kathāya nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhī.
  ‘‘Kalyāṇamittassetaṃ, meghiya, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ kalyāṇasahāyassa kalyāṇasampavaṅkassa yaṃ āraddhavīriyo viharissati akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya, kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ upasampadāya, thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu.
  ‘‘Kalyāṇamittassetaṃ, meghiya, bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṃ kalyāṇasahāyassa kalyāṇasampavaṅkassa yaṃ paññavā bhavissati, udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammā dukkhakkhayagāminiyā.
  ‘‘Tena ca pana, meghiya, bhikkhunā imesu pañcasu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya cattāro dhammā uttari bhāvetabbā – asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya, mettā bhāvetabbā byāpādassa pahānāya, ānāpānassati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya, aniccasaññā bhāvetabbā asmimānasamugghātāya. Aniccasaññino hi, meghiya, anattasaññā saṇṭhāti, anattasaññī asmimānasamugghātaṃ pāpuṇāti diṭṭheva dhamme nibbāna’’nti.
  Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
  ‘‘Khuddā vitakkā sukhumā vitakkā,
  Anugatā [anuggatā (sī. ka. aṭṭhakathāyaṃ pāṭhantaraṃ)] manaso uppilāvā [ubbilāpā (sī. syā. pī.)];
  Ete avidvā manaso vitakke,
  Hurā huraṃ dhāvati bhantacitto.
  ‘‘Ete ca vidvā manaso vitakke,
  Ātāpiyo saṃvaratī satīmā;
  Anugate manaso uppilāve,
  Asesamete pajahāsi buddho’’ti. paṭhamaṃ;
漢巴經文比對
  「無為無作,亦無所觀(MA.56)」,南傳作「不再有任何更進一步應作的,對已作的不再有增加」(natthi kiñci uttari karaṇīyaṃ, natthi katassa paṭicayo),菩提比丘長老英譯為「沒有什麼進一步要做的,不[必]增加他已做的」(there is nothing further to be done and no [need to] increase what he has done)。按:《滿足希求》以「在四諦上對四種該作的已作的狀態」解說「不再有任何更進一步應作的」;以「因為道已修習而不必再修習,雜染已捨斷而不必再捨斷」解說「對已作的不再有增加」。
  「修惡露令斷欲(MA.56)」,南傳作「應該為捨斷貪修習不淨」(asubhā bhāvetabbā rāgassa pahānāya),菩提比丘長老英譯為「無吸引力[之認知]應該為捨棄慾望而被開發」([The perception of] unattractiveness should be developed for the abandoning of lust)。
  「修息出息入令斷亂念(MA.56)」,南傳作「應該為斷絕尋修習入出息念」(ānāpānassati bhāvetabbā vitakkupacchedāya),菩提比丘長老英譯為「呼吸的深切注意應該為截斷心思而被開發」(Mindfulness of breathing should be developed for cutting off thoughts)。
  「小的尋、細的尋」(Khuddā vitakkā sukhumā vitakkā),「小的」(Khuddā),另一個意思是「劣的」,《優陀那註釋》以「下劣的;劣的(hīnā lāmakā)解說,「[小的]尋」則以「欲尋等三惡尋」(kāmavitakkādayo tayo pāpavitakkā)解說,「細的[尋]」則以「親里尋、國土尋、詭辯尋……」(Ñātivitakko janapadavitakko amarāvitakko…)解說。《大義釋》說前者為「中等的污染」(majjhimā kilesā),後者為「細的污染」(sukhumā kilesā),而「粗的污染」(oḷārikā kilesā)則為「身惡行、語惡行、意惡行」(Ni.14, 164)。
  按:此品主題不明顯,且作「守護」-1.防護小尋細尋捨斷意的浮揚。2.守護身心知生滅者捨惡趣。3.向邪惡的心會對他做更惡的。4.已離染不發怒何來苦。5.龍象意喜樂於單獨。6.行為自制食知量住邊地在增上心上努力。7.寂靜者總是有念的。8.忍耐粗惡語。9.在憂愁中不憂愁。10.有寂靜心者離魔繫。
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