彌蘭王問經
24.佛陀品 (8/10/2021初稿 更新)
5.推論的問題
1.佛陀品 [目錄]
1.二佛不出現著的問題
  1.「那先大德!這也被世尊說:『比丘們!這是不可能的、沒機會的:在一個世間界中會同時出現兩位阿羅漢、遍正覺者,這是不可能的。』那先大德!但當教導時,所有如來都教導三十七菩提分法,當講述時,都講述四聖諦,當使之學習時,都使之學習三學,當教誡時,都教誡不放逸行。那先大德!如果所有如來都是同一教導、同一講述、同一學習、同一教誡,以什麼理由二位如來在同一時間不出現呢?就只以一位佛的生起,這個世間有光明被生起,如果有第二位佛,這個世間會更有二倍光明被生起,且當教誡時,二位如來會容易教誡,以及當訓誡時會容易訓誡。在那裡,請你為我說理由,依之我能成為無疑者。」
  「大王!這十千世間界是一佛的承擔者,它只承擔一如來的功德,如果第二位佛出現(生起),這十千世間界不能承擔,會搖動、震動、彎下、下彎、彎曲、分散、破碎、破滅,不能走到保持原狀(處)。
  大王!如船是一人(男子)的承載者,在被一人登上時,那艘船會是與水齊平的(柬埔寨版),那時,如果壽命、容色、年齡、胖瘦量、所有肢節像[第一人]那樣的第二人到來,他登上那艘船,大王!是否那艘船能承擔二者呢?」「不,大德!它會搖動、震動、彎下、下彎、彎曲、分散、破碎、破滅,不能走到保持原狀,會沈入水中。」「同樣的,大王!這十千世間界是一佛的承擔者,它只承擔一如來的功德,如果第二位佛出現,這十千世間界不能承擔,會搖動、震動、彎下、下彎、彎曲、分散、破碎、破滅,不能走到保持原狀。
  大王!又或如男子如果盡情地吃食物,當喜歡[食物]時,直到使喉嚨完全充滿後,他已滿足、已滿意、已充滿,成為無間隙的、倦怠的(倦怠所作的),已變成不彎曲的棍棒,如果再吃那個量的食物,大王!是否那位男子會是安樂的?」「不,大王!已吃一次就會死。」「同樣的,大王!這十千世間界只是一佛的承擔者,它只承擔一如來的功德,如果第二位佛出現,這十千世間界不能承擔,會搖動、震動、彎下、下彎、彎曲、分散、破碎、破滅,不能走到保持原狀。」
  「那先大德!是否以過度法的負荷大地搖動呢?」「大王!這裡,如果有兩輛充滿寶物直到頂點齊的車,從一輛車取寶物後,如果使之堆積到另一輛車上,大王!是否那輛車也能承擔二輛車的寶物呢?」「不,大德!它的輪轂會裂開,它的輪輻也會破碎,它的輪圈也會掉落,它的車軸也會破碎。」「大王!是否以過度寶物的負荷車破壞呢?」「是的,大王!」「同樣的,大王!以過度法的負荷大地搖動。」
  大王!此外,這個理由被佛威力之說明解釋。在那裡,也請你聽其它殊妙的理由,以該理由,二位遍正覺者在同一時間不出現。大王!如果二位遍正覺者在同一時間出現,他們群眾的諍論會出現:『你們的佛,我們的佛。』會有兩者的黨派被生起。大王!如二位有力大臣群眾的諍論會出現:『你們的大臣,我們的大臣。』有兩者的黨派被生起。同樣的,大王!如果二位遍正覺者在同一時間出現,他們群眾的諍論會出現:『你們的佛,我們的佛。』會有兩者的黨派被生起。大王!這就是一個理由,以該理由,二位遍正覺者在同一時間不出現。
  其次,大王!請你也聽更進一步的理由,以該理由,二位遍正覺者在同一時間不出現。大王!如果二位遍正覺者在同一時間出現,『第一的佛』該言語會是錯誤的;『最勝的佛』該言語會是錯誤的;『最上的佛』、『殊勝的佛』、『最高的佛』、『最頂尖的佛』、『無等同的佛』、『無完全無相等的佛』、『無比肩的佛』、『無類比的佛』、『無與倫比的佛』該言語會是錯誤的。大王!這也是你從道理同意的理由,以該理由,二位遍正覺者在同一時間不出現。
  大王!此外,這是諸佛、世尊的自然本性:只有一佛在世間出現。什麼原因呢?以一切知的佛之德性大的狀態。大王!凡在世間其他大的,也只有一個:大王!大地是大的,它只有一個;海洋是大的,它只有一個;須彌山王是大的,它只有一個;虛空是大的,它只有一個;帝釋是大的,它只有一個;魔是大的,大梵天是大的,它只有一個;如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者是大的,在世間他只有一個,他們出現之處,在那裡沒有其他者的機會。大王!因此,如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者在世間只有一個出現。
  「那先大德!問題被譬喻、理由善講述,置不聰敏者聽聞後會是滿意的,更何況是如我那樣的大慧者。!那先大德!這樣,我像這樣接受這個。」
  二佛不出現著的問題第一。
2.喬答彌施衣的問題 [目錄]
  2.「那先大德!這也被世尊在姨母摩訶波闍波提瞿曇彌雨季外衣被施與時說:『喬達彌!請妳施與僧團吧,當妳施與僧團時,我與僧團都將被尊敬。[MN.142]』那先大德!是否如來比僧寶是不重要的、不尊敬的、不應該被供養的:如來對自己姨母自己染色、自己撕開、自己搥打、自己剪裁、自己縫製的雨季外衣,當被施與自己時使之施與僧團。那先大德!如果如來比僧寶是更上的,或優勝的,或殊勝的,『當被施與我時將有大果報,』如來不會以姨母自己染色、自己撕開、自己搥打的雨季外衣使之在僧團中施與。那先大德!因為如來自己不想要、不依靠,因此,如來使姨母的那件雨季外衣施與僧團。」
  「大王!這也被世尊在姨母摩訶波闍波提瞿曇彌雨季外衣被施與時說:『喬達彌!請妳施與僧團吧,當妳施與僧團時,我與僧團都將被尊敬。』但那不是對自己不尊敬、無果報的情況,不是不應該被供養的,大王!而是為了利益,為了憐愍:『我死後,未來世的僧團將被敬重。』當稱讚現在的德行時,就這麼說:『喬達彌!請妳施與僧團吧,當妳施與僧團時,我與僧團都將被尊敬。』
  大王!如當父親活著時,就在朝臣、士兵、軍隊、守門者、衛兵、團體成員、人們中,在國王面前稱贊兒子現在的德行:『當在這裡被住立時,未來時將在人們中被尊敬。』同樣的,大王!如來是為了利益,為了憐愍:『我死後,未來世的僧團將被敬重。』當稱讚現在的德行時,就這麼說:『喬達彌!請妳施與僧團吧,當妳施與僧團時,我與僧團都將被尊敬。』
  大王!非只以雨季外衣的給與那樣程度,僧團就比如來是所謂優勝的,或殊勝的。大王!如父母對兒子擦身體、按摩、使之沐浴、洗髮,大王!是否只以擦身體、按摩、沐浴、洗髮那樣程度,兒子就比父母是所謂優勝的,或殊勝的呢?」「不,大德!大德!兒子是對父母不想要所作的,以那個父母對兒子作擦身體、按摩、使之沐浴、洗髮。」「同樣的,大王!非只以雨季外衣之給與那個程度,僧團就比如來是所謂優勝的,或殊勝的,而是如來是對姨母不想要所作的作者,他使那件雨季外衣施與僧團。
  大王,又或如某位男子為國王帶來禮物,該禮物國王會給與某位士兵,或軍隊,或將軍,或祭司。大王!是否那位男子只以禮物的得到那樣程度,就比國王是所謂優勝的,或殊勝的呢?」「不,大德!大德!那位男子是國王的長期服侍者、依國王生活者、國王使之住立在那個位置者,他給與禮物。」「同樣的,大王!非只以雨季外衣的給與那樣程度,僧團就比如來是所謂優勝的,或殊勝的,反而是如來的長期服侍者、依如來生活者、如來使之住立在那個位置者,他使那件雨季外衣施與僧團。」
  大王!此外,如來這麼想:『僧團是本質應該被尊敬的,我將以我的所有物尊敬僧團。』他使那件雨季外衣施與僧團。大王!如來不只稱讚尊敬自己者,而且凡在世間中值得尊敬者,如來也稱讚尊敬他們者。
  大王!這也被世尊、天中天在殊勝印記的中部法之繼承人法門中,當稱讚少欲行為時說:『前面的那位比丘更應該被我尊敬與讚賞。[MN.3, 30段]』大王!在諸有中,沒有任何眾生比如來是應該被供養的,或更上的,或優勝的,或殊勝的,如來就是更上的,或優勝的,或殊勝的。
  大王!在殊勝相應部中,這也被麻那哇格米雅天子在世尊的面前站立後,在天與人中說:
  『在王舍城的[山]之中,毘富羅[山]被說是最勝的山,
   雪山中誰達[山]是最勝的,空中行走物中是太陽。
   大海是海中最勝的,星辰中是月亮,
   對包括天的世間,佛陀被說是第一的。』[SN.2.30]
  大王!又,這個偈頌被那位麻那哇格米雅天子善吟誦,非惡吟誦;被善說,非惡說,且被世尊許可。大王!它也被法將舍利弗上座說:
  『一個意的淨信,或歸依合掌敬禮:
   對魔軍之破壞的佛,能夠使之渡過。』不是嗎?
  大王!它被世尊、天中天說:『比丘們!有一人,當在世間出現時,他為了眾人的利益,為了眾人的安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人的需要、利益、安樂而出現,哪一人呢?如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者。……(中略)為了天與人的需要、利益、安樂而出現。[AN.1.170]』」「好!那先大德!這樣,我像這樣接受這個。」
  喬答彌施衣的問題第二。
3.在家出家正行道的問題 [目錄]
  [3]「那先大德!這也被世尊說:『比丘們!我稱讚在家者或出家者的正行道,比丘們!因為,正行的在家者或出家者因正道跡之因成為真理、善法的成功者。[MN.99, 463段]』那先大德!如果穿白衣的在家者是受用欲者,當住在妻兒擁擠的住處;享用迦尸的檀香;戴花環、香料、塗油;享有金銀時,繫種種寶石黃金(斯里蘭卡版)的頭巾,他是正行道、真理、善法的達成者。剃光頭、袈裟衣衣著、聽從他人施食的出家者,在四戒蘊上是完全完成的作者,在一百五十學處上受持後轉起著,在十三頭陀德行上無殘餘地轉起著,他也是正行道、真理、善法的達成者。大德!在那裡,在家者與出家者的差別是什麼呢?苦行是徒然的,出家是無用的,學處之守護是徒然白費的,頭陀德行的受持是空虛的,為何在那裡以實行苦的?所謂樂應該被樂獲得,不是嗎?」
  「大王!這也被世尊說:『比丘們!我稱讚在家者或出家者的正行道,比丘們!因為,正行的在家者或出家者因正道跡之因成為真理、善法的成功者。』大王!像這樣,這正行者就是最勝的。大王!出家者[想]:『我是出家者。』如果不正確地實行,那時他就是遠離沙門身分,就是遠離婆羅門身分,更何況穿白衣的在家者。大王!在家正行者是真理、善法的成功者,大王!出家正行者也是真理、善法的成功者。
  大王!然而,僅出家者是沙門身分的自在者、所有者。大王!出家有許多功德、各種不同功德、無量功德,出家的功德不能作衡量。
  大王!如對如意寶珠不能以財物價格作衡量:『寶珠的價格有這麼多。』同樣的,大王!出家有許多功德、各種不同功德、無量功德,出家的功德不能作衡量。
  大王!又或如在大海中的波浪不能作衡量:『在大海中的波浪有這麼多。』同樣的,大王!出家有許多功德、各種不同功德、無量功德,出家的功德不能作衡量。
  大王!凡任何應該被出家者作的,全都快速地成功,非長時間地。什麼原因呢?大王!出家者是少欲者、知足者、獨居者、不眾會者、活力已被發動者、無窟宅者(無執著者)、無家屋者、戒(德行)圓滿者、儉約行者、頭陀行善巧者,以該原因,凡任何應該被出家者作的,全都快速地成功,非長時間地。大王!如無結節、平滑、徹底乾淨、筆直、離垢的鐵標槍被善放出,它準確地飛行(流)。同樣的,大王!凡任何應該被出家者作的,全都快速地成功,非長時間地。」「好!那先大德!這樣,我像這樣接受這個。」
  在家出家正行道的問題第三。
4.行道過失的問題 [目錄]
  4.「那先大德!當菩薩執行難行時,無其它的努力、精勤、污染的戰鬥、死魔軍的破壞、食物的攝受、難行是像這種的。當像這樣努力時,沒得到任何樂味後,就使那個心退失,然後這麼說:『然而,以這個辛辣的難行,我沒獲得足以為聖者智見特質過人法,是否會有其它導向覺的道路呢?』從那裡厭後,以其它道路成為一切知的狀態到達者,再以那個行道(道跡)教誡、勸導弟子們:
  『請你們努力、請你們精勤,請你們致力於佛陀的教說,
   請你們掃蕩死魔軍,如象對蘆葦茅屋。』[SN.6.14]
  那先大德!以什麼理由如來以凡被自己厭、放棄之形色的行道,在那裡教誡、勸導弟子們呢?」
  「大王!那時及現在,就是那個行道,就實行該行道後,菩薩成為一切知的狀態到達者。大王!此外,當菩薩作過度精進(活力)時,無殘餘地停止食物,以他的食物之破壞,心的薄弱生起,他以那個薄弱不能夠到達一切知的狀態。當他一口一口地吃做成團狀的食物時,就是以那個行道,不久就到達一切知的狀態。大王!就是那個行道,有所有如來的一切知的狀態智之獲得。
  大王!如食物是所有眾生的支持,所有眾生以依靠食物經驗安樂。同樣的,大王!就是那個行道,有所有如來的一切知的狀態智之獲得。大王!這個過失不是努力,不是精勤,不是污染的戰鬥,依此而如來在那時沒到達一切知的狀態,那時,這個過失就是食物的破壞,這個行道都是經常齊備的。
  大王!如男子旅途過度急速地行走,因為那樣,他如果成為癱瘓者,或跛者,或非在平地上走動者,大王!是否過失是大地,依此而那位男子成為癱瘓者呢?」「不,大德!大德!大地是經常齊備的,從哪裡是它的過失呢?這個過失就是精進,依此而那位男子成為癱瘓者。」「同樣的,大王!這個過失不是努力,不是精勤,不是污染的戰鬥,依此而如來在那時沒到達一切知的狀態,那時,這個過失就是食物的破壞,這個行道都是經常齊備的。
  大王!又或如男子穿著被染污的外衣,他如果不使它洗淨,這個過失不是水,水是經常齊備的,這個過失就是男子。同樣的,大王!這個過失不是努力,不是精勤,不是污染的戰鬥,依此而如來在那時沒到達一切知的狀態,那時,這個過失就是食物的破壞,這個行道都是經常齊備的,因此,如來就以那個行道教誡、勸導弟子們。大王!像這樣,那個行道是經常齊備的、無過失的。」「好!那先大德!這樣,我像這樣接受這個。」
  行道過失的問題第四。
5.還俗的問題 [目錄]
  5.「那先大德!這如來的教說是偉大的、真髓的、殊勝的、最勝的、最頂尖的、無比的、遍純淨的、離垢的、白的、無過失的,只在家者那個程度就能出家是不適當的,就教導在家者到一個果位後,當成為不再返回者時,那時他才應該出家。什麼理由呢?這些還是惡人那種情況下,在清淨的教說中出家後,返回,然後還俗,以他們的退回,這大眾這麼思考:『先生!確實,這沙門喬答摩的教說必是徒然的:這些人退回。』在這裡,這是理由。」
  「大王!如池塘有充滿乾淨、離垢、清涼的水,那時,凡任何來到被泥垢染污者走到該池塘後不沐浴,然後如果被染污如故地返回。大王!在那裡,人們會呵責哪一個:被染污者或池塘呢?」「大德!人們會呵被責染污者:『這位走到池塘後不沐浴,然後被染污如故地已返回,池塘自己將如何沐浴這位不想要沐浴者呢?對池塘來說有什麼過失呢?」「同樣的,大王!如來建築殊勝正法的池塘,充滿殊勝解脫水:『凡任何被污染垢穢染污的有意識明智者,他們在這裡沐浴後,一切污染將會除去。』如果有人走到殊勝正法的池塘後不沐浴,然後有污染如故地返回後還俗,人們將只會呵責他:『這位在勝者之教出家後,在那裡沒得到立足處,然後還俗,勝者之教自己將如何使這位不實行者覺醒呢?對勝者之教來說有什麼過失呢?」
  大王!又或如生最高病的男子見熟練病源、非無用而工作恆久成功的醫師、外科醫生後不使之療治,然後如果有病如故地返回,在那裡,人們會呵責哪一個:生病者或醫師呢?」「大德!人們會呵責生病者:『這位見熟練病源、非無用而工作恆久成功的醫師、外科醫生後不使之醫治,然後有病如故地已返回,醫師自己將如何醫治這位不使之醫治者呢?對醫師來說有什麼過失呢?」「同樣的,大王!如來在教說盒子內放入全部污染病能夠平息的唯一不死藥:『凡任何被污染病壓迫的有意識們喝這個不死藥後,一切污染病必將平息。』如果有人不喝該不死藥,然後有污染如故地返回後還俗,人們將只會呵責他:『這位在勝者之教出家後,在那裡沒得到立足處後還俗,勝者之教自己將如何使這位不實行者覺醒呢?對勝者之教來說有什麼過失呢?   
  大王!又或如饑餓的男子走到大的大福德食物給食處後,不吃,然後如果饑餓如故地返回,在那裡,人們會呵責哪一個:饑餓者或福德食物呢?」「大德!人們會呵責饑餓者:『這位被饑餓壓迫者,得到福德食物後不吃,然後饑餓如故地返回,食物自己將如何進入這位不吃者的嘴巴呢?對食物來說有什麼過失呢?」「同樣的,大王!如來在教說盒子內放置最勝、最頂尖、寂靜、吉祥、勝妙、最勝蜜甘露的身至念食物:『凡任何被污染病飢餓燃燒、心意被渴愛打勝的有意識明智者,他們吃這個食物後,在欲、色、無色有中一切渴愛必將消除。』如果有人不吃該食物,然後被渴愛繫縛如故地返回後還俗,人們將只會呵責他:『這位在勝者之教出家後,在那裡沒得到立足處後還俗,勝者之教自己將如何使這位不實行者覺醒呢?對勝者之教來說有什麼過失呢?
  大王!如果如來使只被教導到一個果位的在家者出家,則出家非名為為了污染的捨斷或為了清淨,沒有為了出家應該被作的。大王!如男子以好幾百位工人挖掘池塘,如果他這麼使群眾知道:『尊師們!請不要任何污染者進入我的這個池塘,請除去塵垢者、遍純淨者、離垢擦亮者進入這個池塘。』大王!對那些除去塵垢者、遍純淨者、離垢擦亮者來說,是否會有應該被那個池塘作的呢?」「不,大德!凡他們會走到那個池塘的目的,對他們來說就在其它地方那個應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以那個池塘作什麼?」「同樣的,大王!如果如來使只被教導到一個果位的在家者出家,對他們來說就在那裡,應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以出家作什麼?
  大王!又或如真實仙人的長期服侍者是持所聞聖典句者、非理論家、熟練病源者、非無用而工作恆久成功的醫師、外科醫生,他使一切疾病之止息的藥物聚集後,如果他這麼使群眾知道:『尊師們!請不要任何有病者來到我的面前,請無病者、不生病者來到我的面前。』大王!對那些無病者、不生病者、充滿興高采烈者來說,是否會有應該被那個醫師作的呢?」「不,大德!凡他們會走到那個醫師、外科醫生的目的,對他們來說就在其它地方那個應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以那個醫師作什麼?」「同樣的,大王!如果如來使只被教導到一個果位的在家者出家,對他們來說就在其它地方,應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以出家作什麼?
  大王!又或如某位男子使人準備好幾百鍋被煮的食物後,如果他這麼使群眾知道:『尊師們!請不要任何饑餓者來到我的給食處,請飽食者、滿足者、飽足者、已飽者、滿意者、充滿者來到這給食處。』大王!對那些飽食者、滿足者、飽足者、已飽者、滿意者、充滿者來說,是否會有應該被那個食物作的呢?」「不,大德!凡他們會走到那個給食處的目的,對他們來說就在其它地方那個應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以那個給食處作什麼?」「同樣的,大王!如果如來使只被教導到一個果位的在家者出家,對他們來說就在那裡,應該被作的已作,對他們來說,以出家作什麼?
  大王!此外,凡還俗者,他們展示勝者之教的五種能被衡量的德性,哪五種呢?他們展示狀態的偉大性,他們展示遍純淨的離垢性,他們展示與惡人們不共住性,他們展示難通達性,他們展示許多自制應該被守護性。
  怎樣是他們展示狀態的偉大性呢?大王!如貧困、出生低賤、無與眾不同、聰慧殘缺的男子得到大王位後,不久就從榮耀沒落、喪失、退失,不能夠保持統治權,什麼原因呢?以統治權的偉大性。同樣的,大王!凡任何無與眾不同、不作福德、聰慧殘缺者在勝者之教中出家,他們不能保持該最頂尖、最高的出家,不久,他們從勝者之教沒落、喪失、退失後還俗,什麼原因呢?以勝者之教狀態的偉大性。這樣,他們展示狀態的偉大性。
  怎樣是他們展示遍純淨的離垢性呢?大王!如水散落、破碎、使碎破在蓮葉上,不走到站立,不附著,什麼原因呢?以蓮之遍純淨的離垢性。同樣的,大王!凡任何狡猾、欺瞞、歪斜、彎曲、有不正之見者在勝者之教中出家,就不久,他們從遍純淨、離垢、無刺、白、殊勝、最頂尖的教說散落、破碎、使碎破、不住立、不附著後還俗,什麼原因呢?以勝者之教之遍純淨的離垢性。這樣,他們展示遍純淨的離垢性。
  怎樣是他們展示與惡人們不共住性呢?大王!如大海不與已死的死屍共住,凡在大海中有已死的死屍者,它就急速地引導到海岸,或擱置陸地,什麼原因呢?以大海大生類的領域性。同樣的,大王!凡任何邪惡、不防護、無慚、不應該作、活力下沈、懈怠、污染、惡人的人類在勝者之教中出家,就不久,他們從勝者之教的離垢、諸漏已盡大生類阿羅漢的領域離開,不共住後還俗,什麼原因呢?以勝者之教的與惡人們不共住性。這樣,他們展示與惡人們不共住性。
  怎樣是他們展示難通達性呢?大王!如凡任何不聰敏、不學習、無技術、愚蠢的弓箭手是毛端之貫穿的不能夠者,他們滴落、離開,什麼原因呢?以柔軟、微細毛端的難通達性。同樣的,大王!凡任何劣慧、愚鈍、聾啞、愚昧、趣向遲鈍的人在勝者之教中出家,他們不能通達最高、柔軟、微細的四諦之通達,從勝者之教滴落、離開後,就不久,他們還俗,什麼原因呢?以最高、柔軟、微細的四諦的難通達性。這樣,他們展示難通達性。
  怎樣是他們展示許多自制應該被守護性呢?大王!如進入大的大戰場的某位男子被四面八方敵軍完全包圍,當矛槍手人們接近時,看見後他害怕地退縮、折回、逃走,什麼原因呢?以許多種類戰鬥入口之守護的害怕。同樣的,大王!凡任何邪惡、不防護、無慚、不應該作、不忍耐、動搖、搖動、善變、愚蠢(聾啞)的人在勝者之教中出家,當不能守護許多種類學處時,就不久,他們脫離、折回、逃走後還俗,什麼原因呢?以勝者之教的許多種類自制應該被守護性。這樣,他們展示許多自制應該被守護性。
  大王!又,在陸生最上的茉莉花叢中有被蟲類貫穿的花朵,那個內部蜷縮的嫩芽掉落,但在那些掉落時,茉莉花叢確實不被輕視,凡在那裡存續的花,它們完全以香氣全面遍及四面八方。同樣的,大王!凡那些在勝者之教出家後還俗者,他們在勝者之教中如被蟲類貫穿、被剝奪容色香氣的茉莉花,離容色行相之戒不能夠導向成滿,但勝者之教確實不以他們的還俗被輕視,凡在那裡存續的比丘們,他們以殊勝的戒香全面遍及包括天的世間。
  大王!又,健康的紅色稻中,內部生出名為紅米稻的『稻類』後,在途中就滅亡,但確實不以它的滅亡情況紅色稻被輕視,凡在那裡存續的稻,它們是國王的食用物。同樣的,大王!凡那些在勝者之教出家後還俗者,他們在勝者之教中如紅色稻內部的紅米稻,不生長、不到達成滿後,在途中就還俗,但勝者之教確實不以他們的還俗被輕視,凡在那裡存續的比丘們,他們成為阿羅漢境界的能相應者。
  大王!又,如意寶珠中出現一部分粗糙的,但在那裡確實不以出現粗糙的情況寶珠被輕視,凡在那裡寶珠的遍純淨,它對人們是令人快樂的。同樣的,大王!凡那些在勝者之教出家後還俗者,他們在勝者之教中是粗糙的屑,但勝者之教確實不以他們的還俗被輕視,凡在那裡存續的比丘們,他們對天與人是令人快樂的。
  大王!又,出生具足(優良)的赤栴檀中有一部分腐爛少香氣的,但確實不因為那樣赤栴檀被輕視,凡在那裡沒腐爛極香的,它完全地散佈、全面遍及。同樣的,大王!凡那些在勝者之教出家後還俗者,他們在勝者之教中如赤栴檀木心應該被清除的腐爛點,但勝者之教確實不以他們的還俗被輕視,凡在那裡存續的比丘們,包括天的世間被他們殊勝的戒栴檀香隨塗抹。」
  「好!那先大德!以各各能相應的、以各各類似的理由,無過失被到達,勝者之教以最勝性被說明,即使那些還俗者們也正好說明勝者之教的最勝性。」
  還俗的問題第五。
6.阿羅漢之受能被感受的問題 [目錄]
  6.「那先大德!你們說:『阿羅漢感受一受:身的而非心的。[SN.36.6]』那先大德!凡身體,阿羅漢的心依止轉起,在那裡,是否阿羅漢是無主權者、非支配者、不自在者呢?」「是的,大王!」「那先大德!這是不適當的:對自己的心來說,在轉起者的身體上,他是無主權者、非支配者、不自在者。大德!即使鳥那種程度,凡在牠居住的鳥巢上,在那裡牠也是主權者、支配者、自在者。」
  「大王!這十種跟隨身體的法,在一一有(生存)中它們跟隨著身體跑、隨著轉,哪十種呢?冷、熱、飢,渴、糞、尿、惛沈、老、病、死。大王!這些是十種跟隨身體的法,在一一有中它們跟隨著身體跑、隨著轉,在那裡,阿羅漢是無主權者、非支配者、不自在者。」
  「那先大德!以什麼理由,對阿羅漢來說在身體上他不轉起命令或主權,在那裡,請你為我說理由。」「大王!如凡任何依止大地的眾生,他們全都依止大地後而行、住、從事生活,大王!對他們來說,是否在大地上他轉起命令或主權呢?」「不,大德!」「同樣的,大王!對阿羅漢來說,心依止身體後轉起,但對阿羅漢來說,在身體上他不轉起命令或主權。」
  「那先大德!以什麼原因一般人感受身的及心的受呢?」「大王!以心的未被修習狀態,一般人感受身的及心的受。大王!如被饑餓苦惱的公牛會在無力、弱、小的草上,或蔓草上被緊綁,而當那頭公牛被激怒時,那時,牠連同綁繩離開。同樣的,大王!對未被修習的心來說,受生起後使心遍攪動,當心被遍攪動時,身體彎曲、纏繞、作繞轉,那時,那個未被修習的心顫抖、吵鬧、可怕高聲地大吵鬧,大王!在這裡,這是原因,以該原因一般人感受身的及心的受。」
  「又,什麼原因,以該原因阿羅漢感受一受:身的而非心的呢?」「大王!阿羅漢的心已被修習、已被善修習、已被調御、已被善調御,是服從的、順從的,當他被苦受接觸時,堅固地把握『無常』,心緊綁在定之柱上,他的那個被緊綁在定之柱上的心不動搖、不搖動,被住立不被混亂,以受的扭曲變形、擴大,他的身彎曲、纏繞、繞轉,大王!在這裡,這是原因,以該原因阿羅漢感受一受:身的而非心的。」
  「那先大德!那確實是世間中的不可思議:凡當身搖動時心不搖動。在那裡,請你為我說理由。」「大王!如在具足樹幹、樹枝、樹葉之大的大樹被風力襲擊時,樹枝搖動,是否它的樹幹也搖動呢?」「不,大德!」「同樣的,大王!當阿羅漢被苦受接觸時,堅固地把握『無常』,心緊綁在定之柱上,他的那個被緊綁在定之柱上的心不動搖、不搖動,被住立不被混亂,以受的扭曲變形、擴大,他的身彎曲、纏繞、繞轉,但他的心如大樹的樹幹不動搖、不搖動。」「不可思議啊,那先大德!未曾有啊,那先大德! 像這樣時時刻刻的法燈,之前未被我看見。」
  阿羅漢之受能被感受的問題第六。
7.形成現觀之障礙的問題 [目錄]
  7.「那先大德!這裡,凡任何在家者如果是犯波羅夷者,過些時候他如果出家,如果他自己不知道:『在家時我犯波羅夷。』其他任何人如果也沒告知他:『在家時你犯波羅夷。』而如果他如實地實行,對他來說,是否能有法的現觀呢?」「不,大王!」「大德!以什麼理由呢?」「凡他的法的現觀之因,他的那個已被斷絕,因此,法的現觀不存在。」
  「那先大德!你們說:『對知道者來說有後悔,當存在後悔時有障礙,當心被障礙時,法的現觀不存在。』但對這位不知道者、無後悔生起者、心住寂靜者來說,以什麼理由法的現觀不存在呢?不調和地、不調和地,這個問題到來,請思考後回答。」
  「大王!新熟、安全地被播下的種子,在被善耕的好泥良田中生長?」「是的,大德!」「大王!是否正是那個種子,在堅固岩石面上會生長?」「不,大德!」「大王!但都是那個種子,為何在泥中會生長,為何在堅固岩石上不會生長呢?」「大德!沒有那個種子在堅固岩石上生長的因,以無因,種子不生長。」「同樣的,大王!凡以因會有他的法的現觀,他的那個因已被斷絕,以無因,法的現觀不存在。
  大王!又或如棒、土塊、棍、槌到達在地上站立,大王!是否那些棒、土塊、棍、槌也到達在空中站立呢?」「不,大德!」「大王!但在這裡,什麼原因,以該原因那些棒、土塊、棍、槌達只在地上站立,以什麼原因在空中它們不站立呢?」「大德!沒有那些棒、土塊、棍、槌在空中住立的因,以無因,它們不站立。」「同樣的,大王!以他的那個過失,現觀的因已被斷絕,在因之斷絕下,『以無因,現觀不存在。』
  大王!又或如火在陸地上燃燒,大王!是否那個火也在水中燃燒呢?」「不,大德!」「大王!但在這裡,什麼原因,以該原因那個只火在陸地上燃燒,以什麼原因在水中不燃燒呢?」「大德!沒有火在水中燃燒的因,以無因,它不燃燒。」「同樣的,大王!以他的那個過失,現觀的因已被斷絕,在因之斷絕下,『以無因,法的現觀不存在。』」
  「那先大德!請你再思考這件事,在那裡,沒有我的心之說服:『當不存在不知道者的後悔時,存在障礙。』請你以理由說服我。」「大王!是否劇毒的藥被不知道者吃了,它奪命呢?」「是的,大德!」「同樣的,大王!即使惡被不知道者做了,也存在現觀障礙的形成。
  大王!是否火燒不知道後的接近者呢?」「是的,大德!」「同樣的,大王!即使惡被不知道者做了,也存在現觀障礙的形成。
  大王!是否毒蛇咬不知道者,它奪命呢?」「是的,大德!」「同樣的,大王!即使惡被不知道者做了,也存在現觀障礙的形成。
  大王!迦陵伽王沙媽那勾拉領被七寶環繞,登上象寶後,當為了家族之看視而行走,即使不知道時,也不能從菩提座的上方行走,不是嗎?大王!在這裡,這是理由,以該理由,即使惡被不知道者做了,也存在現觀障礙的形成。」「那先大德!不能拒絕勝者所說的理由,這就是它的義理。像那樣,我接受。」
  形成現觀之障礙的問題第七。
8.壞德行的問題 [目錄]
  8.「那先大德!對壞德行(破戒)在家者與壞德行沙門來說,什麼是差別?什麼是差異?這兩者有完全相同的趣處,也有兩者的完全相同果報,還是有任何的差異嗎?」
  「大王!有這十種德性,壞德行沙門比壞德行在家者以差別成為超越的,且以十方面更使供養變成清淨。
  哪十種德性,壞德行沙門比壞德行在家者以差別成為超越的呢?大王!這裡,壞德行沙門是對佛敬重者,是對法敬重者,是對僧團敬重者,是對同梵行者敬重者,他精進誦經與遍問,是多聞者,大王!即使是德行已破者、壞德行者,當來到團體時他使威儀現起,以呵責的害怕他守護身的與語的,有面向努力的心,是比丘沙門位的已到達者,大王!壞德行沙門當即使作惡的時,他隱密地進行,大王!如有丈夫的婦女隱藏後偷偷地進行惡的。同樣的,大王!壞德行沙門當即使作惡的時,他隱密地進行。大王!這些是十種德性,壞德行沙門比壞德行在家者以差別成為超越的
  以哪十方面更使供養變成清淨呢?以無過失盔甲的穿著狀態使供養變成清淨,以仙人沙門位剃光頭外相的維持狀態也使供養變成清淨,以僧團集會的隨進入狀態也使供養變成清淨,以來到佛法僧的歸依狀態也使供養變成清淨,以住在努力所依的住處狀態也使供養變成清淨,對勝者之教財物(斯里蘭卡版)的遍求也使供養變成清淨,對最頂尖法的教說也使供養變成清淨,以法洲為趣處彼岸狀態也使供養變成清淨,以『佛是最高的』為一向端直之見狀態也使供養變成清淨,以布薩的受持狀態也使供養變成清淨,大王!以這十方面更使供養變成清淨。
  大王!即使完全失壞的壞德行沙門也使施與者的供養變成清淨。大王!如即使極濃稠的水也除去泥、爛泥、塵、垢。同樣的,大王!即使完全失壞的破戒沙門也使施與者的供養變成清淨。
  大王!又或如即使完全煮沸的(斯里蘭卡版)熱水也使燃燒中的大火聚熄滅。同樣的,大王!即使完全失壞的壞德行沙門也使施與者的供養變成清淨。
  大王!又或如即無味的食物也除去饑餓、虛弱。同樣的,大王!即使完全失壞的壞德行沙門也使施與者的供養變成清淨。
  大王!這也被如來、天中天在殊勝印記的中部供養分別的解說中說:
  『凡持戒(有德行)者對破戒(壞德行)者施與,布施以極明淨心而被如法地得到,
   相信業之果報是廣大的,施與者的[戒]淨化(變成清淨)那個供養。』[MN.142]」
  「不可思議啊,那先大德!未曾有啊,那先大德!我們詢問就只那個程度的問題,當你以諸譬喻、理由解釋它時,進入聽聞者產生(作)美味的甘露。大德!確實如廚師或廚師徒弟得到就只那個程度的肉後,以種種材料使完成,然後產生國王的食用物。同樣的,大德!我們詢問就只那個程度的問題,當你以諸譬喻、理由解釋它時,進入聽聞者產生美味的甘露。
  壞德行的問題第八。
9.水眾生生命的問題 [目錄]
  9.「那先大德!當這水被火燃燒時,它嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響,那先大德!是否水活著呢?當遊戲時它發出聲響嗎?還是被其他的壓迫發出聲響呢?」「大王!水非活著,在水中沒有命(靈魂)或眾生(靈),大王!而是以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。」
  「那先大德!這裡,某些外道:『水活著。』拒絕冷水、燒水後,他們受用種種髒的食物,呵責、輕蔑你們:『釋迦子所屬的沙門加害只有一種根(感官)的生命。』請你驅離、排除、抖落他們的呵責、輕蔑。」「大王!水非活著,大王!在水中沒有命或眾生,大王!而是以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。
  大王!如,來到坑、池、河、湖、沼、洞、峽、井、窪、蓮花池的水,以風與烈日力量的狀態,它耗盡、走到遍盡,大王!在那裡,是否水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響呢?」「不,大德!」「大王!如果水活著,在那裡,水也會發出聲響。大王!請以這個理由知道:『在水中沒有命或眾生,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。』
  其次,大王!請你也聽更進一步的理由:『在水中沒有命或眾生,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。』大王!又,當水被米混合,來到覆蓋的容器,未使之在灶上住立時,在那裡,是否水發出聲響呢?」「不,大德!它是不動搖的、一直寂靜的。」「大王!又,就那個來到容器的水,使火燃燒,使在灶上被住立,在那裡,是否水還是不動搖的、一直寂靜的呢?」「不,大德!它動搖、被攪動、搖動、轉動、波被生起,上下四面八方走,上升、溢出,有泡沫華鬘。」「但,大王!為何那天然的水不動搖,是一直寂靜的呢?又為何來當來到火時,它動搖、被攪動、搖動、轉動、波被生起,上下四面八方走,上升、溢出,有泡沫華鬘呢?」「大德!天然的水不動搖,但當來到火時,水以火炙熱力量大的狀態,它嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。」「大王!請以這個理由知道:『在水中沒有命或眾生,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水嘶嘶響、嗤嗤響、發出許多種類的聲響。』
  其次,大王!請你也聽更進一步的理由:在水中沒有命或眾生,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水發出聲響。大王!在各個家中,水來到被覆蓋的水桶,是嗎?」「是的,大德!」「大王!是否該水動搖、被攪動、搖動、轉動、波被生起,上下四面八方走,上升、溢出,有泡沫華鬘呢?」「不,大德!它是不動搖的,是天然的水來到水桶的。」
  又,大王!往昔『大海中的水動搖、被攪動、搖動、轉動、波被生起,上下四面八方走,上升、溢出,有泡沫華鬘,它上升後倒退,然後打擊海岸,發出許多種類的聲響。』被你聽聞?」「是的,大德!往昔這被我聽聞與看見:『大海中的水上升到空中一百肘或兩百肘。』」「大王!為何來到水桶的水不動搖、不發出聲響呢?又為何在大海中的水動搖、發出聲響呢?」「大德!以風力量大的狀態,在大海中的水動搖、發出聲響,來到水桶的水沒被任何人撞擊而不動搖、不發出聲響。」「大王!如以風力量大的狀態,在大海中的水動搖、發出聲響。同樣的,『以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水發出聲響。』
  大王!他們以乾牛皮覆蓋乾的鼓之鼓面,不是嗎?」「是的,大德!」「大王!是否在鼓中有命或眾生呢?」「不,大德!」「大王!但為何鼓發出聲響呢?」「大德!以女子或男子的對應那個的努力。」「大王!如以女子或男子的對應那個的努力,鼓發出聲響。同樣的,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水發出聲響。大王!請你以這個理由知道:『在水中沒有命或眾生,以火炙熱力量大的狀態,水發出聲響。』
  大王!我的[回答]就只那些,也有對你應該被詢問的,這樣,這個問題被完全決定。大王!是否水在所有容器中當被燃燒時它都發出聲響,還是只在一些容器中當被燃燒時它都發出聲響呢?」「大德!非水在所有容器中當被燃燒時它都發出聲響,只在一些容器中當被燃燒時它都發出聲響。」「大王!那樣的話,你捨棄自己的宗義,你回到我的領域:在水中沒有命或眾生。大王!如果水在所有容器中當被燃燒時它都發出聲響,這是適當的:他能說『水活著。』大王!因為水沒有二種:『凡發出聲響者它活著,凡不發出聲響者它非活著。』大王!如果水活著,水在已發情大龍象隆滿身體的象鼻中排出後,在口中吸入後被進入肚子時,當該水在牠們的牙齒中間被擠壓時應該發出聲響。又,一百肘長的大船荷重好幾十萬種滿滿的負荷物在大海上走動,當水被它擠壓時也應該發出聲響。又,好幾百由旬身體的大的大魚:提麋、提麋葛拉、提麋拉冰葛拉潛在大海內部住所處居住,吸入與噴出大水流,當該水在牠們的牙齒中間與腹部中間被擠壓時也應該發出聲響。大王!但因為被一一像這樣的大壓迫壓迫,水沒發出聲響,因此,『在水中沒有命或眾生。』大王!請你這樣憶持這個。」
  「好!那先大德!來到過失的問題被適當地、多樣地解釋。那先大德!確實如高價值的寶珠,熟練的老師、善巧已學的寶珠琢磨者得到後,會得到稱讚、讚賞、讚美。或真珠寶物,真珠商人……或布料寶物,衣商……或赤旃檀香,料商得到後,會得到稱讚、讚賞、讚美。同樣的,那先大德!來到過失的問題被適當地、多樣地解釋。這樣,我像這樣接受這個。」
  水眾生生命的問題第九。
  佛陀品第一。
  在這品中有九個問題。
5. Anumānapañho
1. Buddhavaggo
 1. Dvinnaṃ buddhānaṃ anuppajjamānapañho
  1. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, bhāsitampetaṃ bhagavatā ‘aṭṭhānametaṃ, bhikkhave, anavakāso, yaṃ ekissā lokadhātuyā dve arahanto sammāsambuddho apubbaṃ acarimaṃ uppajjeyyuṃ, netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjatī’ti. Desentā ca, bhante nāgasena, sabbepi tathāgatā sattatiṃsa bodhipakkhiyadhamme desenti, kathayamānā ca cattāri ariyasaccāni kathenti, sikkhāpentā ca tīsu sikkhāsu sikkhāpenti, anusāsamānā ca appamādappaṭipattiyaṃ anusāsanti. Yadi, bhante nāgasena, sabbesampi tathāgatānaṃ ekā desanā ekā kathā ekā sikkhā ekā anusiṭṭhi, kena kāraṇena dve tathāgatā ekakkhaṇe nuppajjanti? Ekenapi tāva buddhuppādena ayaṃ loko obhāsajāto, yadi dutiyo buddho bhaveyya, dvinnaṃ pabhāya ayaṃ loko bhiyyosomattāya obhāsajāto bhaveyya, ovadamānā ca dve tathāgatā sukhaṃ ovadeyyuṃ, anusāsamānā ca sukhaṃ anusāseyyuṃ, tattha me kāraṇaṃ brūhi, yathāhaṃ nissaṃsayo bhaveyya’’nti.
  ‘‘Ayaṃ, mahārāja, dasasahassī lokadhātu ekabuddhadhāraṇī, ekasseva tathāgatassa guṇaṃ dhāreti, yadi dutiyo buddho uppajjeyya, nāyaṃ dasasahassī lokadhātu dhāreyya, caleyya kampeyya nameyya onameyya vinameyya vikireyya vidhameyya viddhaṃseyya, na ṭhānamupagaccheyya.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, nāvā ekapurisasandhāraṇī [ekapurisasantāraṇī (sī. pī.)] bhaveyya, ekasmiṃ purise abhirūḷhe sā nāvā samupādikā [samudakā (ka.)] bhaveyya. Atha dutiyo puriso āgaccheyya tādiso āyunā vaṇṇena vayena pamāṇena kisathūlena sabbaṅgapaccaṅgena, so taṃ nāvaṃ abhirūheyya, api nu sā, mahārāja, nāvā dvinnampi dhāreyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, caleyya kampeyya nameyya onameyya vinameyya vikireyya vidhameyya viddhaṃseyya, na ṭhānamupagaccheyya, osīdeyya udake’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, ayaṃ dasasahassī lokadhātu ekabuddhadhāraṇī, ekasseva tathāgatassa guṇaṃ dhāreti, yadi dutiyo buddho uppajjeyya, nāyaṃ dasasahassī lokadhātu dhāreyya, caleyya kampeyya nameyya onameyya vinameyya vikireyya vidhameyya viddhaṃseyya, na ṭhānamupagaccheyya.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, puriso yāvadatthaṃ bhojanaṃ bhuñjeyya chādentaṃ yāva kaṇṭhamabhipūrayitvā, so dhāto pīṇito paripuṇṇo nirantaro tandikato anonamitadaṇḍajāto punadeva tattakaṃ bhojanaṃ bhuñjeyya, api nu kho so, mahārāja, puriso sukhito bhaveyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, sakiṃ bhuttova mareyyā’’ti [bhutto vameyyāti (ka.)]. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, ayaṃ dasasahassī lokadhātu ekabuddhadhāraṇī, ekasseva tathāgatassa guṇaṃ dhāreti, yadi dutiyo buddho uppajjeyya, nāyaṃ dasasahassī lokadhātu dhāreyya, caleyya kampeyya nameyya onameyya vinameyya vikireyya vidhameyya viddhaṃseyya, na ṭhānamupagaccheyyā’’ti.
  ‘‘Kiṃ nu kho, bhante nāgasena, atidhammabhārena pathavī calatī’’ti? ‘‘Idha, mahārāja, dve sakaṭā ratanaparipūritā bhaveyyuṃ yāva mukhasamā, ekasmā sakaṭato ratanaṃ gahetvā ekasmiṃ sakaṭe ākireyyuṃ, api nu kho taṃ, mahārāja, sakaṭaṃ dvinnampi sakaṭānaṃ ratanaṃ dhāreyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, nābhipi tassa phaleyya, arāpi tassa bhijjeyyuṃ, nemipi tassa opateyya, akkhopi tassa bhijjeyyā’’ti. ‘‘Kiṃ nu kho, mahārāja, atiratanabhārena sakaṭaṃ bhijjatī’’ti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, atidhammabhārena pathavī calati.
  ‘‘Api ca, mahārāja, imaṃ kāraṇaṃ buddhabalaparidīpanāya osāritaṃ. Aññampi tattha abhirūpaṃ kāraṇaṃ suṇohi, yena kāraṇena dve sammāsambuddho ekakkhaṇe nuppajjanti. Yadi, mahārāja, dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe uppajjeyyuṃ, tesaṃ parisāya vivādo uppajjeyya ‘tumhākaṃ buddho, amhākaṃ buddho’ti, ubhato pakkhajātā bhaveyyuṃ, yathā, mahārāja, dvinnaṃ balavāmaccānaṃ parisāya vivādo uppajjeyya ‘tumhākaṃ amacco, amhākaṃ amacco’ti, ubhato pakkhajātā honti, evameva kho, mahārāja, yadi dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe uppajjeyyuṃ, tesaṃ parisāya vivādo uppajjeyya ‘tumhākaṃ buddho, amhākaṃ buddho’ti, ubhato pakkhajātā bhaveyyuṃ . Idaṃ tāva, mahārāja, ekaṃ kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe nuppajjanti.
  ‘‘Aparampi, mahārāja, uttariṃ kāraṇaṃ suṇohi, yena kāraṇena dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe nuppajjanti. Yadi, mahārāja, dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe uppajjeyyuṃ, ‘aggo buddho’ti yaṃ vacanaṃ, taṃ micchā bhaveyya, ‘jeṭṭho buddho’ti yaṃ vacanaṃ, taṃ micchā bhaveyya, ‘seṭṭho buddho’ti, ‘visiṭṭho buddho’ti, ‘uttamo buddho’ti, ‘pavaro buddho’ti, ‘asamo buddho’ti, ‘asamasamo buddho’ti, ‘appaṭimo buddho’ti, ‘appaṭibhāgo buddho’ti, ‘appaṭipuggalo buddho’ti yaṃ vacanaṃ, taṃ micchā bhaveyya. Idampi kho tvaṃ, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ atthato sampaṭiccha, yena kāraṇena dve sammāsambuddhā ekakkhaṇe nuppajjanti.
  ‘‘Api ca kho, mahārāja, buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ sabhāvapakati esāyaṃ, eko yeva buddho loke uppajjati. Kasmā kāraṇā? Mahantatāya sabbaññubuddhaguṇānaṃ. Aññampi, mahārāja, yaṃ loke mahantaṃ, taṃ ekaṃ yeva hoti. Pathavī, mahārāja, mahantī, sā ekā yeva. Sāgaro mahanto, so eko yeva. Sineru girirājā mahanto, so eko yeva. Ākāso mahanto, so eko yeva. Sakko mahanto, so eko yeva. Māro mahanto, so eko yeva. Mahābrahmā mahanto, so eko yeva. Tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho mahanto, so eko yeva lokasmiṃ. Yattha te uppajjanti, tattha aññassa okāso na hoti, tasmā, mahārāja, tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho eko yeva lokasmiṃ uppajjatī’’ti.
  ‘‘Sukathito, bhante nāgasena, pañho opammehi kāraṇehi. Anipuṇopetaṃ sutvā attamano bhaveyya, kiṃ pana mādiso mahāpañño. Sādhu, bhante nāgasena, evametaṃ tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Dvinnaṃ buddhānaṃ anuppajjamānapañho paṭhamo.
2. Gotamivatthadānapañho
  2. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, bhāsitampetaṃ bhagavatā mātucchāya mahāpajāpatiyā gotamiyā vassikasāṭikāya dīyamānāya ‘saṅghe gotami dehi, saṅghe te dinne ahañceva pūjito bhavissāmi saṅgho cā’ti. Kiṃ nu kho, bhante nāgasena, tathāgato saṅgharatanato na bhāriko na garuko na dakkhiṇeyyo, yaṃ tathāgato sakāya mātucchāya sayaṃ piñjitaṃ [picchitaṃ (sī. pī.)] sayaṃ luñcitaṃ sayaṃ pothitaṃ sayaṃ kantitaṃ sayaṃ vāyitaṃ vassikasāṭikaṃ attano dīyamānaṃ saṅghassa dāpesi. Yadi, bhante nāgasena, tathāgato saṅgharatanato uttaro bhaveyya adhiko vā visiṭṭho vā, ‘mayi dinne mahapphalaṃ bhavissatī’ti na tathāgato mātucchāya sayaṃ piñjitaṃ sayaṃ luñcitaṃ sayaṃ pothitaṃ vassikasāṭikaṃ saṅghe dāpeyya, yasmā ca kho bhante nāgasena tathāgato attānaṃ na patthayati [na patthīyati (sī. pī.)] na upanissayati, tasmā tathāgato mātucchāya taṃ vassikasāṭikaṃ saṅghassa dāpesī’’ti.
  ‘‘Bhāsitampetaṃ, mahārāja, bhagavatā mātucchāya mahāpajāpatiyā gotamiyā vassikasāṭikāya dīyamānāya ‘saṅghe gotami dehi, saṅghe te dinne ahañceva pūjito bhavissāmi saṅgho cā’ti. Taṃ pana na attano patimānanassa avipākatāya na adakkhiṇeyyatāya, api ca kho, mahārāja, hitatthāya anukampāya anāgatamaddhānaṃ saṅgho mamaccayena cittīkato bhavissatīti vijjamāne yeva guṇe parikittayanto evamāha ‘saṅghe gotami dehi, saṅghe te dinne ahañceva pūjito bhavissāmi saṅgho cā’ti.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, pitā dharamāno yeva amaccabhaṭabaladovārikaanīkaṭṭhapārisajjajanamajjhe rañño santike puttassa vijjamānaṃ yeva guṇaṃ pakitteti [parikitteti (ka.)] ‘idha ṭhapito anāgatamaddhānaṃ janamajjhe pūjito bhavissatī’ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, tathāgato hitatthāya anukampāya anāgatamaddhānaṃ saṅgho mamaccayena cittīkato bhavissatīti vijjamāne yeva guṇe pakittayanto evamāha ‘saṅghe gotami dehi, saṅghe te dinne ahañceva pujito bhavissāmi saṅgho cā’ti.
  ‘‘Na kho, mahārāja, tāvatakena vassikasāṭikānuppadānamattakena saṅgho tathāgatato adhiko nāma hoti visiṭṭho vā. Yathā, mahārāja, mātāpitaro puttānaṃ ucchādenti parimaddanti nahāpenti sambāhenti, api nu kho, mahārāja, tāvatakena ucchādanaparimaddananahāpanasambāhanamattakena ‘putto mātāpitūhi adhiko nāma hoti visiṭṭho vā’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, akāmakaraṇīyā bhante puttā mātāpitūnaṃ, tasmā mātāpitaro puttānaṃ ucchādanaparimaddananahāpanasambāhanaṃ karontī’’ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, na tāvatakena vassikasāṭikānuppadānamattakena saṅgho tathāgatato adhiko nāma hoti visiṭṭho vāti. Api ca tathāgato akāmakaraṇīyaṃ karonto mātucchāya taṃ vassikasāṭikaṃ saṅghassa dāpesi.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, kocideva puriso rañño upāyanaṃ āhareyya, taṃ rājā upāyanaṃ aññatarassa bhaṭassa vā balassa vā senāpatissa vā purohitassa vā dadeyya. Api nu kho so, mahārāja, puriso tāvatakena upāyanapaṭilābhamattakena raññā adhiko nāma hoti visiṭṭho vā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, rājabhattiko, bhante, so puriso rājūpajīvī, taṭṭhāne ṭhapento rājā upāyanaṃ detī’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, na tāvatakena vassikasāṭikānuppadānamattakena saṅgho tathāgatato adhiko nāma hoti visiṭṭho vā, atha kho tathāgatabhattiko tathāgatūpajīvī. Taṭṭhāne ṭhapento tathāgato saṅghassa vassikasāṭikaṃ dāpesi.
  ‘‘Api ca, mahārāja, tathāgatassa evaṃ ahosi ‘sabhāvapaṭipūjanīyo saṅgho, mama santakena saṅghaṃ paṭipūjessāmī’ti saṅghassa vassikasāṭikaṃ dāpesi, na, mahārāja, tathāgato attano yeva paṭipūjanaṃ vaṇṇeti, atha kho ye loke paṭipūjanārahā, tesampi tathāgato paṭipūjanaṃ vaṇṇeti.
  ‘‘Bhāsitampetaṃ, mahārāja, bhagavatā devātidevena majjhimanikāyavaralañchake dhammadāyādadhammapariyāye appicchappaṭipattiṃ pakittayamānena ‘asu yeva me purimo bhikkhu pujjataro ca pāsaṃsataro cā’ti. ‘‘Natthi, mahārāja, bhavesu koci satto tathāgatato dakkhiṇeyyo vā uttaro vā adhiko vā visiṭṭho vā, tathāgatova uttaro adhiko visiṭṭho.
  ‘‘Bhāsitampetaṃ, mahārāja, saṃyuttanikāyavare māṇavagāmikena devaputtena bhagavato purato ṭhatvā devamanussamajjhe –
  ‘‘‘Vipulo rājagahīyānaṃ [rājagahikānaṃ (ka.) saṃ. ni. 1.111 passitabbaṃ], giri seṭṭho pavuccati;
  Seto himavataṃ seṭṭho, ādicco aghagāminaṃ.
  ‘‘‘Samuddo udadhinaṃ seṭṭho, nakkhattānañca candimā;
  Sadevakassa lokassa, buddho aggo pavuccatī’ti.
  ‘‘Tā kho panetā, mahārāja, māṇavagāmikena devaputtena gāthā sugītā na duggītā, subhāsitā na dubbhāsitā, anumatā ca bhagavatā, nanu, mahārāja, therenapi sāriputtena dhammasenāpatinā bhaṇitaṃ –
  ‘‘‘Eko manopasādo; Saraṇagamanamañjalipaṇāmo vā;
  Ussahate tārayituṃ, mārabalanisūdane buddhe’ti.
  ‘‘Bhagavatā ca bhaṇitaṃ devātidevena ‘ekapuggalo, bhikkhave, loke uppajjamāno uppajjati bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ. Katamo ekapuggalo? Tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho…pe… devamanussāna’’’nti. ‘‘Sādhu, bhante nāgasena, evametaṃ tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Gotamivatthadānapañho dutiyo.
3. Gihipabbajitasammāpaṭipattipañho
  [3] ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, bhāsitampetaṃ bhagavatā ‘gihino vāhaṃ, bhikkhave, pabbajitassa vā sammāpaṭipattiṃ vaṇṇemi, gihī vā bhikkhave pabbajito vā sammāpaṭipanno sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusala’’nti. Yadi, bhante nāgasena, gihī odātavasano kāmabhogī puttadārasambādhasayanaṃ ajjhāvasanto kāsikacandanaṃ paccanubhonto mālāgandhavilepanaṃ dhārento jātarūparajataṃ sādiyanto maṇikuṇḍala [maṇikanaka (sī. pī.)] vicittamoḷibaddho sammāpaṭipanno ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ, pabbajitopi bhaṇḍukāsāvavatthavasano parapiṇḍamajjhupagato catūsu sīlakkhandhesu sammāparipūrakārī diyaḍḍhesu sikkhāpadasatesu samādāya vattanto terasasu dhutaguṇesu anavasesaṃ vattanto sammāpaṭipanno ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ. Tattha, bhante, ko viseso gihino vā pabbajitassa vā? Aphalaṃ hoti tapokammaṃ, niratthakā pabbajjā. Vañjhā sikkhāpadagopanā, moghaṃ dhutaguṇasamādānaṃ, kiṃ tattha dukkhamanuciṇṇena, nanu nāma sukheneva sukhaṃ adhigantabba’’nti.
  ‘‘Bhāsitampetaṃ, mahārāja, bhagavatā ‘gihino vāhaṃ, bhikkhave, pabbajitassa vā sammāpaṭipattiṃ vaṇṇemi, gihī vā, bhikkhave, pabbajito vā sammāpaṭipanno sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusala’’nti. Evametaṃ, mahārāja, sammāpaṭipannova seṭṭho, pabbajitopi, mahārāja, ‘pabbajitomhī’ti na sammā paṭipajjeyya, atha kho so ārakāva sāmaññā, ārakāva brahmaññā, pageva gihī odātavasano. Gihīpi, mahārāja, sammāpaṭipanno ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ, pabbajitopi, mahārāja, sammāpaṭipanno ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ.
  ‘‘Api ca kho, mahārāja, pabbajitova sāmaññassa issaro adhipati; pabbajjā, mahārāja, bahuguṇā anekaguṇā appamāṇaguṇā, na sakkā pabbajjāya guṇaṃ parimāṇaṃ kātuṃ.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, kāmadadassa maṇiratanassa na sakkā dhanena aggho parimāṇaṃ kātuṃ ‘ettakaṃ maṇiratanassa mūla’nti, evameva kho, mahārāja, pabbajjā bahuguṇā anekaguṇā appamāṇaguṇā, na sakkā pabbajjāya guṇaṃ parimāṇaṃ kātuṃ.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, mahāsamudde ūmiyo na sakkā parimāṇaṃ kātuṃ ‘ettakā mahāsamudde ūmiyo’ti, evameva kho, mahārāja, pabbajjā bahuguṇā anekaguṇā appamāṇaguṇā, na sakkā pabbajjāya guṇaṃ parimāṇaṃ kātuṃ.
  ‘‘Pabbajitassa, mahārāja, yaṃ kiñci karaṇīyaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ khippameva samijjhati no cirarattāya. Kiṃ kāraṇā? Pabbajito, mahārāja, appiccho hoti santuṭṭho pavivitto asaṃsaṭṭho āraddhavīriyo nirālayo aniketo paripuṇṇasīlo sallekhitācāro dhutappaṭipattikusalo hoti, taṃ kāraṇā pabbajitassa yaṃ kiñci karaṇīyaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ khippameva samijjhati no cirarattāya. Yathā, mahārāja, niggaṇṭhisamasudhotaujuvimalanārāco susajjito sammā vahati, evameva kho, mahārāja, pabbajitassa yaṃ kiñci karaṇīyaṃ, sabbaṃ taṃ khippameva samijjhati no cirarattāyā’’ti. ‘‘Sādhu, bhante nāgasena, evametaṃ tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Gihipabbajitasammāpaṭipattipañho tatiyo.
4. Paṭipadādosapañho
  4. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, yadā bodhisatto dukkarakārikaṃ akāsi, netādiso aññatra ārambho ahosi nikkamo kilesayuddhaṃ maccusenaṃ vidhamanaṃ āhārapariggaho dukkarakārikā, evarūpe parakkame kiñci assādaṃ alabhitvā tameva cittaṃ parihāpetvā evamavoca ‘na kho panāhaṃ imāya kaṭukāya dukkarakārikāya adhigacchāmi uttarimanussadhammaṃ alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṃ, siyā nu kho añño maggo bodhāyā’ti, tato nibbinditvā aññena magena sabbaññutaṃ patto, puna tāya paṭipadāya sāvake anusāsati samādapeti.
  ‘‘‘Ārambhatha nikkhamatha, yuñjatha buddhasāsane;
  Dhunātha maccuno senaṃ, naḷāgāraṃva kuñjaro’ti [saṃ. ni. 1.185].
  ‘‘Kena na kho, bhante nāgasena, kāraṇena tathāgato yāya paṭipadāya attanā nibbinno virattarūpo, tattha sāvake anusāsati samādapetī’’ti?
  ‘‘Tadāpi , mahārāja, etarahipi sā yeva paṭipadā, taṃ yeva paṭipadaṃ paṭipajjitvā bodhisatto sabbaññutaṃ patto. Api ca, mahārāja, bodhisatto ativīriyaṃ karonto niravasesato āhāraṃ uparundhi. Tassa āhārūparodhena cittadubbalyaṃ uppajji. So tena dubbalyena nāsakkhi sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇituṃ, so mattamattaṃ kabaḷīkārāhāraṃ sevanto tāyeva paṭipadāya nacirasseva sabbaññutaṃ pāpuṇi. So yeva, mahārāja, paṭipadā sabbesaṃ tathāgatānaṃ sabbaññutañāṇappaṭilābhāya.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, sabbesaṃ sattānaṃ āhāro upatthambho, āhārūpanissitā sabbe sattā sukhaṃ anubhavanti, evameva kho, mahārāja, sā yeva paṭipadā sabbesaṃ tathāgatānaṃ sabbaññutañāṇappaṭilābhāya, neso, mahārāja, doso ārambhassa, na nikkamassa, na kilesayuddhassa, yena tathāgato tasmiṃ samaye na pāpuṇi sabbaññutañāṇaṃ, atha kho āhārūparodhasseveso doso, sadā paṭiyattā yevesā paṭipadā.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, puriso addhānaṃ ativegena gaccheyya, tena so pakkhahato vā bhaveyya pīṭhasappī vā asañcaro pathavitale. Api nu kho, mahārāja, mahāpathaviyā doso atthi, yena so puriso pakkhahato ahosī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante; sadā paṭiyattā, bhante, mahāpathavī, kuto tassā doso? Vāyāmasseveso doso, yena so puriso pakkhahato ahosī’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, neso doso ārambhassa, na nikkamassa, na kilesayuddhassa, yena tathāgato tasmiṃ samaye na pāpuṇi sabbaññutañāṇaṃ, atha kho āhārūparodhasseveso doso sadā paṭiyattā yevesā paṭipadā.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, puriso kiliṭṭhaṃ sāṭakaṃ nivāseyya, na so taṃ dhovāpeyya, neso doso udakassa, sadā paṭiyattaṃ udakaṃ. Purisasseveso doso. Evameva kho, mahārāja, neso doso ārambhassa, na nikkamassa, na kilesayuddhassa, yena tathāgato tasmiṃ samaye na pāpuṇi sabbaññutañāṇaṃ, atha kho āhārūparodhasseveso doso, sadā paṭiyattā yevesā paṭipadā, tasmā tathāgato tāyeva paṭipadāya sāvake anusāsati samādapeti, evaṃ kho, mahārāja, sadā paṭiyattā anavajjā sā paṭipadā’’ti. ‘‘Sādhu, bhante nāgasena, evametaṃ tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Paṭipadādosapañho catuttho.
5. Hīnāyāvattanapañho
  5. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, mahantaṃ idaṃ tathāgatasāsanaṃ sāraṃ varaṃ seṭṭhaṃ pavaraṃ anupamaṃ parisuddhaṃ vimalaṃ paṇḍaraṃ anavajjaṃ, na yuttaṃ gihiṃ tāvatakaṃ pabbajetuṃ, gihī yeva [gihiṃ yeva (sī. pī.)] ekasmiṃ phale vinetvā yadā apunarāvattī hoti tadā so pabbājetabbo. Kiṃ kāraṇā? Ime dujjanā tāva tattha sāsane visuddhe pabbajitvā paṭinivattitvā hīnāyāvattanti, tesaṃ paccāgamanena ayaṃ mahājano evaṃ vicinteti ‘tucchakaṃ vata bho etaṃ samaṇassa gotamassa sāsanaṃ bhavissati, yaṃ ime paṭinivattantī’ti, idamettha kāraṇa’’nti.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, taḷāko bhaveyya sampuṇṇasucivimalasītalasalilo, atha yo koci kiliṭṭho malakaddamagato taṃ taḷākaṃ gantvā anahāyitvā kiliṭṭhova paṭinivatteyya, tattha, mahārāja, katamaṃ jano garaheyya kiliṭṭhaṃ vā taḷākaṃ vā’’ti? ‘‘Kiliṭṭhaṃ, bhante, jano garaheyya ‘ayaṃ taḷākaṃ gantvā anahāyitvā kiliṭṭhova paṭinivatto, kiṃ imaṃ anahāyitukāmaṃ taḷāko sayaṃ nahāpessati, ko doso taḷākassā’ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja , tathāgato vimuttivarasalilasampuṇṇaṃ saddhammavarataḷākaṃ māpesi ‘ye keci kilesamalakiliṭṭhā sacetanā budhā, te idha nahāyitvā sabbakilese pavāhayissantī’ti. Yadi koci taṃ saddhammavarataḷākaṃ gantvā anahāyitvā sakilesova paṭinivattitvā hīnāyāvattati taṃ yeva jano garahissati ‘ayaṃ jinasāsane pabbajitvā tattha patiṭṭhaṃ alabhitvā hīnāyāvatto, kiṃ imaṃ appaṭipajjantaṃ jinasāsanaṃ sayaṃ bodhessati, ko doso jinasāsanassā’ti?
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, puriso paramabyādhito roguppattikusalaṃ amoghadhuvasiddhakammaṃ bhisakkaṃ sallakattaṃ disvā atikicchāpetvā sabyādhikova paṭinivatteyya, tattha katamaṃ jano garaheyya āturaṃ vā bhisakkaṃ vā’’ti? ‘‘Āturaṃ, bhante, jano garaheyya ‘ayaṃ roguppattikusalaṃ amoghadhuvasiddhakammaṃ bhisakkaṃ sallakattaṃ disvā atikicchāpetvā sabyādhikova paṭinivatto, kiṃ imaṃ atikicchāpentaṃ bhisakko sayaṃ tikicchissati, ko doso bhisakkassā’’’ti? ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, tathāgato antosāsanasamugge kevalaṃ sakalakilesabyādhivūpasamanasamatthaṃ amatosadhaṃ pakkhipi, ‘ye keci kilesabyādhipīḷitā sacetanā budhā, te imaṃ amatosadhaṃ pivitvā sabbakilesabyādhiṃ vūpasamessantī’ti. Yadi koci yaṃ amatosadhaṃ apivitvā sakilesova paṭinivattitvā hīnāyāvattati, taṃ yeva jano garahissati ‘ayaṃ jinasāsane pabbajitvā tattha patiṭṭhaṃ alabhitvā hīnāyāvatto, kiṃ imaṃ appaṭipajjantaṃ jinasāsanaṃ sayaṃ bodhessati, ko doso jinasāsanassā’ti?
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, chāto puriso mahatimahāpuññabhattaparivesanaṃ gantvā taṃ bhattaṃ abhuñjitvā chātova paṭinivatteyya, tattha katamaṃ jano garaheyya chātaṃ vā puññabhattaṃ vā’’ti? ‘‘Chātaṃ, bhante, jano garaheyya ‘ayaṃ khudāpīḷito puññabhattaṃ paṭilabhitvā abhuñjitvā chātova paṭinivatto, kiṃ imassa abhuñjantassa bhojanaṃ sayaṃ mukhaṃ pavisissati, ko doso bhojanassā’’’ti? ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, tathāgato antosāsanasamugge paramapavaraṃ santaṃ sivaṃ paṇītaṃ amataṃ paramamadhuraṃ kāyagatāsatibhojanaṃ ṭhapesi ‘ye keci kilesachātajjhattā taṇhāparetamānasā sacetanā budhā, te imaṃ bhojanaṃ bhuñjitvā kāmarūpārūpabhavesu sabbaṃ taṇhamapanessantī’ti. Yadi koci taṃ bhojanaṃ abhuñjitvā taṇhāsitova paṭinivattitvā hīnāyāvattati, taññeva jano garahissati ‘ayaṃ jinasāsane pabbajitvā tattha patiṭṭhaṃ alabhitvā hīnāyāvatto, kiṃ imaṃ appaṭipajjantaṃ jinasāsanaṃ sayaṃ bodhessasi, ko doso jinasāsanassā’ti.
  ‘‘Yadi, mahārāja, tathāgato gihiṃ yeva ekasmiṃ phale vinītaṃ pabbājeyya, na nāmāyaṃ pabbajjā kilesappahānāya visuddhiyā vā, natthi pabbajjāya karaṇīyaṃ. Yathā, mahārāja, puriso anekasatena kammena taḷākaṃ khaṇāpetvā parisāya evamanussāveyya ‘mā me, bhonto, keci saṃkiliṭṭhā imaṃ taḷākaṃ otaratha, pavāhitarajojallā parisuddhā vimalamaṭṭhā imaṃ taḷākaṃ otarathā’ti. Api nu kho, mahārāja, tesaṃ pavāhitarajojallānaṃ parisuddhānaṃ vimalamaṭṭhānaṃ tena taḷākena karaṇīyaṃ bhaveyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, yassatthāya te taṃ taḷākaṃ upagaccheyyuṃ, taṃ aññatreva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ tena taḷākenā’’ti? ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, yadi tathāgato gihiṃ yeva ekasmiṃ phale vinītaṃ pabbājeyya, tattheva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ pabbajjāya.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, sabhāvaisibhattiko sutamantapadadharo atakkiko roguppattikusalo amoghadhuvasiddhakammo bhisakko sallakatto sabbarogūpasamabhesajjaṃ sannipātetvā parisāya evamanussāveyya ‘mā kho, bhonto , keci sabyādhikā mama santike upagacchatha, abyādhikā arogā mama santike upagacchathā’ti. Api nu kho, mahārāja, tesaṃ abyādhikānaṃ arogānaṃ paripuṇṇānaṃ udaggānaṃ tena bhisakkena karaṇīyaṃ bhaveyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, yassatthāya te taṃ bhisakkaṃ sallakattaṃ upagaccheyyuṃ, taṃ aññatreva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ tena bhisakkenā’’ti? ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, yadi tathāgato gihiṃ yeva ekasmiṃ phale vinītaṃ pabbājeyya, tattheva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ pabbajjāya?
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, koci puriso anekathālipākasataṃ bhojanaṃ paṭiyādāpetvā parisāya evamanussāveyya ‘mā me, bhonto, keci chātā imaṃ parivesanaṃ upagacchatha, subhuttā tittā suhitā dhātā pīṇitā paripuṇṇā imaṃ parivesanaṃ upagacchathā’’ti. Api nu kho mahārāja, tesaṃ bhuttāvīnaṃ tittānaṃ suhitānaṃ dhātānaṃ pīṇitānaṃ paripuṇṇānaṃ tena bhojanena karaṇīyaṃ bhaveyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, yassatthāya te taṃ parivesanaṃ upagaccheyyuṃ, taṃ aññatreva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ tāya parivesanāyā’’ti? ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, yadi tathāgato gihiṃ yeva ekasmiṃ phale vinītaṃ pabbājeyya, tattheva tesaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, kiṃ tesaṃ pabbajjāya?
  ‘‘Api ca, mahārāja, ye hīnāyāvattanti, te jinasāsanassa pañca atuliye guṇe dassenti. Katame pañca? Bhūmimahantabhāvaṃ dassenti, parisuddhavimalabhāvaṃ dassenti, pāpehi asaṃvāsiyabhāvaṃ dassenti, duppaṭivedhabhāvaṃ dassenti, bahusaṃvararakkhiyabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Kathaṃ bhūmimahantabhāvaṃ dassenti? Yathā, mahārāja, puriso adhano hīnajacco nibbiseso buddhiparihīno mahārajjaṃ paṭilabhitvā na cirasseva paripatati paridhaṃsati parihāyati yasato, na sakkoti issariyaṃ sandhāretuṃ. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ ? Mahantattā issariyassa. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye keci nibbisesā akatapuññā buddhiparihīnā jinasāsane pabbajanti, te taṃ pabbajjaṃ pavaruttamaṃ sandhāretuṃ avisahantā na cirasseva jinasāsanā paripatitvā paridhaṃsitvā parihāyitvā hīnāyāvattanti, na sakkonti jinasāsanaṃ sandhāretuṃ. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Mahantattā jinasāsanabhūmiyā. Evaṃ bhūmimahantabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Kathaṃ parisuddhavimalabhāvaṃ dassenti? Yathā, mahārāja, vāri pokkharapatte vikirati vidhamati vidhaṃseti, na ṭhānamupagacchati nūpalimpati. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Parisuddhavimalattā padumassa. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye keci saṭhā kūṭā vaṅkā kuṭilā visamadiṭṭhino jinasāsane pabbajanti, te parisuddhavimalanikkaṇṭakapaṇḍaravarappavarasāsanato na cirasseva vikiritvā vidhamitvā vidhaṃsetvā asaṇṭhahitvā anupalimpitvā hīnāyāvattanti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Parisuddhavimalattā jinasāsanassa. Evaṃ parisuddhavimalabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Kathaṃ pāpehi asaṃvāsiyabhāvaṃ dassenti? Yathā, mahārāja, mahāsamuddo na matena kuṇapena saṃvasati, yaṃ hoti mahāsamudde mataṃ kuṇapaṃ, taṃ khippameva tīraṃ upaneti thalaṃ vā ussāreti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Mahābhūtānaṃ bhavanattā mahāsamuddassa. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye keci pāpakā asaṃvutā ahirikā akiriyā osannavīriyā kusītā kiliṭṭhā dujjanā manussā jinasāsane pabbajanti, te na cirasseva jinasāsanato arahantavimalakhīṇāsavamahābhūtabhavanato nikkhamitvā asaṃvasitvā hīnāyāvattanti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Pāpehi asaṃvāsiyattā jinasāsanassa. Evaṃ pāpehi asaṃvāsiyabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Kathaṃ duppaṭivedhabhāvaṃ dassenti? Yathā, mahārāja, ye keci achekā asikkhitā asippino mativippahīnā issāsā [issatthā (sī. syā. pī.)] vālaggavedhaṃ avisahantā vigaḷanti pakkamanti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Saṇhasukhumaduppaṭivedhattā vālaggassa . Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye keci duppaññā jaḷā eḷamūgā mūḷhā dandhagatikā janā jinasāsane pabbajanti, te taṃ paramasaṇhasukhumacatusaccappaṭivedhaṃ paṭivijjhituṃ avisahantā jinasāsanā vigaḷitvā pakkamitvā na cirasseva hīnāyāvattanti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Paramasaṇhasukhumaduppaṭivedhatāya saccānaṃ. Evaṃ duppaṭivedhabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Kathaṃ bahusaṃvararakkhiyabhāvaṃ dassenti? Yathā, mahārāja, kocideva puriso mahatimahāyuddhabhūmimupagato parasenāya disāvidisāhi samantā parivārito sattihatthaṃ janamupentaṃ disvā bhīto osakkati paṭinivattati palāyati. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Bahuvidhayuddhamukharakkhaṇabhayā. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye keci pāpakā asaṃvutā ahirikā akiriyā akkhantī capalā calitā ittarā bālajanā jinasāsane pabbajanti, te bahuvidhaṃ sikkhāpadaṃ parirakkhituṃ avisahantā osakkitvā paṭinivattitvā palāyitvā na cirasseva hīnāyāvattanti. Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ? Bahuvidhasaṃvararakkhiyabhāvattā jinasāsanassa. Evaṃ bahuvidhasaṃvararakkhiyabhāvaṃ dassenti.
  ‘‘Thalajuttamepi, mahārāja, vassikāgumbe kimividdhāni pupphāni honti, tāni aṅkurāni saṅkuṭitāni antarā yeva paripatanti, na ca tesu paripatitesu vassikāgumbo hīḷito nāma hoti. Yāni tattha ṭhitāni pupphāni, tāni sammā gandhena disāvidisaṃ abhibyāpenti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye te jinasāsane pabbajitvā hīnāyāvattanti, te jinasāsane kimividdhāni vassikāpupphāni viya vaṇṇagandharahitā nibbaṇṇākārasīlā abhabbā vepullāya, na ca tesaṃ hīnāyāvattanena jinasāsanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Ye tattha ṭhitā bhikkhū, te sadevakaṃ lokaṃ sīlavaragandhena abhibyāpenti.
  ‘‘Sālīnampi, mahārāja, nirātaṅkānaṃ lohitakānaṃ antare karumbhakaṃ nāma sālijāti uppajjitvā antarā yeva vinassati, na ca tassā vinaṭṭhattā lohitakasālī hīḷitā nāma honti. Ye tattha ṭhitā sālī, te rājūpabhogā honti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye te jinasāsane pabbajitvā hīnāyāvattanti, te lohitakasālīnamantare karumbhakā viya jinasāsane na vaḍḍhitvā vepullataṃ na pāpuṇitvā [vaḍḍhitvā vepullataṃ apāpuṇitvā (sī. ka.)] antarā yeva hīnāyāvattanti, na ca tesaṃ hīnāyāvattanena jinasāsanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Ye tattha ṭhitā bhikkhū te arahattassa anucchavikā honti.
  ‘‘Kāmadadassāpi , mahārāja, maṇiratanassa ekadesaṃ [ekadese (ka.)] kakkasaṃ uppajjati, na ca tattha kakkasuppannattā maṇiratanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Yaṃ tattha parisuddhaṃ maṇiratanassa, taṃ janassa hāsakaraṃ hoti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye te jinasāsane pabbajitvā hīnāyāvattanti, kakkasā te jinasāsane papaṭikā, na ca tesaṃ hīnāyāvattanena jinasāsanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Ye tattha ṭhitā bhikkhū, te devamanussānaṃ hāsajanakā honti.
  ‘‘Jātisampannassapi, mahārāja, lohitacandanassa ekadesaṃ pūtikaṃ hoti appagandhaṃ. Na tena lohitacandanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Yaṃ tattha apūtikaṃ sugandhaṃ, taṃ samantā vidhūpeti abhibyāpeti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, ye te jinasāsane pabbajitvā hīnāyāvattanti, te lohitacandanasārantare pūtikadesamiva chaḍḍanīyā jinasāsane, na ca tesaṃ hīnāyāvattanena jinasāsanaṃ hīḷitaṃ nāma hoti. Ye tattha ṭhitā bhikkhū, te sadevakaṃ lokaṃ sīlavaracandanagandhena anulimpayantī’’ti.
  ‘‘Sādhu, bhante nāgasena, tena tena anucchavikena tena tena sadisena kāraṇena niravajjamanupāpitaṃ jinasāsanaṃ seṭṭhabhāvena paridīpitaṃ, hīnāyāvattamānāpi te jinasāsanassa seṭṭhabhāvaṃ yeva paridīpentī’’ti.
  Hīnāyāvattanapañho pañcamo.
6. Arahantavedanāvediyanapañho
  6. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, tumhe bhaṇatha ‘arahā ekaṃ vedanaṃ vedayati kāyikaṃ, na cetasika’nti. Kiṃ nu kho, bhante nāgasena, arahato cittaṃ yaṃ kāyaṃ nissāya pavattati, tattha arahā anissaro assāmī avasavattī’’ti ? ‘‘Āma, mahārājā’’ti. ‘‘Na kho, bhante nāgasena, yuttametaṃ, yaṃ so sakacittassa pavattamāne kāye anissaro hoti assāmī avasavattī; sakuṇopi tāva, bhante, yasmiṃ kulāvake paṭivasati, tattha so issaro hoti sāmī vasavattī’’ti.
  ‘‘Dasayime, mahārāja, kāyānugatā dhammā bhave bhave kāyaṃ anudhāvanti anuparivattanti. Katame dasa? Sītaṃ uṇhaṃ jighacchā pipāsā uccāro passāvo middhaṃ jarā byādhi maraṇaṃ. Ime kho, mahārāja, dasa kāyānugatā dhammā bhave bhave kāyaṃ anudhāvanti anuparivattanti, tattha arahā anissaro assāmī avasavattī’’ti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, kena kāraṇena arahato kāye āṇā nappavattati issariyaṃ vā, tattha me kāraṇaṃ brūhī’’ti? ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, ye keci pathavinissitā sattā, sabbe te pathaviṃ nissāya caranti viharanti vuttiṃ kappenti, api nu kho, mahārāja, tesaṃ pathaviyā āṇā pavattati issariyaṃ vā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, arahato cittaṃ kāyaṃ nissāya pavattati, na ca arahato kāye āṇā pavattati issariyaṃ vā’’ti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, kena kāraṇena puthujjano kāyikampi cetasikampi vedanaṃ vedayatī’’ti? ‘‘Abhāvitattā, mahārāja, cittassa puthujjano kāyikampi cetasikampi vedanaṃ vedayati. Yathā, mahārāja, goṇo chāto paritasito abaladubbalaparittakatiṇesu vā latāya vā upanibaddho assa, yadā so goṇo parikupito hoti, tadā saha upanibandhanena pakkamati. Evameva kho, mahārāja, abhāvitacittassa vedanā uppajjitvā cittaṃ parikopeti, cittaṃ parikupitaṃ kāyaṃ ābhujati nibbhujati samparivattakaṃ karoti. Atha kho so abhāvitacitto tasati ravati bheravarāvamabhiravati, idamettha, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena puthujjano kāyikampi cetasikampi vedanaṃ vedayatī’’ti.
  ‘‘Kiṃ pana taṃ kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena arahā ekaṃ vedanaṃ vedayati kāyikaṃ, na cetasika’’nti? ‘‘Arahato, mahārāja, cittaṃ bhāvitaṃ hoti subhāvitaṃ dantaṃ sudantaṃ assavaṃ vacanakaraṃ, so dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno ‘anicca’nti daḷhaṃ gaṇhāti, samādhithambhe cittaṃ upanibandhati, tassa taṃ cittaṃ samādhithambhe upanibandhanaṃ na vedhati na calati, ṭhitaṃ hoti avikkhittaṃ, tassa vedanāvikāravipphārena kāyo ābhujati nibbhujati samparivattati, idamettha, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena arahā ekaṃ vedanaṃ vedayati kāyikaṃ, na cetasika’’nti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, taṃ nāma loke acchariyaṃ yaṃ kāye calamāne cittaṃ na calati, tattha me kāraṇaṃ brūhī’’ti. ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, mahatimahārukkhe khandhasākhāpalāsasampanne anilabalasamāhate sākhā calati, api nu tassa khandhopi calatī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti . ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, arahā dukkhāya vedanāya phuṭṭho samāno ‘anicca’nti daḷhaṃ gaṇhāti, samādhithambhe cittaṃ upanibandhati, tassa taṃ cittaṃ samādhithambhe upanibandhanaṃ na vedhati na calati, ṭhitaṃ hoti avikkhittaṃ, tassa vedanāvikāravipphārena kāyo ābhujati nibbhujati samparivattati, cittaṃ pana tassa na vedhati na calati khandho viya mahārukkhassā’’ti. ‘‘Acchariyaṃ, bhante nāgasena, abbhutaṃ, bhante nāgasena, na me evarūpo sabbakāliko dhammapadīpo diṭṭhapubbo’’ti.
  Arahantavedanāvediyanapañho chaṭṭho.
7. Abhisamayantarāyakarapañho
  7. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, idha yo koci gihī pārājikaṃ ajjhāpanno bhaveyya, so aparena samayena pabbājeyya, attanāpi so na jāneyya ‘gihipārājikaṃ ajjhāpannosmī’ti, napi tassa añño koci ācikkheyya ‘gihipārājikaṃ ajjhāpannosī’ti. So ca tathattāya paṭipajjeyya, api nu tassa dhammābhisamayo bhaveyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, mahārājā’’ti. ‘‘Kena, bhante, kāraṇenā’’ti? ‘‘Yo tassa hetu dhammābhisamayāya, so tassa samucchinno, tasmā dhammābhisamayo na bhavatī’’ti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, tumhe bhaṇatha ‘jānantassa kukkuccaṃ hoti, kukkucce sati āvaraṇaṃ hoti, āvaṭe citte dhammābhisamayo na hotī’ti. Imassa pana ajānantassa akukkuccajātassa santacittassa viharato kena kāraṇena dhammābhisamayo na hoti, visamena visameneso pañho gacchati, cintetvā visajjethā’’ti.
  ‘‘Ruhati , mahārāja, sukaṭṭhe sukalale maṇḍakhette sāradaṃ sukhasayitaṃ bīja’’nti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Api nu, mahārāja, taññeva bījaṃ ghanaselasilātale ruheyyā’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Kissa pana, mahārāja, taññeva bījaṃ kalale ruhati, kissa ghanasele na ruhatī’’ti? ‘‘Natthi, bhante, tassa bījassa ruhanāya ghanasele hetu, ahetunā bījaṃ na ruhatī’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, yena hetunā tassa dhammābhisamayo bhaveyya, so tassa hetu samucchinno, ahetunā dhammābhisamayo na hoti.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, daṇḍaleḍḍulaguḷamuggarā pathaviyā ṭhānamupagacchanti, api nu, mahārāja, te yeva daṇḍaleḍḍulaguḷamuggarā gagane ṭhānamupagacchantī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi bhante’’ti. ‘‘Kiṃ panettha, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena te yeva daṇḍaleḍḍulaguḷamuggarā pathaviyā ṭhānamupagacchanti, kena kāraṇena gagane na tiṭṭhantī’’ti? ‘‘Natthi, bhante, tesaṃ daṇḍaleḍḍulaguḷamuggarānaṃ patiṭṭhānāya ākāse hetu, ahetunā na tiṭṭhantī’’ti . ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, tassa tena dosena abhisamayahetu samucchinno, hetusamugghāte ahetunā abhisamayo na hotīti.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, thale aggi jalati, api nu kho, mahārāja, so yeva aggi udake jalatī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Kiṃ panettha, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena so yeva aggi thale jalati, kena kāraṇena udake na jalatī’’ti? ‘‘Natthi, bhante, aggissa jalanāya udake hetu, ahetunā na jalatī’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, tassa tena dosena abhisamayahetu samucchinno, hetusamugghāte ahetunā dhammābhisamayo na hotī’’ti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, punapetaṃ atthaṃ cintehi, na me tattha cittasaññatti bhavati, ajānantassa asati kukkucce āvaraṇaṃ hotīti, kāraṇena maṃ saññāpehī’’ti. ‘‘Api nu, mahārāja, visaṃ halāhalaṃ ajānantena khāyitaṃ jīvitaṃ haratī’’ti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, ajānantenapi kataṃ pāpaṃ abhisamayantarāyakaraṃ hoti.
  ‘‘Api nu, mahārāja, aggi ajānitvā akkamantaṃ ḍahatī’’ti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, ajānantenapi kataṃ pāpaṃ abhisamayantarāyakaraṃ hoti.
  ‘‘Api nu, mahārāja, ajānantaṃ āsīviso ḍaṃsitvā jīvitaṃ haratī’’ti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Evameva kho, mahārāja, ajānantenapi kataṃ pāpaṃ abhisamayantarāyakaraṃ hoti.
  ‘‘Nanu, mahārāja, kāliṅgarājā samaṇakolañño sattaratanaparikiṇṇo hatthiratanamabhiruyha kuladassanāya gacchanto ajānantopi nāsakkhi bodhimaṇḍassa uparito gantuṃ, idamettha, mahārāja, kāraṇaṃ, yena kāraṇena ajānantenapi kataṃ pāpaṃ abhisamayantarāyakaraṃ hotī’’ti? ‘‘Jinabhāsitaṃ , bhante nāgasena, kāraṇaṃ na sakkā paṭikkosituṃ, esovetassa attho tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Abhisamayantarāyakarapañho sattamo.
8. Dussīlapañho
  8. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, gihidussīlassa ca samaṇadussīlassa ca ko viseso, kiṃ nānākaraṇaṃ, ubhopete samasamagatikā, ubhinnampi samasamo vipāko hoti, udāhu kiñci nānākāraṇaṃ atthī’’ti?
  ‘‘Dasa yime, mahārāja, guṇā samaṇadussīlassa gihidussīlato visesena atirekā, dasahi ca kāraṇehi uttariṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti.
  ‘‘Katame dasa guṇā samaṇadussīlassa gihidussīlato visesena atirekā? Idha, mahārāja, samaṇadussīlo buddhe sagāravo hoti, dhamme sagāravo hoti, saṅghe sagāravo hoti, sabrahmacārīsu sagāravo hoti, uddesaparipucchāya vāyamati, savanabahulo hoti, bhinnasīlopi, mahārāja, dussīlo parisagato ākappaṃ upaṭṭhapeti, garahabhayā kāyikaṃ vācasikaṃ rakkhati, padhānābhimukhañcassa hoti cittaṃ, bhikkhusāmaññaṃ upagato hoti. Karontopi, mahārāja, samaṇadussīlo pāpaṃ paṭicchannaṃ ācarati. Yathā, mahārāja, itthī sapatikā nilīyitvā rahasseneva pāpamācarati; evameva kho, mahārāja, karontopi samaṇadussīlo pāpaṃ paṭicchannaṃ ācarati. Ime kho, mahārāja, dasa guṇā samaṇadussīlassa gihidussīlato visesena atirekā.
  ‘‘Katamehi dasahi kāraṇehi uttariṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti? Anavajjakavacadhāraṇatāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, isisāmaññabhaṇḍuliṅgadhāraṇatopi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, saṅghasamayamanuppaviṭṭhatāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, buddhadhammasaṅghasaraṇagatatāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, padhānāsayaniketavāsitāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, jinasāsanadhara [jinasāsanadhana (sī. pī.)] pariyesanatopi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, pavaradhammadesanatopi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, dhammadīpagatiparāyaṇatāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, ‘aggo buddho’ti ekantaujudiṭṭhitāyapi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti, uposathasamādānatopi dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti. Imehi kho, mahārāja, dasahi kāraṇehi uttariṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti .
  ‘‘Suvipannopi hi, mahārāja, samaṇadussīlo dāyakānaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti. Yathā, mahārāja, udakaṃ subahalampi kalalakaddamarajojallaṃ apaneti; evameva kho, mahārāja, suvipannopi samaṇadussīlo dāyakānaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, uṇhodakaṃ sukudhitampi [sukaṭhitampi (sī. pī), sukhuṭhitampi (syā.)] jjalantaṃ mahantaṃ aggikkhandhaṃ nibbāpeti, evameva kho, mahārāja, suvipannopi samaṇadussīlo dāyakānaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti.
  ‘‘Yathā vā pana, mahārāja, bhojanaṃ virasampi khudādubbalyaṃ apaneti, evameva kho, mahārāja, suvipannopi samaṇadussīlo dāyakānaṃ dakkhiṇaṃ visodheti.
  ‘‘Bhāsitampetaṃ, mahārāja, tathāgatena devātidevena majjhimanikāyavaralañchake dakkhiṇavibhaṅge veyyākaraṇe –
  ‘‘‘Yo sīlavā dussīlesu dadāti dānaṃ, dhammena laddhaṃ supasannacitto;
  Abhisaddahaṃ kammaphalaṃ uḷāraṃ, sā dakkhiṇā dāyakato visujjhatī’’’ti [ma. ni. 3.382].
  ‘‘Acchariyaṃ , bhante nāgasena, abbhutaṃ, bhante nāgasena, tāvatakaṃ mayaṃ pañhaṃ apucchimha, taṃ tvaṃ opammehi kāraṇehi vibhāvento amatamadhuraṃ savanūpagaṃ akāsi. Yathā nāma, bhante, sūdo vā sūdantevāsī vā tāvatakaṃ maṃsaṃ labhitvā nānāvidhehi sambhārehi sampādetvā rājūpabhogaṃ karoti; evameva kho, bhante nāgasena, tāvatakaṃ mayaṃ pañhaṃ apucchimha, taṃ tvaṃ opammehi kāraṇehi vibhāvetvā amatamadhuraṃ savanūpagaṃ akāsī’’ti.
  Dussīlapañho aṭṭhamo.
9. Udakasattajīvapañho
  9. ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, imaṃ udakaṃ aggimhi tappamānaṃ cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidhaṃ, kiṃ nu kho, bhante nāgasena, udakaṃ jīvati, kiṃ kīḷamānaṃ saddāyati, udāhu aññena paṭipīḷitaṃ saddāyatī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, mahārāja, udakaṃ jīvati, natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, api ca, mahārāja, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidha’’nti.
  ‘‘Bhante nāgasena, idhekacce titthiyā udakaṃ jīvatīti sītodakaṃ paṭikkhipitvā udakaṃ tāpetvā vekatikavekatikaṃ paribhuñjanti, te tumhe garahanti paribhavanti ‘ekindriyaṃ samaṇā sakyaputtiyā jīvaṃ viheṭhentī’ti, taṃ tesaṃ garahaṃ paribhavaṃ vinodehi apanehi nicchārehī’’ti. ‘‘Na hi, mahārāja, udakaṃ jīvati, natthi, mahārāja, udake jīvo vā satto vā, api ca, mahārāja, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidhaṃ.
  ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, udakaṃ sobbhasarasaritadahataḷākakandarapadaraudapānaninnapokkharaṇigataṃ vātātapavegassa mahantatāya pariyādiyati parikkhayaṃ gacchati, api nu tattha udakaṃ cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidha’’nti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Yadi, mahārāja, udakaṃ jīveyya, tatthāpi udakaṃ saddāyeyya, imināpi, mahārāja, kāraṇena jānāhi ‘natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidha’nti.
  ‘‘Aparampi , mahārāja, uttariṃ kāraṇaṃ suṇohi ‘natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyatī’ti. Yadā pana, mahārāja, udakaṃ taṇḍulehi sammissitaṃ bhājanagataṃ hoti pihitaṃ uddhane aṭhapitaṃ, api nu tattha udakaṃ saddāyatī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, acalaṃ hoti santasanta’’nti. ‘‘Taṃ yeva pana, mahārāja, udakaṃ bhājanagataṃ aggiṃ ujjāletvā uddhane ṭhapitaṃ hoti, api nu tattha udakaṃ acalaṃ hoti santasanta’’nti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, calati khubbhati luḷati āvilati ūmijātaṃ hoti, uddhamadho disāvidisaṃ gacchati, uttarati patarati pheṇamālī hotīti. Kissa pana taṃ, mahārāja , pākatikaṃ udakaṃ na calati santasantaṃ hoti, kissa pana aggigataṃ calati khubbhati luḷati āvilati ūmijātaṃ hoti, uddhamadho disāvidisaṃ gacchati, uttarati patarati pheṇamālī hotī’’ti? ‘‘Pākatikaṃ, bhante, udakaṃ na calati, aggikataṃ pana udakaṃ aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya cicciṭāyati ciṭiciṭāyati saddāyati bahuvidha’’nti. ‘‘Imināpi mahārāja, kāraṇena jānāhi ‘natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyatī’ti.
  ‘‘Aparampi, mahārāja, uttaraṃ kāraṇaṃ suṇohi, natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyati. Hoti taṃ, mahārāja, udakaṃ ghare ghare udakavārakagataṃ pihita’’nti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Api nu taṃ, mahārāja, udakaṃ calati khubbhati luḷati āvilati ūmijātaṃ hoti, uddhamadho disāvidisaṃ gacchati, uttarati patarati pheṇamālī hotī’’ti. ‘‘Na hi, bhante, acalaṃ taṃ hoti pākatikaṃ udakavārakagataṃ udaka’’nti.
  ‘‘Sutapubbaṃ pana tayā, mahārāja, ‘mahāsamudde udakaṃ calati khubbhati luḷati āvilati ūmijātaṃ hoti, uddhamadho disāvidisaṃ gacchati, uttarati patarati pheṇamālī hoti, ussakkitvā ossakkitvā [ossakkitvā’’ti padaṃ sī. pī. potthakesu natthi] velāya paharati saddāyati bahuvidha’’’nti? ‘‘Āma, bhante, sutapubbaṃ etaṃ mayā diṭṭhapubbañca ‘mahāsamudde udakaṃ hatthasatampi dvepi hatthasatāni gagane ussakkatī’’’ti. ‘‘Kissa, mahārāja, udakavārakagataṃ udakaṃ na calati na saddāyati, kissa pana mahāsamudde udakaṃ calati saddāyatī’’ti? ‘‘Vātavegassa mahantatāya, bhante, mahāsamudde udakaṃ calati saddāyati, udakavārakagataṃ udakaṃ aghaṭṭitaṃ kehici na calati na saddāyatī’’ti. ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, vātavegassa mahantatāya mahāsamudde udakaṃ calati saddāyati evameva aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyatī’’ti.
  ‘‘Nanu, mahārāja, bheripokkharaṃ sukkhaṃ sukkhena gocammena onandhantī’’ti? ‘‘Āma, bhante’’. ‘‘Api nu, mahārāja, bheriyā jīvo vā satto vā atthī’’ti. ‘‘Na hi, bhante’’ti. ‘‘Kissa pana, mahārāja, bherī saddāyatī’’ti? ‘‘Itthiyā vā, bhante, purisassa vā tajjena vāyāmenā’’ti. ‘‘Yathā, mahārāja, itthiyā vā purisassa vā tajjena vāyāmena bherī saddāyati, evameva aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyati. Imināpi, mahārāja , kāraṇena jānāhi ‘natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā, aggisantāpavegassa mahantatāya udakaṃ saddāyatī’ti.
  ‘‘Mayhampi tāva, mahārāja, tava pucchitabbaṃ atthi, evameso pañho suvinicchito hoti, kiṃ nu kho, mahārāja, sabbehipi bhājanehi udakaṃ tappamānaṃ saddāyati, udāhu ekaccehi yeva bhājanehi tappamānaṃ saddāyatī’’ti? ‘‘Na hi, bhante, sabbehipi bhājanehi udakaṃ tappamānaṃ saddāyati, ekaccehi yeva bhājanehi udakaṃ tappamānaṃ saddāyatī’’ti. ‘‘Tena hi, mahārāja, jahitosi sakasamayaṃ, paccāgatosi mama visayaṃ, natthi udake jīvo vā satto vā. Yadi, mahārāja, sabbehipi bhājanehi udakaṃ tappamānaṃ saddāyeyya, yuttamidaṃ ‘udakaṃ jīvatī’ti vattuṃ. Na hi, mahārāja, udakaṃ dvayaṃ hoti, yaṃ saddāyati, taṃ jīvati, yaṃ na saddāyati, taṃ na jīvatīti. Yadi, mahārāja, udakaṃ jīveyya, mahantānaṃ hatthināgānaṃ ussannakāyānaṃ pabhinnānaṃ soṇḍāya ussiñcitvā mukhe pakkhipitvā kucchiṃ pavesayantānaṃ, tampi udakaṃ tesaṃ dantantare cippiyamānaṃ saddāyeyya. Hatthasatikāpi mahānāvā garukā bhārikā anekasatasahassabhāraparipūrā mahāsamudde vicaranti, tāhipi cippiyamānaṃ udakaṃ saddāyeyya. Mahatimahantāpi macchā anekasatayojanikakāyā timī timiṅgalā timirapiṅgalā abbhantare nimuggā mahāsamudde nivāsaṭṭhānatāya paṭivasantā mahāudakadhārā ācamanti dhamanti ca, tesampi taṃ dantantarepi udarantarepi cippiyamānaṃ udakaṃ saddāyeyya. Yasmā ca kho, mahārāja, evarūpehi evarūpehi mahantehi paṭipīḷanehi paṭipīḷitaṃ udakaṃ na saddāyati tasmāpi natthi udake jīvo vā satto vāti, evametaṃ, mahārāja, dhārehī’’ti.
  ‘‘Sādhu , bhante nāgasena, dosāgato pañho anucchavikāya vibhattiyā vibhatto, yathā nāma, bhante nāgasena, mahagghaṃ maṇiratanaṃ chekaṃ ācariyaṃ kusalaṃ sikkhitaṃ maṇikāraṃ pāpuṇitvā kittiṃ labheyya thomanaṃ pasaṃsaṃ, muttāratanaṃ vā muttikaṃ dussaratanaṃ vā dussikaṃ, lohitacandanaṃ vā gandhikaṃ pāpuṇitvā kittiṃ labheyya thomanaṃ pasaṃsaṃ. Evameva kho, bhante nāgasena, dosāgato [desāgato (sī. pī.)] pañho anucchavikāya vibhattiyā vibhatto, evametaṃ tathā sampaṭicchāmī’’ti.
  Udakasattajīvapañho navamo.
  Buddhavaggo paṭhamo.
  Imasmiṃ vagge nava pañhā.