經號:   
   (中部52經 更新)
中部52經/八城人經(屋主品[6])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次尊者阿難住在毘舍離橡樹村。
  當時,八城人屋主第十以某些必須作的事抵達華氏城。
  那時,八城人屋主第十到雞園去見某位比丘。抵達後,向那位比丘問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,八城人屋主第十對那位比丘這麼說:
  「大德!尊者阿難現在住在哪裡呢?因為我想要見那位尊者阿難。」
  「屋主!這位尊者阿難住在毘舍離橡樹村。」
  那時,八城人屋主第十在華氏城完成必須作的事後,就往毘舍離橡樹村去見尊者阿難。抵達後,向尊者阿難問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,八城人屋主第十對尊者阿難這麼說:
  「阿難大德!有一法被有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者講說:當比丘住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,未解脫的心被解脫,未滅盡的煩惱來到遍盡,未達無上離軛安穩的他到達嗎?」
  「屋主!有一法被有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者講說:當比丘住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,未解脫的心被解脫,未滅盡的煩惱來到遍盡,未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。」
  「阿難大德!哪一法被有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者講說:當比丘住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,未解脫的心被解脫,未滅盡的煩惱來到遍盡,未達無上離軛安穩的他到達呢?」
  「屋主!這裡,比丘從離欲、離不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺離而生喜、樂的初禪,他像這樣深慮:『這初禪也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,到達諸煩惱的滅盡。如果因為那法貪、那法喜而沒達到諸煩惱的滅盡,則以五下分結的滅盡而為化生者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。這是一法被有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者講說:當比丘住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,未解脫的心被解脫,未滅盡的煩惱來到遍盡,未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以尋與伺的平息,自信一心,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪,他像這樣深慮:『這第二禪也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以喜的褪去與住於平靜,正念、正知,以身體感受樂,進入後住於這聖弟子宣說:『他是平靜、專注、住於樂者』的第三禪,他像這樣深慮:『這第三禪也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以樂的捨斷與苦的捨斷,及以之前喜悅與憂的滅沒,進入後住於不苦不樂,由平靜而正念遍淨的第四禪,他像這樣深慮:『這第四禪也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以與慈俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二方,像這樣第三方,像這樣第四方,像這樣上下、橫向、到處,對一切如對自己,以與慈俱行之心,以廣大、以出眾、以無量、以無怨恨、以無惡意之心遍滿全部世間後而住,他像這樣深慮:『這慈心解脫也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以與悲俱行之心……(中略)以與喜悅俱行之心……(中略)以與平靜俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二方,像這樣第三方,像這樣第四方。像這樣,上下、橫向、到處,對一切如對自己,以與平靜俱行之心,以廣大、以出眾、以無量、以無怨恨、以無惡意之心遍滿全部世間後而住,他像這樣深慮:『這平靜心解脫也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以一切色想的超越,以有對想的滅沒,以不作意種種想[而知]:『虛空是無邊的』,進入後住於虛空無邊處,他像這樣深慮:『這虛空無邊處等至也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩已到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以一切虛空無邊處的超越[而知]:『識是無邊的』,進入後住於識無邊處,他像這樣深慮:『這識無邊處等至也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,……(中略)未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。
  再者,屋主!比丘以一切識無邊處的超越[而知]:『什麼都沒有』,進入後住於無所有處,他像這樣深慮:『這無所有處等至也是被造作的、被思所製造的。』他了知:『凡任何被造作的、被思所製造的都是無常的、滅法。』當他在那裡住立時,到達諸煩惱的滅盡。如果因為那法貪、那法喜而沒達到諸煩惱的滅盡,則以五下分結的滅盡而為化生者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。這是一法被有知、有見的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者講說:當比丘住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,未解脫的心被解脫,未滅盡的煩惱來到遍盡,未達無上離軛安穩的他到達。」
  當這麼說時,八城人屋主第十對尊者阿難這麼說:
  「阿難大德!猶如男子如果探求著一個寶藏入口,[卻]一次獲得十一個寶藏入口。同樣的,大德!我探求著一個不死之門,[卻]一次獲得十一個不死之門。大德!猶如男子的房子有十一個入口,當那房子著火時,他能以任何一個門使自己平安。同樣的,大德!我將能以這十一個不死之門的任何一個不死之門使自己平安。大德!這些其他外道將遍求老師的敬師費,而我將怎能不供養尊者阿難呢?」
  那時,八城人屋主第十使華氏城與毘舍離的比丘僧團集合後,親手以勝妙的硬食與軟食款待與使之滿足,使每一位比丘穿一對衣服,以三衣使尊者阿難穿上,並為尊者阿難建造[值]五百[貨幣]的住處
  八城人經第二終了。
MN.52/(2) Aṭṭhakanāgarasuttaṃ
   17. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ āyasmā ānando vesāliyaṃ viharati beluvagāmake. Tena kho pana samayena dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro pāṭaliputtaṃ anuppatto hoti kenacideva karaṇīyena. Atha kho dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro yena kukkuṭārāmo yena aññataro bhikkhu tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro taṃ bhikkhuṃ etadavoca– “kahaṃ nu kho, bhante, āyasmā ānando etarahi viharati? Dassanakāmā hi mayaṃ taṃ āyasmantaṃ ānandan”ti. “Eso, gahapati, āyasmā ānando vesāliyaṃ viharati beluvagāmake”ti. Atha kho dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro pāṭaliputte taṃ karaṇīyaṃ tīretvā yena vesālī yena beluvagāmako yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi.
   18. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca– “atthi nu kho, bhante ānanda, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ekadhammo akkhāto yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttañceva cittaṃ vimuccati, aparikkhīṇā ca āsavā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti ananuppattañca anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇātī”ti?
   “Atthi kho, gahapati, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ekadhammo akkhāto yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttañceva cittaṃ vimuccati, aparikkhīṇā ca āsavā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ananuppattañca anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇātī”ti.
   “Katamo pana, bhante ānanda, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ekadhammo akkhāto yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttañceva cittaṃ vimuccati, aparikkhīṇā ca āsavā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ananuppattañca anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇātī”ti?
   19. “Idha, gahapati, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘idampi paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’ti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti. No ce āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, teneva dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātiko hoti tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā. Ayampi kho, gahapati, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ekadhammo akkhāto yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttañceva cittaṃ vimuccati, aparikkhīṇā ca āsavā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ananuppattañca anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   20. “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ …pe… dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘idampi kho dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā …pe… tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘idampi kho tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ …pe… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā …pe… catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘idampi kho catutthaṃ jhānaṃ abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ayampi kho mettācetovimutti abhisaṅkhatā abhisañcetayitā. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’ti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito …pe… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu karuṇāsahagatena cetasā …pe… muditāsahagatena cetasā …pe… upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ayampi kho upekkhācetovimutti abhisaṅkhatā abhisañcetayitā. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’tntti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ayampi kho ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpatti abhisaṅkhatā abhisañcetayitā. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’ti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito …pe… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ayampi kho viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpatti abhisaṅkhatā abhisañcetayitā. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’ti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito …pe… anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇāti.
   “Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. So iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ayampi kho ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpatti abhisaṅkhatā abhisañcetayitā. Yaṃ kho pana kiñci abhisaṅkhataṃ abhisañcetayitaṃ tadaniccaṃ nirodhadhamman’ti pajānāti. So tattha ṭhito āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti. No ce āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, teneva dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātiko hoti tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā. Ayampi kho, gahapati, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ekadhammo akkhāto yattha bhikkhuno appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato avimuttañceva cittaṃ vimuccati, aparikkhīṇā ca āsavā parikkhayaṃ gacchanti, ananuppattañca anuttaraṃ yogakkhemaṃ anupāpuṇātī”ti.
   21. Evaṃ vutte, dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca– “seyyathāpi, bhante ānanda, puriso ekaṃva nidhimukhaṃ gavesanto sakideva ekādasa nidhimukhāni adhigaccheyya; evameva kho ahaṃ, bhante, ekaṃ amatadvāraṃ gavesanto sakideva ekādasa amatadvārāni alatthaṃ bhāvanāya. Seyyathāpi, bhante, purisassa agāraṃ ekādasadvāraṃ, so tasmiṃ agāre āditte ekamekenapi dvārena sakkuṇeyya attānaṃ sotthiṃ kātuṃ; evameva kho ahaṃ, bhante, imesaṃ ekādasannaṃ amatadvārānaṃ ekamekenapi amatadvārena sakkuṇissāmi attānaṃ sotthiṃ kātuṃ. Imehi nāma, bhante, aññatitthiyā ācariyassa ācariyadhanaṃ pariyesissanti, kimaṅgaṃ panāhaṃ āyasmato ānandassa pūjaṃ na karissāmī”ti Atha kho dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro pāṭaliputtakañca vesālikañca bhikkhusaṅghaṃ sannipātetvā paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesi sampavāresi, ekamekañca bhikkhuṃ paccekaṃ dussayugena acchādesi, āyasmantañca ānandaṃ ticīvarena acchādesi, āyasmato ca ānandassa pañcasatavihāraṃ kārāpesīti.
   Aṭṭhakanāgarasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dutiyaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「第十居士八城(MA.217)」,南傳作「八城人屋主第十」(dasamo gahapati aṭṭhakanāgaro),「第十」是那位屋主的名字。
  「穿一對衣服」(dussayugena acchādesi),智髻比丘長老英譯為「贈一對衣服」(presented a pair of cloths)。
  「[值]五百[貨幣]的住處」(pañcasatavihāraṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「一個值五百的住處」(a dwelling worth five hundred),菩提比丘長老解說,這是指五百kahāpaṇa(貨幣),kahāpaṇa為當時貨幣標準單位。