經號:   
   (SN.35.245 更新)
相應部35相應245經/像緊叔迦那樣經(處相應/處篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  那時,某位比丘去見另一位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:
  「學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?」
  「學友!當比丘如實了知六觸處集起與滅沒時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。」
  那時,那位比丘不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,去見另一位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:
  「學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?」
  「學友!當比丘如實了知五取蘊的集起與滅沒時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。」
  那時,那位比丘不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,去見另一位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:
  「學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?」
  「學友!當比丘如實了知四大的集起與滅沒時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。」
  那時,那位比丘不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,去見另一位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:
  「學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?」
  「學友!當比丘如實了知凡任何集法都是滅法時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。」
  那時,那位比丘不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,去見世尊。抵達後,對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!這裡,我去見某位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:『學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?』大德!當這麼說時,那位比丘對我這麼說:『學友!當比丘如實了知六觸處的集起與滅沒時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。』大德!那時,我不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,去見另一位比丘。抵達後,對那位比丘這麼說:『學友!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?』大德!當這麼說時,那位比丘對我這麼說:『學友!當比丘如實了知五取蘊的……(中略)如實了知四大的集起與滅沒……(中略)如實了知凡任何集法都是滅法時,學友!這個情形比丘的見已善清淨。』大德!那時,我不滿意那比丘對問題的解說,來見世尊,大德!什麼情形比丘的見已善清淨呢?」
  「比丘!猶如若有未曾見過緊叔迦的男子,去見另一位見過緊叔迦的男子。抵達後,會對那位男子這麼說:『男子先生!緊叔迦像什麼樣子呢?』他會這麼說:『喂!男子!緊叔迦是黑色的,猶如燒過的殘株。』比丘!當時,那緊叔迦就完全如那位男子所見。
  比丘!那時,那位男子不滿意那男子對問題的解說,去見另一位見過緊叔迦的男子。抵達後,會對那位男子這麼說:『男子先生!緊叔迦像什麼樣子呢?』他會這麼說:『喂!男子!緊叔迦是紅色的,猶如肉片。』比丘!當時,那緊叔迦就完全如那位男子所見。
  比丘!那時,那位男子不滿意那男子對問題的解說,去見另一位見過緊叔迦的男子。抵達後,會對那位男子這麼說:『男子先生!緊叔迦像什麼樣子呢?』他會這麼說:『喂!男子!緊叔迦生出下垂的樹皮與迸裂的豆夾,猶如金合歡樹。』比丘!當時,那緊叔迦就完全如那位男子所見。
  比丘!那時,那位男子不滿意那男子對問題的解說,去見另一位見過緊叔迦的男子。抵達後,會對那位男子這麼說:『男子先生!緊叔迦像什麼樣子呢?』他會這麼說:『喂!男子!緊叔迦有茂密的樹葉、影子濃密,猶如榕樹。』比丘!當時,那緊叔迦就完全如那位男子所見。
  同樣的,比丘!無論被那些善人怎樣善清淨的看見所勝解,就被那些善人如那樣解說。
  比丘!猶如國王邊境的城市,有堅固的壁壘,堅固的城牆與城門,有六道門,在那裡的賢智、能幹、有智慧守門人阻止陌生人,而使熟人進入,一對快速使者從東方來了後,會對守門人這麼說:『男子先生!這座城的城主在哪裡呢?』他會這麼回答:『大德!他坐在中央廣場。』那時,那對快速使者[去見城主,]對城主交付如實話語後,會朝來時路啟程;一對快速使者從西方來了後,……(中略)從北方……一對快速使者從南方來了後,會對守門人這麼說:『男子先生!這座城的城主在哪裡呢?』他會這麼回答:『大德!他坐在中央廣場。』那時,那對快速使者[去見城主,]對城主交付如實話語後,會朝來時路啟程。
  比丘!我的這個譬喻是為了作義理的教授。這裡,這個義理是:比丘!『城市』,這是對於這父母生成,米粥積聚,無常、塗身、按摩、破壞、分散法之四大身的同義語;比丘!『六道門』,這是對於六內處的同義語;比丘!『守門人』,這是對於念的同義語;比丘!『一對快速使者』,這是對於止觀的同義語;比丘!『城主』,這是對於識的同義語;比丘!『在中央廣場』,這是對於四大的同義語,即:對於地界、對於水界、對於火界、對於風界;比丘!『如實話語』,這是對於涅槃的同義語;比丘!『來時路』,這是對於八支聖道的同義語,即:對於正見、……(中略)對於正定。」
SN.35.245/(8) Kiṃsukopamasuttaṃ
   245. Atha kho aññataro bhikkhu yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavoca– “kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti? “Yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti.
   Atha kho so bhikkhu asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavoca– “kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti? “Yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti.
   Atha kho so bhikkhu asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavoca– “kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti? “Yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti.
   Atha kho so bhikkhu asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavoca– “kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti? “Yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhammanti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā, kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti.
   Atha kho so bhikkhu asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “idhāhaṃ, bhante, yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkamiṃ; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavocaṃ– kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī’ti? Evaṃ vutte, bhante, so bhikkhu maṃ etadavoca– ‘yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī’ti. Atha khvāhaṃ, bhante, asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena yenaññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkamiṃ; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavocaṃ– ‘kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī’ti? Evaṃ vutte, bhante, so bhikkhu maṃ etadavoca– ‘yato kho, āvuso, bhikkhu pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ …pe… catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti …pe… yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhammanti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ettāvatā kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī’ti. Atha khvāhaṃ, bhante, asantuṭṭho tassa bhikkhussa pañhaveyyākaraṇena yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃ. Kittāvatā nu kho, bhante, bhikkhuno dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hotī”ti?
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, purisassa kiṃsuko adiṭṭhapubbo assa. So yenaññataro puriso kiṃsukassa dassāvī tenupasaṅkameyya. Upasaṅkamitvā taṃ purisaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kīdiso, bho purisa, kiṃsuko’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kāḷako kho, ambho purisa, kiṃsuko– seyyathāpi jhāmakhāṇū’ti. Tena kho pana, bhikkhu, samayena tādisovassa kiṃsuko yathāpi tassa purisassa dassanaṃ. Atha kho, so bhikkhu, puriso asantuṭṭho tassa purisassa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yenaññataro puriso kiṃsukassa dassāvī tenupasaṅkameyya; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ purisaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kīdiso bho purisa, kiṃsuko’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘lohitako kho, ambho purisa, kiṃsuko– seyyathāpi maṃsapesī’ti. Tena kho pana, bhikkhu, samayena tādisovassa kiṃsuko yathāpi tassa purisassa dassanaṃ. Atha kho so bhikkhu puriso asantuṭṭho tassa purisassa pañhaveyyākaraṇena, yenaññataro puriso kiṃsukassa dassāvī tenupasaṅkameyya upasaṅkamitvā taṃ purisaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kīdiso, bho purisa, kiṃsuko’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya – ‘ocīrakajāto kho, ambho purisa, kiṃsuko ādinnasipāṭiko– seyyathāpi sirīso’ti. Tena kho pana, bhikkhu, samayena tādisovassa kiṃsuko, yathāpi tassa purisassa dassanaṃ. Atha kho so bhikkhu puriso asantuṭṭho tassa purisassa pañhaveyyākaraṇena yenaññataro puriso kiṃsukassa dassāvī tenupasaṅkameyya; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ purisaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kīdiso, bho purisa, kiṃsuko’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘bahalapattapalāso sandacchāyo kho, ambho purisa, kiṃsuko– seyyathāpi nigrodho’ti. Tena kho pana, bhikkhu, samayena tādisovassa kiṃsuko, yathāpi tassa purisassa dassanaṃ. Evameva kho, bhikkhu, yathā yathā adhimuttānaṃ tesaṃ sappurisānaṃ dassanaṃ suvisuddhaṃ hoti, tathā tathā kho tehi sappurisehi byākataṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhu, rañño paccantimaṃ nagaraṃ daḷhuddhāpaṃ daḷhapākāratoraṇaṃ chadvāraṃ. Tatrassa dovāriko paṇḍito byatto medhāvī, aññātānaṃ nivāretā, ñātānaṃ pavesetā. Puratthimāya disāya āgantvā sīghaṃ dūtayugaṃ taṃ dovārikaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kahaṃ, bho purisa, imassa nagarassa nagarassāmī’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘eso, bhante, majjhe siṅghāṭake nisinno’ti. Atha kho taṃ sīghaṃ dūtayugaṃ nagarassāmikassa yathābhūtaṃ vacanaṃ niyyātetvā yathāgatamaggaṃ paṭipajjeyya. Pacchimāya disāya āgantvā sīghaṃ dūtayugaṃ …pe… uttarāya disāya… dakkhiṇāya disāya āgantvā sīghaṃ dūtayugaṃ taṃ dovārikaṃ evaṃ vadeyya– ‘kahaṃ, bho purisa, imassa nagarassāmī’ti? So evaṃ vadeyya– ‘eso, bhante, majjhe siṅghāṭake nisinno’ti. Atha kho taṃ sīghaṃ dūtayugaṃ nagarassāmikassa yathābhūtaṃ vacanaṃ niyyātetvā yathāgatamaggaṃ paṭipajjeyya.
   “Upamā kho myāyaṃ, bhikkhu, katā atthassa viññāpanāya. Ayañcettha attho ‘nagaran’ti kho, bhikkhu, imassetaṃ cātumahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṃ mātāpettikasambhavassa odanakummāsūpacayassa aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṃsanadhammassa. ‘Cha dvārā’ti kho, bhikkhu, channetaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Dovāriko’ti kho, bhikkhu, satiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Sīghaṃ dūtayugan’ti kho, bhikkhu, samathavipassanānetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Nagarassāmī’ti kho, bhikkhu, viññāṇassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Majjhe siṅghāṭako’ti kho bhikkhu, catunnetaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ adhivacanaṃ– pathavīdhātuyā, āpodhātuyā, tejodhātuyā, vāyodhātuyā. ‘Yathābhūtaṃ vacanan’ti kho, bhikkhu, nibbānassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Yathāgatamaggo’ti kho, bhikkhu, ariyassetaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa adhivacanaṃ, seyyathidaṃ– sammādiṭṭhiyā …pe… sammāsamādhissā”ti. Aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「緊獸(SA.1175)」,南傳作「緊叔迦」(kiṃsuko,逐字譯為「什麼-鸚鵡」,另譯為「赤花樹;肉色花;鸚鵡樹;樹森林的火焰;拙劣的柚木樹;Butea frondosa」),菩提比丘長老英譯照錄原文,但解說:依字面的意思為「它是什麼?」(what's it),可能起源於古印度的民間謎語,在〈本生〉中說到「緊叔迦」在發芽時,像燒過的殘株(charred stump);葉子變綠時,像榕樹;開花時,像肉片(按:呈鮮紅色,中間花瓣形狀像鸚鵡的嘴);結果時,像金合歡樹(acacia)。
  「尸利沙(SA.1175)」,南傳作「金合歡樹」(sirīsoti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「金合歡樹;洋槐;刺槐」(an acacia tree)。
  「尼拘婁陀樹(SA.1175)」,南傳作「榕樹」(nigrodhoti,另譯為「尼拘律」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「榕樹」(a banyan tree)。