經號:   
   (SN.35.132 更新)
相應部35相應132經/魯西遮經(處相應/處篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)[SA.255]
  有一次尊者大迦旃延住在阿槃提國馬迦拉迦的林野小屋。
  那時,眾多魯西遮婆羅門的打柴學生婆羅門徒弟,去尊者迦旃延的林野小屋處。抵達後,在小屋的四周圍走動、徘徊,高聲、大聲地玩(作)種種跳戲:「然而這些卑賤、黑色、親族腳子孫禿頭假沙門,被他們的維持者恭敬、尊重、尊敬、禮拜、崇拜。」
  那時,尊者大迦旃延從住處出來後,對那些學生婆羅門們說這個:
  「學生婆羅門們!請你們不要吵(作聲音),我將為你們說法。」
  在這麼說時,那些學生婆羅門保持沈默。
  那時,尊者大迦旃延以偈頌對那些學生婆羅門說:
  「在更早以前有最上戒行者:那些婆羅門凡他們記得古傳者,
   他們是守護諸[根]門者、善守護者:克服他們的憤怒後,
   他們是在法與禪上的愛好者:那些婆羅門凡他們記得古傳者。
   但這些墮落後[說]『我們誦讀』,被種姓陶醉(驕慢)者們行不正,
   被憤怒征服者們取各種棍棒,成為侵犯懦弱者與堅強者
   對不守護[根]門者們來說是無用的,像在夢中所得到的人的財產。
   斷食者們與露地臥者們,清早沐浴與三吠陀
   粗的獸皮衣、結髮、污泥,咒語、戒與禁制、苦行,
   詭詐的彎曲拐杖,以及清洗水,
   這些婆羅門的容色(象徵),是些細的修習所做
   而心善得定的,明淨無混濁的,
   在一切生物類上不頑固的,那是為了到達梵天之道。」
  那時,那些憤怒、不悅的學生婆羅門去見魯西遮婆羅門。抵達後,對魯西遮婆羅門說這個:
  「真的,尊師應該知道,沙門大迦旃延一向地斥責、呵責婆羅門的經典。」
  在這麼說時,魯西遮婆羅門變得憤怒、不悅。
  那時,魯西遮婆羅門這麼想:
  「然而,這對我是不適當的:凡我全然聽學生婆羅門的後話就應該辱罵、應該誹謗沙門大迦旃延。讓我抵達後詢問。」
  那時,魯西遮婆羅門與那些學生婆羅門一同去見尊者大迦旃延。抵達後,與尊者大迦旃延互相問候。交換應該被互相問候的友好交談後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐下的魯西遮婆羅門對尊者大迦旃延說這個:
  「迦旃延先生!這裡,我的眾多打柴學生婆羅門徒弟曾來到嗎?」
  「婆羅門!這裡,你的眾多打柴學生婆羅門徒弟曾來到。」
  「那麼,曾有迦旃延先生與那些學生婆羅門就某事一起的交談嗎?」
  「婆羅門!曾有我與那些學生婆羅門就某事一起的交談。」
  「那麼,依怎樣的方式曾有迦旃延先生與那些學生婆羅門就某事一起的交談?」
  「婆羅門!曾有我與那些學生婆羅門一起這樣的交談:
  『在更早以前有最上戒行者:那些婆羅門凡他們記得古傳者……(中略)
   在一切生物類上不頑固的,那是為了到達梵天之道。』
  婆羅門!曾有我與那些學生婆羅門一起這樣的交談。」
  「迦旃延尊師說『不守護[根]門』,迦旃延先生!什麼情形是不守護[根]門呢?」
  「婆羅門!這裡,某一類人以眼見色後,志向諸可愛形色的色,排拒諸不可愛形色的色,住於身念未現起的、少心的,以及不如實知道那個心解脫、慧解脫:他的那些生起的惡不善法無餘被滅之處;以耳聽聲音後……以鼻聞氣味後……以舌嚐味道後……以身觸所觸後……以意識知法後,志向諸可愛形色的法,排拒諸不可愛形色的法,住於身念未現起的、少心的,以及不如實知道那個心解脫、慧解脫:他的那些生起的惡不善法無餘被滅之處,婆羅門先生!這樣是不守護[根]門。」
  「不可思議啊,迦旃延先生!未曾有啊,迦旃延先生!這位不守護[根]門者就多麼被迦旃延師尊告知為『不守護[根]門者』。
  迦旃延尊師說『守護[根]門』,迦旃延先生!什麼情形是守護[根]門?」
  「婆羅門!這裡,比丘以眼見色後,不志向諸可愛形色的色,不排拒不可愛形色的色,住於身念已現起的、無量心的,以及如實知道那個心解脫、慧解脫:他的那些生起的惡不善法無餘被滅之處;以耳聽聲音後……以鼻聞氣味後……以舌嚐味道後……以身觸所觸後……以意識知法後,不志向諸可愛法,不排拒諸不可愛形色的法,住於身念已現起的、無量心的,以及如實知道那個心解脫、慧解脫:他的那些生起的惡不善法無餘被滅之處,婆羅門先生!這樣是守護[根]門。」
  「不可思議啊,迦旃延先生!未曾有啊,迦旃延先生!這位守護[根]門者就多麼被迦旃延師尊告知為『守護[根]門者』。
  太偉大了,迦旃延先生!太偉大了,迦旃延先生!
  迦旃延先生!猶如扶正顛倒的,或揭開隱藏的,或告知迷路者的道路,或在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者們看見諸色』。同樣的,法被迦旃延尊師以種種法門說明。
  迦旃延先生!這個我歸依世尊、法、比丘僧團,請迦旃延尊師記得我為優婆塞,從今天起終生歸依
  請迦旃延尊師去魯西遮家,就像迦旃延尊師去在馬迦拉迦的諸優婆塞家一樣,在那裡,凡學生婆羅門,或女學生婆羅門們將會問訊、起立迎接,將會給與座位,或水,那對他們將有長久的利益、安樂。」
SN.35.132/(9) Lohiccasuttaṃ
   132. Ekaṃ samayaṃ āyasmā mahākaccāno avantīsu viharati makkarakate araññakuṭikāyaṃ. Atha kho lohiccassa brāhmaṇassa sambahulā antevāsikā kaṭṭhahārakā māṇavakā yenāyasmato mahākaccānassa araññakuṭikā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā parito parito kuṭikāya anucaṅkamanti anuvicaranti uccāsaddā mahāsaddā kānici kānici seleyyakāni karonti – “ime pana muṇḍakā samaṇakā ibbhā kaṇhā bandhupādāpaccā, imesaṃ bharatakānaṃ sakkatā garukatā mānitā pūjitā apacitā”ti. Atha kho āyasmā mahākaccāno vihārā nikkhamitvā te māṇavake etadavoca– “mā māṇavakā saddamakattha; dhammaṃ vo bhāsissāmī”ti. Evaṃ vutte, te māṇavakā tuṇhī ahesuṃ. Atha kho āyasmā mahākaccāno te māṇavake gāthāhi ajjhabhāsi–
   “Sīluttamā pubbatarā ahesuṃ, te brāhmaṇā ye purāṇaṃ saranti.
   Guttāni dvārāni surakkhitāni, ahesuṃ tesaṃ abhibhuyya kodhaṃ.
   “Dhamme ca jhāne ca ratā ahesuṃ, te brāhmaṇā ye purāṇaṃ saranti.
   Ime ca vokkamma japāmaseti, gottena mattā visamaṃ caranti.
   “Kodhābhibhūtā puthu-attadaṇḍā, virajjamānā sataṇhātaṇhesu.
   Aguttadvārassa bhavanti moghā, supineva laddhaṃ purisassa vittaṃ.
   “Anāsakā thaṇḍilasāyikā ca; pāto sinānañca tayo ca vedā.
   “Kharājinaṃ jaṭāpaṅko, mantā sīlabbataṃ tapo;
   Kuhanā vaṅkadaṇḍā ca, udakācamanāni ca.
   “Vaṇṇā ete brāhmaṇānaṃ, katā kiñcikkhabhāvanā;
   Cittañca susamāhitaṃ, vippasannamanāvilaṃ.
   Akhilaṃ sabbabhūtesu, so maggo brahmapattiyā”ti.
   Atha kho te māṇavakā kupitā anattamanā yena lohicco brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā lohiccaṃ brāhmaṇaṃ etadavocuṃ– “yagghe! Bhavaṃ jāneyya, samaṇo mahākaccāno brāhmaṇānaṃ mante ekaṃsena apavadati, paṭikkosatī”ti? Evaṃ vutte, lohicco brāhmaṇo kupito ahosi anattamano. Atha kho lohiccassa brāhmaṇassa etadahosi– “na kho pana metaṃ patirūpaṃ yohaṃ aññadatthu māṇavakānaṃyeva sutvā samaṇaṃ mahākaccānaṃ akkoseyyaṃ paribhāseyyaṃ. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ upasaṅkamitvā puccheyyan”ti.
   Atha kho lohicco brāhmaṇo tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ yenāyasmā mahākaccāno tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā mahākaccānena saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho lohicco brāhmaṇo āyasmantaṃ mahākaccānaṃ etadavoca– “āgamaṃsu nu khvidha, bho kaccāna, amhākaṃ sambahulā antevāsikā kaṭṭhahārakā māṇavakā”ti? “Āgamaṃsu khvidha te, brāhmaṇa, sambahulā antevāsikā kaṭṭhahārakā māṇavakā”ti. “Ahu pana bhoto kaccānassa tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ kocideva kathāsallāpo”ti? “Ahu kho me, brāhmaṇa, tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ kocideva kathāsallāpo”ti “Yathā kathaṃ pana bhoto kaccānassa tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ ahosi kathāsallāpo”ti? “Evaṃ kho me, brāhmaṇa, tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ ahosi kathāsallāpo–
   “Sīluttamā pubbatarā ahesuṃ,
   Te brāhmaṇā ye purāṇaṃ saranti. …Pe….
   Akhilaṃ sabbabhūtesu, so maggo brahmapattiyā”ti.
   “Evaṃ kho me, brāhmaṇa, tehi māṇavakehi saddhiṃ ahosi kathāsallāpo”ti.
   “‘Aguttadvāro’ti bhavaṃ kaccāno āha. Kittāvatā nu kho, bho kaccāna, aguttadvāro hotī”ti? “Idha, brāhmaṇa, ekacco cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe adhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati, parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme adhimuccati, appiyarūpe ca dhamme byāpajjati, anupaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati, parittacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Evaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, aguttadvāro hotī”ti. “Acchariyaṃ, bho kaccāna; abbhutaṃ, bho kaccāna! Yāvañcidaṃ bhotā kaccānena aguttadvārova samāno aguttadvāroti akkhāto.
   “‘Guttadvāro’ti bhavaṃ kaccāno āha. Kittāvatā nu kho, bho kaccāna, guttadvāro hotī”ti? “Idha, brāhmaṇa, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyarūpe rūpe nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe rūpe na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati, appamāṇacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya piyarūpe dhamme nādhimuccati, appiyarūpe dhamme na byāpajjati, upaṭṭhitakāyassati ca viharati, appamāṇacetaso tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yatthassa te uppannā pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. Evaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, guttadvāro hotī”ti.
   “Acchariyaṃ, bho kaccāna; abbhutaṃ, bho kaccāna! Yāvañcidaṃ bhotā kaccānena guttadvārova samāno guttadvāroti akkhāto. Abhikkantaṃ, bho kaccāna; abhikkantaṃ, bho kaccāna! Seyyathāpi, bho kaccāna, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya, cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantīti; evamevaṃ bhotā kaccānena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bho kaccāna, taṃ bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, dhammañca, bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhavaṃ kaccāno dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gataṃ. Yathā ca bhavaṃ kaccāno makkarakate upāsakakulāni upasaṅkamati; evameva lohiccakulaṃ upasaṅkamatu. Tattha ye māṇavakā vā māṇavikā vā bhavantaṃ kaccānaṃ abhivādessanti paccuṭṭhissanti āsanaṃ vā udakaṃ vā dassanti, tesaṃ taṃ bhavissati dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāyā”ti. Navamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「三浴誦三典(SA.255)」,南傳作「清早沐浴與三吠陀」(pāto sinānañca tayo ca vedā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「在黎明沐浴,(學習)三吠陀」(Bathing at dawn, [study of] the three Vedas)。按:「三浴」指一天沐浴三次的戒規,「三典」就是指「梨具吠陀、夜柔吠陀、沙摩吠陀」等「三吠陀」。「吠陀」(veda),另音譯為「韋陀;毘陀論經」,另有「信受;宗教感情;知;智」的意思。
  「玩(作)種種跳戲」(kānici kānici seleyyakāni(selissakāni) karonti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「他們玩種種惡作劇」(they played various pranks)。按:《顯揚真義》說,這是一個人跳上另一個背部往上堆積(cito)的行走遊戲(caṅkamanakīḷanāni)。
  「侵犯懦弱者與堅強者」(virajjamānā sataṇhātaṇhesu,原意為「在有渴愛無渴愛上離染」),菩提比丘長老依據錫蘭本(virajjhamānā tasathāvaresu)英譯為「他們折磨懦弱者與堅強者」(They molest both frail and firm)。按:《顯揚真義》以「在有渴愛離渴愛上」解說「在有渴愛無渴愛上」(Sataṇhātaṇhesūti sataṇhanittaṇhesu),無助於前後文意的貫通,今依錫蘭本譯。
  「些細的修習所做」(katā kiñcikkhabhāvanā),菩提比丘長老依據《顯揚真義》的解說英譯為「被用來增加他們的世俗收益」(Are used to increase their worldly gains)。按:《顯揚真義》以「這只是背誦,或為了些細財物的增加所作之意」(Ayameva vā pāṭho, āmisakiñcikkhassa vaḍḍhanatthāya katanti attho)解說。