經號:   
   (中部141經 更新)
中部141經/諦分別經(分別品[14])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在波羅奈鹿野苑的仙人墜落處。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:
  「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!在波羅奈鹿野苑的仙人墜落處,這無上法輪已被如來阿羅漢遍正覺者轉動了,將不被任何沙門婆羅門、天、魔、梵,或世間中任何者反轉,即:四聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,哪四個呢?苦聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,苦聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,苦聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,導向苦滅道跡聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明。比丘們!在波羅奈鹿野苑的仙人墜落處,這無上法輪已被如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者轉動了,必將不被任何沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵,或世間中任何者反轉,即:這四聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明。
  比丘們!你們應該親近舍利弗、目揵連,比丘們!你們應該服侍舍利弗、目揵連,[兩位]比丘是賢智者、同梵行比丘們的資助者。比丘們!舍利弗猶如生母那樣,目揵連猶如養母那樣,比丘們!舍利弗在入流果上訓練指導,目揵連在最上目的上[訓練指導],比丘們!舍利弗能夠詳細地告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明四聖諦。」
  這就是世尊所說。說了這個後,善逝起座進入住處。
  在那裡,當世尊離去不久,尊者舍利弗召喚比丘們:
  「比丘學友們!」
  「學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗這麼說:
  「學友們!在波羅奈鹿野苑的仙人墜落處,這無上法輪已被如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者轉動了,將不被任何沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵,或世間中任何者反轉,即:四聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,哪四個呢?苦聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,苦集聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,苦滅聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,導向苦滅道跡聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明。
  而,學友們!什麼是苦聖諦呢?生是苦,老也是苦,死也是苦,愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望也是苦,所求不得是苦,總括之,五取蘊是苦。
  而,學友們!什麼是生?所有眾生中,關於每一種眾生類的生、出生、進入[胎]、生出、諸蘊顯現、得諸處,學友們!這被稱為生。
  而,學友們!什麼是老?所有眾生中,關於每一種眾生類的老、老衰、齒落、髮白、皮皺、壽命的衰退、諸根的退化,學友們!這被稱為老。
  而,學友們!什麼是死?所有眾生中,由於每一種眾生類的過世、滅亡、崩解、消失、死亡、壽終、諸蘊的崩解、屍體的捨棄、命根斷絕,學友們!這被稱為死。
  而,學友們!什麼是愁?學友們!凡具備(遭遇)某些不幸、接觸某些苦法者的愁、悲傷、憂愁、內部的愁、內部的悲哀,學友們!這被稱為愁。
  而,學友們!什麼是悲?學友們!凡具備(遭遇)某些不幸、接觸某些苦法者的悲歎、悲泣、哭泣、慟哭、悲歎的狀態、悲泣的狀態,學友們!這被稱為悲。
  而,學友們!什麼是苦?學友們!凡身體的苦、身體的不合意,身觸所生的苦與不合意感受,學友們!這被稱為苦。
  而,學友們!什麼是憂?學友們!凡心的苦、心的不合意,意觸所生的苦與不合意感受,學友們!這被稱為憂。
  而,學友們!什麼是絕望?學友們!凡具備(遭遇)某些不幸、接觸某些苦法者的憂惱、絕望、憂鬱、惱愁、憂惱的狀態、絕望的狀態,學友們!這被稱為絕望。
  而,學友們!什麼是所求不得是苦?學友們!生法的眾生生起這樣的欲求:『啊!願我們沒有生法!願我們的生不來!』但這不以欲求而能得到,這是所求不得是苦。學友們!老法的眾生……(中略)學友們!病法的眾生……(中略)學友們!死法的眾生……(中略)學友們!愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望法的眾生生起這樣的欲求:『啊!願我們沒有愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望法!願我們的愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望不來!』但這不以欲求而能得到,這是所求不得是苦。
  而,學友們!什麼是總括之,五取蘊是苦?即:色取蘊、受取蘊、想取蘊、行取蘊、識取蘊,學友們!這被稱為總括之,五取蘊是苦。
  學友們!這被稱為苦聖諦。
  而,學友們!什麼是苦集聖諦?是這導致再生、伴隨歡喜與貪、到處歡喜的渴愛,即:欲的渴愛、有的渴愛、虛無的渴愛,學友們!這被稱為苦集聖諦。
  而,學友們!什麼是苦滅聖諦?就是那渴愛的無餘褪去與滅、捨棄、斷念、解脫、無依住,學友們!這被稱為苦滅聖諦。
  而,學友們!什麼是導向苦滅道跡聖諦?就是這八支聖道;即:正見、正志、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定。
  而,學友們!什麼是正見?學友們!苦之智,苦集之智,苦滅之智,導向苦滅道跡之智,學友們!這被稱為正見。
  而,學友們!什麼是正志?離欲的意向無惡意的意向無加害的意向,學友們!這被稱為正志。
  而,學友們!什麼是正語?妄語的戒絕、離間語的戒絕、粗惡語的戒絕、雜穢語的戒絕,學友們!這被稱為正語。
  而,學友們!什麼是正業?殺生的戒絕、未給予而取的戒絕、邪淫的戒絕,學友們!這被稱為正業。
  而,學友們!什麼是正命?學友們!這裡,聖弟子捨斷邪命後,以正命營生,學友們!這被稱為正命。
  而,學友們!什麼是正精進?學友們!這裡,比丘為了未生起的惡不善法之不生起而生欲、努力、生起活力、盡心、勤奮;為了已生起的惡不善法之捨斷而生欲、努力、生起活力、盡心、勤奮;為了未生起的善法之生起而生欲、努力、生起活力、盡心、勤奮;為了已生起的善法之存續、不消失、增加、擴大、修習圓滿而生欲、努力、生起活力、盡心、勤奮,學友們!這被稱為正精進。
  而,學友們!什麼是正念?學友們!這裡,比丘住於在身上隨觀身,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪婪、憂;住於在受上隨觀受,……(中略)住於在心上隨觀心,……(中略)住於在法上隨觀法,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪婪、憂,學友們!這被稱為正念。
  而,學友們!什麼是正定?學友們!這裡,比丘從離欲、離不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺,離而生喜、樂的初禪;以尋與伺的平息,自信一心,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪;以喜的褪去與住於平靜,有念、正知,以身體感受樂,進入後住於這聖弟子宣說:『他是平靜、具念、住於樂者』的第三禪;以樂的捨斷與苦的捨斷,及以之前喜悅與憂的滅沒,進入後住於不苦不樂,由平靜而念遍淨的第四禪,學友們!這被稱為正定。
  學友們!這被稱為導向苦滅道跡聖諦。
  學友們!在波羅奈鹿野苑的仙人墜落處,這無上法輪已被如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者轉動了,必將不被任何沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵,或世間中任何者反轉,即:這四聖諦的告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明。」
  這就是尊者舍利弗所說,悅意的那些比丘歡喜尊者舍利弗所說。
  諦分別經第十一終了。
MN.141/(11) Saccavibhaṅgasuttaṃ
   371. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā bārāṇasiyaṃ viharati isipatane migadāye. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Tathāgatena, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, yadidaṃ– catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Dukkhassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ. Tathāgatena, bhikkhave, arahatā sammāsambuddhena bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ yadidaṃ– imesaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ.
   “Sevatha, bhikkhave, sāriputtamoggallāne; bhajatha, bhikkhave, sāriputtamoggallāne. Paṇḍitā bhikkhū anuggāhakā sabrahmacārīnaṃ. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, janetā, evaṃ sāriputto; seyyathāpi jātassa āpādetā, evaṃ moggallāno. Sāriputto, bhikkhave, sotāpattiphale vineti, moggallāno uttamatthe. Sāriputto, bhikkhave, pahoti cattāri ariyasaccāni vitthārena ācikkhituṃ desetuṃ paññāpetuṃ paṭṭhapetuṃ vivarituṃ vibhajituṃ uttānīkātun”ti. Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṃ pāvisi.
   372. Tatra kho āyasmā sāriputto acirapakkantassa bhagavato bhikkhū āmantesi– “āvuso, bhikkhave”ti. “Āvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca–
   “Tathāgatena, āvuso, arahatā sammāsambuddhena bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, yadidaṃ– catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Dukkhassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhasamudayassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhanirodhassa ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ariyasaccassa ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkammaṃ.
   373. “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, maraṇampi dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsāpi dukkhā, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ; saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.
   “Katamā cāvuso, jāti? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo āyatanānaṃ paṭilābho, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘jāti’”.
   “Katamā cāvuso, jarā? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā āyuno saṃhāni indriyānaṃ paripāko, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘jarā’”.
   “Katamañcāvuso, maraṇaṃ? Yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhā tamhā sattanikāyā cuti cavanatā bhedo antaradhānaṃ maccu maraṇaṃ kālaṃkiriyā khandhānaṃ bhedo kaḷevarassa nikkhepo jīvitindriyassupacchedo, idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘maraṇaṃ’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, soko? Yo kho, āvuso, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa soko socanā socitattaṃ antosoko antoparisoko, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso ‘soko’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, paridevo? Yo kho, āvuso, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa ādevo paridevo ādevanā paridevanā ādevitattaṃ paridevitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘paridevo’”.
   “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhaṃ? Yaṃ kho, āvuso, kāyikaṃ dukkhaṃ kāyikaṃ asātaṃ kāyasamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘dukkhaṃ’”.
   “Katamañcāvuso, domanassaṃ? Yaṃ kho, āvuso, cetasikaṃ dukkhaṃ cetasikaṃ asātaṃ manosamphassajaṃ dukkhaṃ asātaṃ vedayitaṃ, idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘domanassaṃ’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, upāyāso? Yo kho, āvuso, aññataraññatarena byasanena samannāgatassa aññataraññatarena dukkhadhammena phuṭṭhassa āyāso upāyāso āyāsitattaṃ upāyāsitattaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘upāyāso’”.
   “Katamañcāvuso, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ? Jātidhammānaṃ, āvuso, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati– ‘aho vata, mayaṃ na jātidhammā assāma; na ca, vata, no jāti āgaccheyyā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idampi– ‘yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ’. Jarādhammānaṃ, āvuso, sattānaṃ …pe… byādhidhammānaṃ, āvuso, sattānaṃ… maraṇadhammānaṃ, āvuso, sattānaṃ… sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammānaṃ, āvuso, sattānaṃ evaṃ icchā uppajjati– ‘aho vata, mayaṃ na sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsadhammā assāma na ca, vata, no sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā āgaccheyyun’ti Na kho panetaṃ icchāya pattabbaṃ. Idampi– ‘yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ’”.
   “Katame cāvuso, saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā? Seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho. Ime vuccantāvuso– ‘saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā’. Idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ’”.
   374. “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Yāyaṃ taṇhā ponobbhavikā nandīrāgasahagatā tatratatrābhinandinī, seyyathidaṃ– kāmataṇhā bhavataṇhā vibhavataṇhā idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘dukkhasamudayaṃ ariyasaccaṃ’”.
   “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo, idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘dukkhanirodhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ’”.
   375. “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ – sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammā-ājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati, sammāsamādhi.
   “Katamācāvuso, sammādiṭṭhi? Yaṃ kho, āvuso, dukkhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammādiṭṭhi’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, sammāsaṅkappo? Nekkhammasaṅkappo, abyāpādasaṅkappo avihiṃsāsaṅkappo, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammāsaṅkappo’”.
   “Katamā cāvuso, sammāvācā? Musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammāvācā’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, sammākammantī? Pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso – ‘sammākammanto’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, sammā-ājīvo? Idhāvuso, ariyasāvako micchā-ājīvaṃ pahāya sammā-ājīvena jīvikaṃ kappeti, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammā-ājīvo’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, sammāvāyāmo? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati, uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati, anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati, uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammāvāyāmo’”.
   “Katamā cāvuso, sammāsati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati …pe… citte cittānupassī viharati… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammāsati’”.
   “Katamo cāvuso, sammāsamādhi? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati, pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ… viharati, ayaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘sammāsamādhi’. Idaṃ vuccatāvuso– ‘dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ’”.
   “Tathāgatenāvuso, arahatā sammāsambuddhena bārāṇasiyaṃ isipatane migadāye anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattitaṃ appaṭivattiyaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ, yadidaṃ– imesaṃ catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ ācikkhanā desanā paññāpanā paṭṭhapanā vivaraṇā vibhajanā uttānīkamman”ti.
   Idamavoca āyasmā sāriputto. Attamanā te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Saccavibhaṅgasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ ekādasamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「最上真際(MA.31);成第一義(AA)」,南傳作「在最上目的上」(uttamatthe),智髻比丘長老英譯為「為無上的目標」(for the supreme goal)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,尊者舍利弗照顧(saṅgaṇhanto)在自己或他人面前出家者到須陀洹狀態後要他們各自生起更高的道(uparimagge nibbattessantī’’ti),對他們成為無期待的,他教誡其他新的,而尊者目揵連對三個較低果位的達到者不來到無期待的,直到達到阿羅漢果(大意)。