經號:   
   (中部47經 更新)
中部47經/考察經(雙小品[5])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!不知他人心法門的考察比丘應該為了識知『遍正覺與否』而對如來作探查。」
  「大德!我們的法以世尊為根本,以世尊為導引,以世尊為依歸,大德!如果世尊能說明這所說的義理,那就好了!聽聞世尊的[教說]後,比丘們將會憶持的。」
  「那樣的話,比丘們!你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」
  「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!不知他人心法門的考察比丘應該在二法上對如來作探查:在能被眼與耳識知的法上:『凡能被眼與耳識知的污染法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的污染法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』
  當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的污染法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』之後,他更進一步探查:『凡能被眼與耳識知的混雜法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的混雜法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』
  當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的混雜法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』之後,他更進一步探查:『凡能被眼與耳識知的淨法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的淨法,對如來來說,那些被發現。』
  當探查他時,他這麼知道:『凡能被眼與耳識知的淨法,對如來來說,那些被發現。』之後,他更進一步探查:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間的進入者,或者是暫時的進入者?』當探查他時,他這麼知道:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間的進入者,這位尊者不是暫時的進入者。』
  當探查他時,他這麼知道:『這位尊者是這些善法長時間的進入者,這位尊者不是暫時的進入者。』之後,他更進一步探查:『這位已變得有名的、已得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,一些[他有關名聲的]過患被發現嗎?』比丘們!因為,只要比丘是未變得有名者、未得到名聲者,這裡,一些過患不被發現,但,比丘們!當比丘是已變得有名者、已得到名聲者,這裡,一些過患被發現。當探查他時,他這麼知道:『這位已變得有名的、已得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,一些[他有關名聲的]過患不被發現。』
  當探查他時,他這麼知道:『這位已變得有名的、已得到名聲的尊者比丘,這裡,一些[他有關名聲的]過患不被發現。』之後,他更進一步探查:『這位尊者是無畏的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者,他對欲不親近,以貪的滅盡而成為離貪的狀態嗎?』當探查他時,他這麼知道:『這位尊者是無畏的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者,他對欲不親近,以貪的滅盡而成為離貪的狀態。』比丘們!如果其他人這麼詢問那位比丘:『尊者以什麼理由什麼推比,據此而尊者這麼說:這位尊者是無畏的節制者,這位尊者不是有畏懼的節制者,他對欲不親近,以貪的滅盡而成為離貪的狀態呢?』比丘們!當正確地回答時,比丘應該這麼回答:『像這樣,當這位尊者在僧團中住或單獨住時,在那裡,凡善去者惡去者、教誡群眾者[、不教誡群眾者],以及,這裡,一些是在物質上被看見者、一些是不被物質染著者,這位尊者不因此而輕蔑他。我在世尊面前聽聞、領受:我是無畏的節制者,我不是有畏懼的節制者,我對欲不親近,以貪的滅盡而成為離貪的狀態。』
  比丘們!在那裡,應該進一步反問如來:『凡能被眼與耳識知的污染法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼與耳識知的污染法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』『凡能被眼與耳識知的混雜法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼與耳識知的混雜法,對如來來說,那些不被發現。』『凡能被眼與耳識知的淨法,對如來來說,那些被發現與否?』比丘們!當回答時,如來會這樣回答:『凡能被眼與耳識知的淨法,對如來來說,那些被發現。我有這個道這個行境,但不因為那樣而等同彼。』
  比丘們!對這樣說的大師,弟子值得為了聽聞法而前往,大師對他教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白包含對比法,比丘們!如大師對比丘教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白包含對比法,這樣,這裡,他在那個法中的某個法以證智走到關於諸法的究竟,他淨信大師:『世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是依善而行者。』比丘們!如果其他人這麼詢問那位比丘:『尊者以什麼行相、什麼推比,據此而尊者這麼說:世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是依善而行者呢?』比丘們!當正確地回答時,比丘應該這麼回答:『朋友!這裡,我為了法的聽聞去見世尊,世尊對我教導更高再更高、勝妙再勝妙、黑白包含對比法,這樣,這裡,我在那個法中的某個法以證智走到關於諸法的究竟,我淨信大師:『世尊是遍正覺者,法被世尊善說,僧團是依善而行者。』
  比丘們!凡任何人對如來的信以這些理由、這些語詞、這些文句住立、生根、確立,比丘們!這被稱為有理由、根植於見、堅固的信,不能被沙門婆羅門、天、魔、梵、世間中的任何者動搖,比丘們!這樣是對如來以法探求,而這樣是如來被以法善探求。」
  這就是世尊所說,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊所說。
  考察經第七終了。
MN.47/(7) Vīmaṃsakasuttaṃ
   487. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “vīmaṃsakena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā parassa cetopariyāyaṃ ajānantena tathāgate samannesanā kātabbā ‘sammāsambuddho vā no vā’ iti viññāṇāyā”ti. “Bhagavaṃmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā, bhagavaṃnettikā bhagavaṃpaṭisaraṇā; sādhu vata, bhante, bhagavantaṃyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho; bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti. “Tena hi, bhikkhave, suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   488. “Vīmaṃsakena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā parassa cetopariyāyaṃ ajānantena dvīsu dhammesu tathāgato samannesitabbo cakkhusotaviññeyyesu dhammesu– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassā’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassā’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, udāhu ittarasamāpanno’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti – ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, nāyamāyasmā ittarasamāpanno’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘dīgharattaṃ samāpanno ayamāyasmā imaṃ kusalaṃ dhammaṃ, nāyamāyasmā ittarasamāpanno’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, saṃvijjantassa idhekacce ādīnavā’ti? Na tāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjanti yāva na ñattajjhāpanno hoti yasappatto. Yato ca kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ñattajjhāpanno hoti yasappatto athassa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjanti. Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, nāssa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Yato naṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘ñattajjhāpanno ayamāyasmā bhikkhu yasappatto, nāssa idhekacce ādīnavā saṃvijjantī’ti, tato naṃ uttariṃ samannesati– ‘abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti? Tamenaṃ samannesamāno evaṃ jānāti– ‘abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti. Tañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṃ pare evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ke panāyasmato ākārā, ke anvayā, yenāyasmā evaṃ vadesi– abhayūparato ayamāyasmā, nāyamāyasmā bhayūparato; vītarāgattā kāme na sevati khayā rāgassā’ti. Sammā byākaramāno, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ byākareyya– ‘tathā hi pana ayamāyasmā saṅghe vā viharanto eko vā viharanto, ye ca tattha sugatā ye ca tattha duggatā, ye ca tattha gaṇamanusāsanti, ye ca idhekacce āmisesu saṃdissanti, ye ca idhekacce āmisena anupalittā, nāyamāyasmā taṃ tena avajānāti Sammukhā kho pana metaṃ bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– abhayūparatohamasmi, nāhamasmi bhayūparato, vītarāgattā kāme na sevāmi khayā rāgassā’ti.
   489. “Tatra bhikkhave, tathāgatova uttariṃ paṭipucchitabbo– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vā’ti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye saṃkiliṭṭhā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’”ti.
   “Ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vāti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, na te tathāgatassa saṃvijjantī’ti.
   “Ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti vā te tathāgatassa no vāti? Byākaramāno, bhikkhave, tathāgato evaṃ byākareyya– ‘ye vodātā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā, saṃvijjanti te tathāgatassa; etaṃpathohamasmi, etaṃgocaro, no ca tena tammayo’ti.
   “Evaṃvādiṃ kho, bhikkhave, satthāraṃ arahati sāvako upasaṅkamituṃ dhammassavanāya. Tassa satthā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ. Yathā yathā kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno satthā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ tathā tathā so tasmiṃ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ dhammesu niṭṭhaṃ gacchati, satthari pasīdati– ‘sammāsambuddho bhagavā, svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti. Tañce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṃ pare evaṃ puccheyyuṃ– ‘ke panāyasmato ākārā, ke anvayā, yenāyasmā evaṃ vadesi– sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti? Sammā byākaramāno, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ byākareyya – ‘idhāhaṃ, āvuso, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃ dhammassavanāya. Tassa me bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ. Yathā yathā me, āvuso bhagavā dhammaṃ deseti uttaruttariṃ paṇītapaṇītaṃ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgaṃ tathā tathāhaṃ tasmiṃ dhamme abhiññāya idhekaccaṃ dhammaṃ dhammesu niṭṭhamagamaṃ, satthari pasīdiṃ – sammāsambuddho bhagavā, svākkhāto bhagavatā, dhammo, suppaṭipanno saṅgho’ti.
   490. “Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, imehi ākārehi imehi padehi imehi byañjanehi tathāgate saddhā niviṭṭhā hoti mūlajātā patiṭṭhitā, ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, ākāravatī saddhā dassanamūlikā, daḷhā; asaṃhāriyā samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, tathāgate dhammasamannesanā hoti. Evañca pana tathāgato dhammatāsusamanniṭṭho hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Vīmaṃsakasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ sattamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「雜眼、耳知法(MA.186)」,南傳作「能被眼與耳識知的混雜法」(vītimissā cakkhusotaviññeyyā dhammā,逐字譯為「雜的-眼+耳+識知-法」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「能經由眼或耳認識的任何混合情況」(any mixed states cognizable through the eye or through the ear)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「有時黑(邪惡),有時白(善)」(kāle kaṇhā, kāle sukkāti)解說「混雜」。
  「樂行非恐怖(MA.186)」,南傳作「無畏的節制者」(abhayūparato,另譯為「無畏的止息者;無畏的寂靜者」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「以無恐怖而自制」(restrained without fear)。
  「有何行(MA.186)」,南傳作「以什麼理由」(ke…ākārā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「什麼理由」(What are the…reasons)。「理由」(ākārā),另譯為「行相;相;相貌;樣相;樣子;情況」。
  「有何智(MA.186)」,南傳作「什麼推比」(ke anvayā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「什麼是他的證據」(what is his evidence)。「推比」(anvayā),另譯為「隨行;類句;類比」。
  「善逝(MA.186)」,南傳作「善去者」(sugatā,另譯為「善趣者;投生善處者;善逝」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「某些有好行為者」(some there are well behaved)。
  「因食可見(MA.186)」,南傳作「在物質上被看見者」(āmisesu saṃdissanti),智髻比丘長老英譯為「在這裡某些被看見與物質的事相關連」(some here are seen concerned about material things)。「物質」(āmisa),另譯為「財;食;味;利益」。
  「如是境界(MA.186)」,南傳作「這個行境」(etaṃgocaro),智髻比丘長老英譯為「我的領域」(my domain)。
  「知斷一法(MA.186)」,南傳作「某個法以證智」(ekaccaṃ dhammaṃ abhiññāya),菩提比丘長老英譯為「經由直接理解某個教導」(through direct knowledge of a certain teaching),並解說,為了帶出要表達的意思,將「法」譯為「教導」。
  「於諸法得究竟(MA.186)」,南傳作「走到關於諸法的究竟」(dhammesu niṭṭhaṃ gacchati),智髻比丘長老英譯為「關於教法來到結論」(comes to a conclusion about the teachings)。
  「見本(MA.186)」,南傳作「根植於見」(dassanamūlikā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「根植於見解」(rooted in vision)。
  「他人心法門」(parassa cetopariyāyaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「別人的心」(another's mind)。
  「惡去者」(duggatā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「不良行為」(ill behaved)。
  「我有這個道」(etaṃpathohamasmi),智髻比丘長老英譯為「它們是我的路」(They are my pathway)。