經號:   
   (SN.22.80 更新)
相應部22相應80經/托鉢經(蘊相應/蘊篇/修多羅)(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在釋迦族人的迦毘羅衛城尼拘律園。
  那時,世尊就在某個場合解散比丘僧團後,在午前時穿好衣服後,取衣鉢,為了托鉢進入迦毘羅衛城。
  在迦毘羅衛城為了托鉢而行後,食畢,從施食處返回,前往大林中作中午的休息。進入大林後,坐在小橡樹下作中午的休息。
  那時,當世尊獨處、獨坐時,心中生起了這樣的深思:
  「比丘僧團被我逐出了,這裡有出家不久的新比丘,最近才來到這法、律中,如果他們見不到我,可能會異心;可能會變心,猶如幼小牛隻如果見不到母親,可能會異心;可能會變心。同樣的,這裡有出家不久的新比丘,最近才來到這法、律中,如果他們見不到我,可能會異心;可能會變心。
  猶如幼苗如果得不到水,可能會異心;可能會變心。同樣的,這裡有……如果他們見不到我,可能會異心;可能會變心。
  現在,讓我資助比丘僧團,一如我以前資助比丘僧團那樣。」
  那時,梵王娑婆主以心思量世尊心中的深思後,猶如有力氣的男子能伸直彎曲的手臂,或彎曲伸直的手臂那樣[快]地在梵天世界消失,出現在世尊面前。
  那時,梵王娑婆主整理上衣到一邊肩膀,向世尊合掌鞠躬後,對世尊這麼說:
  「正是這樣,世尊!正是這樣,善逝
  大德!比丘僧團被世尊逐出了,這裡有出家不久的新比丘,最近才來到這法、律中,如果他們見不到世尊,可能會異心;可能會變心,猶如幼小牛隻如果見不到母親,可能會異心;可能會變心。同樣的,這裡有出家不久的新比丘,最近才來到這法、律中,如果他們見不到世尊,可能會異心;可能會變心。
  猶如幼苗如果得不到水,可能會異心;可能會變心。同樣的,這裡有出家不久的新比丘,最近才來到這法、律中,如果他們見不到世尊,可能會異心;可能會變心。
  大德!請世尊歡喜比丘僧團!大德!請世尊歡迎比丘僧團!
  現在,請世尊資助比丘僧團,一如世尊以前資助比丘僧團那樣。」
  世尊以沈默同意了。
  那時,梵王娑婆主知道世尊同意後,向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著就在那裡消失了。
  那時,世尊在傍晚時,從獨坐中出來,到尼拘律園。抵達後,在設置好的座位坐下。坐好後,世尊作出像那樣的神通作為,使那些比丘每次會以一、二位,帶著膽怯之色來見{我}[世尊]。
  那些比丘每次以一、二位,帶著膽怯之色去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊對那些比丘這麼說:
  「比丘們!這是最下端的生活形態,即:托鉢。比丘們!在世間,這是詛咒:『托鉢者!你手持鉢遊蕩。』
  但,比丘們!這善男子們於合理的利益而親近,既非國王所迫,也非盜賊所迫,也非欠債人,也非害怕什麼,也非為了生活,而是:『我已陷入生、老、死、愁悲苦憂惱,已陷入苦,已被苦征服,如果能了知得到這整個苦蘊的結束就好了。』
  比丘們!這善男子這樣出家。但他是貪婪的、在欲上重貪欲的、有瞋害心的、有憎惡之意向的念已忘失的、不正知的、不得定的、心散亂的、諸根不制御的。比丘們!猶如火葬場的燃燒木柴,兩端已被燃燒,中間沾了糞,既不能在村落中當木材,也不能在山林中當木材,比丘們!像這樣的譬喻,我說這人既錯失了在家者的享樂,也沒完成沙門的利益。
  比丘們!有三不善尋:欲尋、惡意尋、加害尋。而,比丘們!這三不善尋在哪裡無餘滅?當住於在四念住中心善建立時,或者當修習無相定時。比丘們!修習無相定,這是很適當的。比丘們!當無相定已修習、已多修習時,有大果、大效益。
  比丘們!有二種見:有見與無有見
  比丘們!這裡,已受教導的聖弟子像這樣深慮:『在世間中,有任何我執取時沒有過失的嗎?』
  他這麼了知:『在世間中,沒有任何我執取時沒有過失的,因為當執取時,就只有色可執取,就只有受……就只有想……就只有行……當執取時,就只有識可執取;以我的那個取為緣而有有;以有為緣而有生;以生為緣而會有老、死、愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望生起,這樣是這整個苦蘊。』
  比丘們!你們怎麼想:色是常的,或是無常的呢?」
  「無常的,大德!」
  「而凡為無常的,是苦的,或是樂的呢?」
  「苦的,大德!」
  「而凡為無常的、苦的、變易法,你們適合認為:『這是我的我是這個這是我的真我。』嗎?」
  「不,大德!」
  「受……想……行……識……」
  ……(中略)
  「比丘們!因此,在這裡,當這麼看時……『……不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。』」
SN.22.80/(8). Piṇḍolyasuttaṃ
   80. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sakkesu viharati kapilavatthusmiṃ nigrodhārāme. Atha kho bhagavā kismiñcideva pakaraṇe bhikkhusaṅghaṃ paṇāmetvā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya kapilavatthuṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Kapilavatthusmiṃ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto yena mahāvanaṃ tenupasaṅkami divāvihārāya Mahāvanaṃ ajjhogāhetvā beluvalaṭṭhikāya mūle divāvihāraṃ nisīdi.
   Atha kho bhagavato rahogatassa paṭisallīnassa evaṃ cetaso parivitakko udapādi– “mayā kho bhikkhusaṅgho pabāḷho. Santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ. Tesaṃ mamaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi nāma vacchassa taruṇassa mātaraṃ apassantassa siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo, evameva santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ tesaṃ mamaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi nāma bījānaṃ taruṇānaṃ udakaṃ alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo, evameva santettha …pe… tesaṃ mamaṃ alabhantānaṃ dassanāya siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ yatheva mayā pubbe bhikkhusaṅgho anuggahito, evameva etarahi anuggaṇheyyaṃ bhikkhusaṅghan”ti.
   Atha kho brahmā sahampati bhagavato cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya– seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya evameva– brahmaloke antarahito bhagavato purato pāturahosi. Atha kho brahmā sahampati ekaṃsaṃ uttarāsaṅgaṃ karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṃ paṇāmetvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “evametaṃ, bhagavā; evametaṃ, sugata Bhagavato, bhante, bhikkhusaṅgho pabāḷho. Santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ. Tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi nāma vacchassa taruṇassa mātaraṃ apassantassa siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo, evameva santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ apassantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Seyyathāpi nāma bījānaṃ taruṇānaṃ udakaṃ alabhantānaṃ siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo, evameva santettha bhikkhū navā acirapabbajitā adhunāgatā imaṃ dhammavinayaṃ, tesaṃ bhagavantaṃ alabhantānaṃ dassanāya siyā aññathattaṃ siyā vipariṇāmo. Abhinandatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṅghaṃ; abhivadatu, bhante, bhagavā bhikkhusaṅghaṃ. Yatheva bhagavatā pubbe bhikkhusaṅgho anuggahito, evameva etarahi anuggaṇhātu bhikkhusaṅghan”ti.
   Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho brahmā sahampati bhagavato adhivāsanaṃ viditvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā tatthevantaradhāyi.
   Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yena nigrodhārāmo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā tathārūpaṃ iddhābhisaṅkhāraṃ abhisaṅkhāsi yathā te bhikkhū (ekadvīhikāya sārajjamānarūpā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkameyyuṃ. Tepi bhikkhū ekadvīhikāya sārajjamānarūpā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinne kho te bhikkhū bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Antamidaṃ, bhikkhave, jīvikānaṃ yadidaṃ piṇḍolyaṃ. Abhisāpoyaṃ, bhikkhave, lokasmiṃ piṇḍolo vicarasi pattapāṇīti. Tañca kho etaṃ, bhikkhave, kulaputtā upenti atthavasikā, atthavasaṃ paṭicca; neva rājābhinītā, na corābhinītā, na iṇaṭṭā, na bhayaṭṭā, na ājīvikāpakatā; api ca kho otiṇṇāmha jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi dukkhotiṇṇā dukkhaparetā appeva nāma imassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa antakiriyā paññāyethāti.
   “Evaṃ pabbajito cāyaṃ, bhikkhave, kulaputto. So ca hoti abhijjhālu kāmesu tibbasārāgo byāpannacitto paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo muṭṭhassati asampajāno asamāhito vibbhantacitto pākatindriyo. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave chavālātaṃ ubhatopadittaṃ majjhe gūthagataṃ, neva gāme kaṭṭhatthaṃ pharati, nāraññe kaṭṭhatthaṃ pharati. Tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi gihibhogā ca parihīno, sāmaññatthañca na paripūreti.
   “Tayome, bhikkhave, akusalavitakkā– kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṃsāvitakko. Ime ca bhikkhave, tayo akusalavitakkā kva aparisesā nirujjhanti? Catūsu vā satipaṭṭhānesu suppatiṭṭhitacittassa viharato animittaṃ vā samādhiṃ bhāvayato. Yāvañcidaṃ, bhikkhave, alameva animitto samādhi bhāvetuṃ. Animitto, bhikkhave, samādhi bhāvito bahulīkato mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso.
   “Dvemā, bhikkhave, diṭṭhiyo– bhavadiṭṭhi ca vibhavadiṭṭhi ca. Tatra kho, bhikkhave, sutavā ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘atthi nu kho taṃ kiñci lokasmiṃ yamahaṃ upādiyamāno na vajjavā assan’ti? So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘natthi nu kho taṃ kiñci lokasmiṃ yamahaṃ upādiyamāno na vajjavā assaṃ. Ahañhi rūpaññeva upādiyamāno upādiyeyyaṃ vedanaññeva… saññaññeva… saṅkhāreyeva viññāṇaññeva upādiyamāno upādiyeyyaṃ. Tassa me assa upādānapaccayā bhavo; bhavapaccayā jāti; jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhaveyyuṃ. Evametassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo assā’”ti.
   “Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, rūpaṃ niccaṃ vā aniccaṃ vā”ti? “Aniccaṃ, bhante”. “Yaṃ panāniccaṃ dukkhaṃ vā taṃ sukhaṃ vā”ti? “Dukkhaṃ, bhante”. “Yaṃ panāniccaṃ dukkhaṃ vipariṇāmadhammaṃ kallaṃ nu taṃ samanupassituṃ– ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’”ti? “No hetaṃ, bhante”. “Vedanā… saññā… saṅkhārā… viññāṇaṃ …pe… tasmātiha, bhikkhave, evaṃ passaṃ… nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānātī”ti. Aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不為失命(SA.272)」,南傳作「非為了生活」(na ājīvikāpakatā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「也不為掙得生計」(nor to earn a livelihood)。
  「焚尸火𣕊(栝)(SA.272);燒人殘木(MA.140)」,南傳作「火葬場的燃燒木柴」(chavālātaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「從火葬場燒剩的柴」(a brand from a funeral pyre)。
  「不善覺法(SA.272)」,南傳作「不善尋」(akusalavitakkā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「有害的心思」(unwholesome thoughts)。