經號:   
   (SN.22.89 更新)
相應部22相應89經/差摩經(蘊相應/蘊篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  有一次,眾多上座比丘住在憍賞彌瞿師羅園。
  當時,生病、痛苦、重病的尊者差摩住在棗樹園。
  那時,上座比丘們在傍晚時,從獨坐中出來,召喚尊者陀裟:
  「來!陀裟學友!去見差摩比丘。抵達後,請你對差摩比丘這麼說:『差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「學友!你是否能忍受?是否能維持?是否苦的感受減退而沒增加,其減退而沒增加被了知?」』」
  「是的,學友們!」尊者陀裟回答上座比丘們後,就去見尊者差摩。抵達後,對尊者差摩這麼說:
  「差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:『學友!你是否能忍受?……(中略)其減退而沒增加被了知?』」
  「學友!我不能忍受,不能維持,……(中略)其增加而沒減退被了知。」
  那時,尊者陀裟去見上座比丘們。抵達後,對上座比丘們這麼說:
  「學友們!差摩比丘這麼說:『學友!我不能忍受,不能維持,……(中略)其增加而沒減退被了知。』」
  「來!陀裟學友!去見差摩比丘。抵達後,請你對差摩比丘這麼說:『差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「學友!這五取蘊世尊所說,即:色取蘊、受取蘊、想取蘊、行取蘊、識取蘊,尊者差摩認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所呢?」』」
  「是的,學友們!」尊者陀裟回答上座比丘們後,就去見尊者差摩。抵達後,……(中略)差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊、……(中略)識取蘊,尊者差摩認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所呢?」
  「學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊、……(中略)識取蘊,我確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所。」
  那時,尊者陀裟去見上座比丘們。抵達後,對上座比丘們這麼說:
  「學友們!差摩比丘這麼說:『學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊、……(中略)識取蘊,我確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所。』」
  「來!陀裟學友!去見差摩比丘。抵達後,請你對差摩比丘這麼說:『差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊……(中略)識取蘊,如果尊者差摩確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所,那樣的話,尊者差摩是煩惱已盡的阿羅漢了。」』」
  「是的,學友們!」尊者陀裟回答上座比丘們後,就去見尊者差摩,……(中略)差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊……(中略)識取蘊,如果尊者差摩確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所,如果是這樣,那尊者差摩是煩惱已盡的阿羅漢了。」
  「學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊、……(中略)識取蘊,我確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所,但我不是煩惱已盡的阿羅漢。雖然,學友!我在五取蘊中到達我是』,但我不認為『我是這個』。」
  那時,尊者陀裟去見上座比丘們,……(中略)對上座比丘們這麼說:
  「學友們!差摩比丘這麼說:『學友!這五取蘊為世尊所說,即:色取蘊、……(中略)識取蘊,我確實不認為在這五取蘊中,哪一個是我,或是我所,但我不是煩惱已盡的阿羅漢,學友!雖然我在五取蘊中到達「我是」,但我不認為「我是這個」。』」
  「來!陀裟學友!去見差摩比丘。抵達後,請你對差摩比丘這麼說:『差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:
  「差摩學友!你說這『我是』,什麼是你說的這『我是』?你說色是『我是』嗎?你說除了色以外是『我是』嗎?受……想……行……你說識是『我是』嗎?你說除了識以外是『我是』嗎?差摩學友!你說這『我是』,什麼是你說的這『我是』?」』」
  「是的,學友們!」尊者陀裟回答上座比丘們後,就去見尊者差摩。抵達後,對尊者差摩這麼說:
  「差摩學友!上座們對你這麼說:『差摩學友!你說這「我是」,什麼是你說的這「我是」?你說色是「我是」嗎?你說除了色以外是「我是」嗎?受……想……行……你說識是「我是」嗎?你說除了識以外是「我是」嗎?差摩學友!你說這「我是」,什麼是你說的這「我是」?』」
  「夠了,陀裟學友!為何為此來回地走!學友!請你拿手杖來,我就去見上座比丘們。」
  那時,尊者差摩依靠手杖去見上座比丘們。抵達後,與上座比丘們互相歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,上座比丘們對尊者差摩這麼說:
  「差摩學友!你說這『我是』,什麼是你說的這『我是』?你說色是『我是』嗎?你說除了色以外是『我是』嗎?受……想……行……你說識是『我是』嗎?你說除了識以外是『我是』嗎?差摩學友!你說這『我是』,什麼是你說的這『我是』?」
  「學友們!我確實不說色是『我是』,我也不說除了色以外是『我是』;不說受……不說想……不說行……我不說識是『我是』,我不說除了識以外是『我是』。雖然,學友們!我在五取蘊中到達『我是』,但我不認為『我是這個』。
  學友們!猶如青蓮,或紅蓮,或白蓮的香,如果有人這麼說,是『葉的香』,或『容色的香』,或『花蕊絲的香』,那樣說時,會是正確地說了嗎?」
  「不,學友!」
  「而,學友們!依怎樣回答時,會是正確地回答?」
  「學友!回答是『花的香』時,會是正確地回答。」
  「同樣地,學友們!我確實不說色是『我是』,我也不說除了色以外是『我是』;不說受……不說想……不說行……我不說識是『我是』,我不說除了識以外是『我是』,學友們!雖然我在五取蘊中到達『我是』,但我不認為『我是這個』。
  學友們!即使聖弟子的五下分結已被捨斷了,但確實在那五取蘊上仍有殘留的『我是』之慢、『我是』之欲、『我是』之煩惱潛在趨勢未根絕。過些時候,他在五取蘊上住於隨觀生滅:『像這樣是色,像這樣是色的,像這樣是色的滅沒;像這樣是受……像這樣是想……像這樣是行……像這樣是識,像這樣是識的集,這樣是識的滅沒。』當他在這五取蘊上住於隨觀生滅時,那在五取蘊上仍有殘留的『我是』之慢、『我是』之欲、『我是』之煩惱潛在趨勢未根絕者,也就走到根絕。
  學友們!猶如被污染、著垢的衣服會交給洗衣者。那位洗衣者以鹽,或以鹼,或以牛糞踩踏後,以清水清洗。即使那衣服變得清淨皎潔,確實仍有殘留的鹽味,或鹼味,或牛糞味未根絕。洗衣者將它交回給所有人。所有人會將它放在香味處理箱中,那仍有殘留的鹽味,或鹼味,或牛糞味未根絕者,也就走到根絕。
  同樣地,學友們!即使聖弟子的五下分結已被捨斷了,但確實在那五取蘊上仍有殘留的『我是』之慢、『我是』之欲、『我是』之煩惱潛在趨勢未根絕。過些時候,他在五取蘊上住於隨觀生滅:『像這樣是色,像這樣是色的集,像這樣是色的滅沒;像這樣是受……像這樣是想……像這樣是行……像這樣是識,像這樣是識的集,這樣是識的滅沒。』當他在這五取蘊上住於隨觀生滅時,那在五取蘊上仍有殘留的『我是』之慢、『我是』之欲、『我是』之煩惱潛在趨勢未根絕者,也就走到根絕。」
  當這麼說時,上座比丘們對尊者差摩這麼說:
  「我們提問,並非期待惱害尊者差摩,但願尊者差摩能詳細地告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明那位世尊的教說,而這裡,尊者差摩詳細地告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明了那位世尊的教說。」
  這就是尊者差摩所說,悅意的上座比丘們歡喜尊者差摩所說。
  而當這個解說被說時,六十位上座比丘與尊者差摩的心,以不執取而從諸煩惱解脫。
SN.22.89/(7). Khemakasuttaṃ
   89. Ekaṃ samayaṃ sambahulā therā bhikkhū kosambiyaṃ viharanti ghositārāme. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā khemako badarikārāme viharati ābādhiko dukkhito bāḷhagilāno. Atha kho therā bhikkhū sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhitā āyasmantaṃ dāsakaṃ āmantesuṃ– “ehi tvaṃ, āvuso dāsaka, yena khemako bhikkhu tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā khemakaṃ bhikkhuṃ evaṃ vadehi– ‘therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– kacci te, āvuso, khamanīyaṃ, kacci yāpanīyaṃ, kacci dukkhā vedanā paṭikkamanti no abhikkamanti, paṭikkamosānaṃ paññāyati no abhikkamo’”ti? “Evamāvuso”ti kho āyasmā dāsako therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭissutvā yenāyasmā khemako tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ khemakaṃ etadavoca – “therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– ‘kacci te, āvuso, khamanīyaṃ …pe… no abhikkamo’”ti? “Na me, āvuso, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ …pe… abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati no paṭikkamo”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā dāsako yena therā bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā there bhikkhū etadavoca– “khemako, āvuso, bhikkhu evamāha– ‘na me, āvuso, khamanīyaṃ …pe… abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati no paṭikkamo’”ti. “Ehi tvaṃ, āvuso dāsaka, yena khemako bhikkhu tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā khemakaṃ bhikkhuṃ evaṃ vadehi– ‘therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho Imesu āyasmā khemako pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassatī’”ti?
   “Evamāvuso”ti kho āyasmā dāsako therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭissutvā yenāyasmā khemako tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā …pe… therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– “pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Imesu āyasmā khemako pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassatī”ti? “Pañcime āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Imesu khvāhaṃ, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu na kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassāmī”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā dāsako yena therā bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā there bhikkhū etadavoca– “khemako, āvuso, bhikkhu evamāha– ‘pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Imesu khvāhaṃ, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu na kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassāmī’”ti. “Ehi tvaṃ, āvuso dāsaka, yena khemako bhikkhu tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā khemakaṃ bhikkhuṃ evaṃ vadehi– ‘therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. No ce kirāyasmā khemako imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassati. Tenahāyasmā khemako arahaṃ khīṇāsavo’”ti.
   “Evamāvuso”ti kho āyasmā dāsako therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭissutvā yenāyasmā khemako …pe… therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– “pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho; no ce kirāyasmā khemako imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassati, tenahāyasmā khemako arahaṃ khīṇāsavo”ti. “Pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Imesu khvāhaṃ, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu na kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassāmi na camhi arahaṃ khīṇāsavo; api ca me, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu ‘asmī’ti adhigataṃ, ‘ayamahamasmī’ti na ca samanupassāmī”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā dāsako yena therā bhikkhū …pe… there bhikkhū etadavoca– “khemako, āvuso, bhikkhu evamāha– pañcime, āvuso, upādānakkhandhā vuttā bhagavatā, seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho …pe… viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Imesu khvāhaṃ, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu na kiñci attaṃ vā attaniyaṃ vā samanupassāmi, na camhi arahaṃ khīṇāsavo; api ca me āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu ‘asmī’ti adhigataṃ, ‘ayamahamasmī’ti na ca samanupassāmī”ti.
   “Ehi tvaṃ, āvuso dāsaka, yena khemako bhikkhu tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā khemakaṃ bhikkhuṃ evaṃ vadehi– ‘therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu– yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, asmīti vadesi, kimetaṃ asmīti vadesi? Rūpaṃ asmīti vadesi, aññatra rūpā asmīti vadesi, vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ asmīti vadesi, aññatra viññāṇā asmīti vadesi. Yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, asmīti vadesi. Kimetaṃ asmīti vadesī’”ti?
   “Evamāvuso”ti kho āyasmā dāsako therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭissutvā yenāyasmā khemako tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ khemakaṃ etadavoca– therā taṃ, āvuso khemaka, evamāhaṃsu – “yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, ‘asmī’ti vadesi, kimetaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Rūpaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi aññatra rūpā ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi aññatra viññāṇā ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, ‘asmī’ti vadesi, kimetaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi”ti? “Alaṃ, āvuso dāsaka, kiṃ imāya sandhāvanikāya! Āharāvuso, daṇḍaṃ; ahameva yena therā bhikkhū tenupasaṅkamissāmī”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā khemako daṇḍamolubbha yena therā bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā therehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ khemakaṃ therā bhikkhū etadavocuṃ– “yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, ‘asmī’ti vadesi, kimetaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Rūpaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi, aññatra rūpā ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Vedanaṃ… saññaṃ… saṅkhāre… viññāṇaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesi, aññatra viññāṇā ‘asmī’ti vadesi? Yametaṃ, āvuso khemaka, ‘asmī’ti vadesi, kimetaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadesī”ti? “Na khvāhaṃ, āvuso, rūpaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadāmi; napi aññatra rūpā ‘asmī’ti vadāmi. Na vedanaṃ… na saññaṃ… na saṅkhāre… na viññāṇaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadāmi; napi aññatra viññāṇā ‘asmī’ti vadāmi. Api ca me, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu ‘asmī’ti adhigataṃ ‘ayamahamasmī’ti na ca samanupassāmi”.
   “Seyyathāpi, āvuso, uppalassa vā padumassa vā puṇḍarīkassa vā gandho. Yo nu kho evaṃ vadeyya– ‘pattassa gandho’ti vā ‘vaṇṇassa gandho’ti vā ‘kiñjakkhassa gandho’ti vā sammā nu kho so vadamāno vadeyyā”ti? “No hetaṃ, āvuso”. “Yathā kathaṃ, panāvuso, sammā byākaramāno byākareyyā”ti? “‘Pupphassa gandho’ti kho, āvuso, sammā byākaramāno byākareyyā”ti. “Evameva khvāhaṃ, āvuso, na rūpaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadāmi, napi aññatra rūpā ‘asmī’ti vadāmi. Na vedanaṃ… na saññaṃ… na saṅkhāre… na viññāṇaṃ ‘asmī’ti vadāmi, napi aññatra viññāṇā ‘asmī’ti vadāmi. Api ca me, āvuso, pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu ‘asmī’ti adhigataṃ ‘ayamahamasmī’ti na ca samanupassāmi”.
   “Kiñcāpi, āvuso, ariyasāvakassa pañcorambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pahīnāni bhavanti, atha khvassa hoti– ‘yo ca pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu anusahagato asmīti māno, asmīti chando, asmīti anusayo asamūhato. So aparena samayena pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassī viharati– iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā… iti saññā… iti saṅkhārā… iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti. Tassimesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato yopissa hoti pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu anusahagato ‘asmī’ti, māno ‘asmī’ti, chando ‘asmī’ti anusayo asamūhato, sopi samugghātaṃ gacchati.
   “Seyyathāpi āvuso, vatthaṃ saṃkiliṭṭhaṃ malaggahitaṃ. Tamenaṃ sāmikā rajakassa anupadajjuṃ. Tamenaṃ rajako ūse vā khāre vā gomaye vā sammadditvā acche udake vikkhāleti. Kiñcāpi taṃ hoti vatthaṃ parisuddhaṃ pariyodātaṃ, atha khvassa hoti yeva anusahagato ūsagandho vā khāragandho vā gomayagandho vā asamūhato. Tamenaṃ rajako sāmikānaṃ deti. Tamenaṃ sāmikā gandhaparibhāvite karaṇḍake nikkhipanti. Yopissa hoti anusahagato ūsagandho vā khāragandho vā gomayagandho vā asamūhato, sopi samugghātaṃ gacchati. Evameva kho, āvuso, kiñcāpi ariyasāvakassa pañcorambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni pahīnāni bhavanti, atha khvassa hoti yeva pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu anusahagato ‘asmī’ti, māno ‘asmī’ti, chando ‘asmī’ti anusayo asamūhato. So aparena samayena pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassī viharati. ‘Iti rūpaṃ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo; iti vedanā… iti saññā… iti saṅkhārā… iti viññāṇaṃ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti. Tassa imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato yopissa hoti pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu anusahagato ‘asmī’ti, māno ‘asmī’ti, chando ‘asmī’ti anusayo asamūhato, sopi samugghātaṃ gacchatī”ti.
   Evaṃ vutte, therā bhikkhū āyasmantaṃ khemakaṃ etadavocuṃ– “na kho mayaṃ āyasmantaṃ khemakaṃ vihesāpekhā pucchimha, api cāyasmā khemako pahosi tassa bhagavato sāsanaṃ vitthārena ācikkhituṃ desetuṃ paññāpetuṃ paṭṭhapetuṃ vivarituṃ vibhajituṃ uttānīkātuṃ. Tayidaṃ āyasmatā khemakena tassa bhagavato sāsanaṃ vitthārena ācikkhitaṃ desitaṃ paññāpitaṃ paṭṭhapitaṃ vivaritaṃ vibhajitaṃ uttānīkatan”ti.
   Idamavoca āyasmā khemako. Attamanā therā bhikkhū āyasmato khemakassa bhāsitaṃ abhinanduṃ. Imasmiñca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṃ bhaññamāne saṭṭhimattānaṃ therānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ anupādāya āsavehi cittāni vimucciṃsu, āyasmato khemakassa cāti. Sattamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「廣說(SA.103)」,南傳作「詳細地」(vitthārena,另譯為「廣說;廣博」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「詳細地」(in detail)。
  「到達」(adhigataṃ),菩提比丘長老認為這「可能是由來已久的訛誤」(probably an old corruption),而提議改讀成「未離」(avigataṃ, has not yet vanished),並解說這是「有學」與「阿羅漢」的根本差異。「有學」人消除了「身見」,不會再「認為」(identifies)五蘊是我,但還留有「餘慢」與「欲」之「我是」(I am)觀念的「無明」尚未根除。這種差異,那些尚未證果的上座比丘不明白,但尊者差摩當時已經是證得「初果」的聖者(有些論師認為已證得「不還果」,有些認為已證得「一來果」),對此相當清楚,所以會有經文往下的發展。按:《顯揚真義》以「『我是』指,這樣被轉起的渴愛、慢被到達」(asmīti evaṃ pavattā taṇhāmānā adhigatā)解說。
  「容色的香」(vaṇṇassa gandho),菩提比丘長老採用錫蘭手抄版(vaṇṭassa gandho)英譯為「屬於莖的香味」(the scent belongs to the stalk),正好與北傳經文的「莖香」相同。