經號:   
   (中部40經 更新)
中部40經/馬城小經(雙大品[4])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在鴦伽,一個名叫馬城的鴦伽市鎮。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!人們稱呼你們『沙門、沙門』,而,當你們被問:『你們是誰?』時,你們回答:『我們是沙門。』比丘們!你們這麼被稱呼,這麼自稱,你們應該這麼學:『我們將實行所有沙門適當道跡,這樣,我們的這個稱呼將是真實,我們的自稱將是事實,而且,我們受用衣服、施食、住處、病人的需要物、醫藥必需品,那些在我們身上做這些的行為者必將有大果、大效益,我們這出家必將是功不唐捐的、有成果的、有果實的。』
  比丘們!怎樣不是沙門適當道跡的行者呢?比丘們!凡任何比丘是貪婪者未捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者未捨斷惡意、憤怒者未捨斷憤怒、怨恨者未捨斷怨恨、藏惡者未捨斷藏惡、專橫者未捨斷專橫、嫉妒者未捨斷嫉妒、慳吝者未捨斷慳吝、狡猾者未捨斷狡猾、偽詐者未捨斷偽詐、惡欲求者未捨斷惡欲求、邪見者未捨斷邪見,比丘們!對這些沙門的垢穢、沙門的過失、沙門的渣滓、墮苦界處、能感受惡趣未捨斷者,我說:『他不是沙門適當道跡的行者。』比丘們!猶如名叫麼大若的武器,兩邊磨得銳利,被大衣充分覆蓋、包捲,比丘們!我說那位比丘的出家就像那樣。
  比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由穿著大衣者的大衣穿著,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由裸行者的裸行,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由塵垢者的塵垢,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由水浴者的水浴,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由住樹下者的住樹下,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由住露地者的住露地,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由常站立者的常站立,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由定期受食者的定期受食,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由誦咒者的誦咒,比丘們!我不說沙門身分是只經由結髮者的結髮。
  比丘們!如果只經由穿著大衣,穿著大衣的貪婪者能捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者能捨斷惡意、憤怒者能捨斷憤怒、怨恨者能捨斷怨恨、藏惡者能捨斷藏惡、專橫者能捨斷專橫、嫉妒者能捨斷嫉妒、慳吝者能捨斷慳吝、狡猾者能捨斷狡猾、偽詐者能捨斷偽詐、惡欲求者能捨斷惡欲求、邪見者能捨斷邪見,以此,他的朋友、同僚、親族、親屬在他一出生時就會為他作大衣,就會勸導他成為穿著大衣者:『來!賢面!請你成為穿著大衣者,當你是穿著大衣者時,只經由穿著大衣,貪婪者將捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者將捨斷惡意、憤怒者將捨斷憤怒、怨恨者將捨斷怨恨、藏惡者將捨斷藏惡、將捨斷專橫的專橫者、嫉妒者將捨斷嫉妒、慳吝者將捨斷慳吝、狡猾者將捨斷狡猾、偽詐者將捨斷偽詐、惡欲求者將捨斷惡欲求、邪見者將捨斷邪見。』比丘們!因為,這裡,我看見某人是穿著大衣的貪婪者、瞋害心者、憤怒者、怨恨者、藏惡者、專橫者、嫉妒者、慳吝者、狡猾者、偽詐者、惡欲求者、邪見者,因此,我不說沙門身分是只經由穿著大衣者的穿著大衣。比丘們!如果只經由裸行者……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由塵垢……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由水浴……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由住樹下……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由住露地……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由常站立……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由定期受食……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由誦咒……(中略)比丘們!如果只經由結髮,結髮的貪婪者能捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者能捨斷惡意、憤怒者能捨斷憤怒、怨恨者能捨斷怨恨、藏惡者能捨斷藏惡、專橫者能捨斷專橫、嫉妒者能捨斷嫉妒、慳吝者能捨斷慳吝、狡猾者能捨斷狡猾、偽詐者能捨斷偽詐、惡欲求者能捨斷惡欲求、邪見者能捨斷邪見,以此,他的朋友、同僚、親族、親屬在他一出生時就會為他作結髮,就會勸導他成為結髮者:『來!賢面!請你成為結髮者,當你是結髮者時,只經由結髮,貪婪者將捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者將捨斷惡意、憤怒者將捨斷憤怒、……(中略)惡欲求者將捨斷惡欲求、邪見者將捨斷邪見。』比丘們!因為,這裡,我看見某人是結髮的貪婪者、瞋害心者、憤怒者、怨恨者、藏惡者、專橫者、嫉妒者、慳吝者、狡猾者、偽詐者、惡欲求者、邪見者,因此,我不說沙門身分是只經由結髮的結髮者。
  比丘們!怎樣是沙門適當道跡的行者呢?比丘們!凡任何比丘是貪婪者已捨斷貪婪、瞋害心者已捨斷惡意、憤怒者已捨斷憤怒、怨恨者已捨斷怨恨、藏惡者已捨斷藏惡、專橫者已捨斷專橫、嫉妒者已捨斷嫉妒、慳吝者已捨斷慳吝、狡猾者已捨斷狡猾、偽詐者已捨斷偽詐、惡欲求者已捨斷惡欲求、邪見者已捨斷邪見,比丘們!對這些沙門的垢穢、沙門的過失、沙門的渣滓、墮苦界處、能感受惡趣已捨斷者,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』他看見自己的全部這些惡不善法被清淨,當他看見自己的全部這些惡不善法被清淨時,欣悅被生起;當歡悅時,則喜被生;當意喜時,則身寧靜身已寧靜者,則感受樂;心樂者,則入定。
  他以與慈俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二方,像這樣第三方,像這樣第四方,像這樣上下、橫向、到處,對一切如對自己,以與慈俱行之心,以廣大、以出眾、以無量、以無怨恨、以無惡意之心遍滿全部世間後而住。以與悲俱行之心……(中略)以與喜悅俱行之心……(中略)以與平靜俱行之心遍滿一方後而住,像這樣第二方,像這樣第三方,像這樣第四方。像這樣,上下、橫向、到處,對一切如對自己,以與平靜俱行之心,以廣大、以出眾、以無量、以無怨恨、以無惡意之心遍滿全部世間後而住。
  比丘們!猶如有清澈的水、令人愉快的水、清涼的水、透明的、美麗堤岸的、愉快的蓮池,如果男子從東方走來,被熱壓迫、被熱折磨、疲累、乾透了、口渴,他會由於水而除去渴,會除去炎暑的熱惱。如果男子從西方走來,……(中略)如果男子從北方走來,……(中略)如果男子從南方走來,……(中略)如果男子從任何地方走來,被熱壓迫、被熱折磨、疲累、乾透了、口渴,他會由於水而除去渴,會除去炎暑的熱惱。同樣的,比丘們!如果他從剎帝利族姓在家出家,成為非家生活,來如來教導的法、律後,他這麼修習慈、悲、喜悅、平靜後,得到內在的寂靜,以內在的寂靜,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』如果他從婆羅門族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從毘舍族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從首陀羅族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從任何族姓在家出家,成為非家生活,來如來教導的法、律後,他這麼修習慈、悲、喜悅、平靜後,得到內在的寂靜,以內在的寂靜,我說:『他是沙門適當道跡的行者。』
  比丘們!如果他從剎帝利族姓在家出家,成為非家生活,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫慧解脫,他是諸煩惱滅盡的沙門。如果他從婆羅門族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從毘舍族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從首陀羅族姓在家出家,……(中略)如果他從任何族姓在家出家,成為非家生活,他以諸煩惱的滅盡,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於無煩惱的心解脫、慧解脫,他是諸煩惱滅盡的沙門。」
  這就是世尊所說,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊所說。
  馬城小經第十終了。
  雙大品第四終了,其攝頌
  磚(屋)、沙羅樹林、守護,有慧的,又,薩遮迦之制止,
  臉色明朗的狀態、帝釋,漁夫、馬城與結髮者。
MN.40/(10) Cūḷa-assapurasuttaṃ
   435. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā aṅgesu viharati assapuraṃ nāma aṅgānaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “samaṇā samaṇāti vo, bhikkhave, jano sañjānāti. Tumhe ca pana ‘ke tumhe’ti puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇāmhā’ti paṭijānātha. Tesaṃ vo, bhikkhave, evaṃsamaññānaṃ sataṃ evaṃpaṭiññānaṃ sataṃ– ‘yā samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadā taṃ paṭipajjissāma; evaṃ no ayaṃ amhākaṃ samaññā ca saccā bhavissati paṭiññā ca bhūtā; yesañca mayaṃ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paribhuñjāma, tesaṃ te kārā amhesu mahapphalā bhavissanti mahānisaṃsā, amhākañcevāyaṃ pabbajjā avañjhā bhavissati saphalā sa-udrayā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.
   436. “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno hoti? Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno abhijjhālussa abhijjhā appahīnā hoti, byāpannacittassa byāpādo appahīno hoti, kodhanassa kodho appahīno hoti, upanāhissa upanāho appahīno hoti, makkhissa makkho appahīno hoti, paḷāsissa paḷāso appahīno hoti, issukissa issā appahīnā hoti, maccharissa macchariyaṃ appahīnaṃ hoti saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ appahīnaṃ hoti, māyāvissa māyā appahīnā hoti, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā appahīnā hoti, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi appahīnā hoti– imesaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, samaṇamalānaṃ samaṇadosānaṃ samaṇakasaṭānaṃ āpāyikānaṃ ṭhānānaṃ duggativedaniyānaṃ appahānā ‘na samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, matajaṃ nāma āvudhajātaṃ ubhatodhāraṃ pītanisitaṃ. Tadassa saṅghāṭiyā sampārutaṃ sampaliveṭhitaṃ. Tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imassa bhikkhuno pabbajjaṃ vadāmi.
   437. “Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭikassa saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, acelakassa acelakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, rajojallikassa rajojallikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave udakorohakassa udakorohaṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlikassa rukkhamūlikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, abbhokāsikassa abbhokāsikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ubbhaṭṭhakassa ubbhaṭṭhakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, pariyāyabhattikassa pariyāyabhattikamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, mantajjhāyakassa mantajjhāyakamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi. Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, jaṭilakassa jaṭādhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   “Saṅghāṭikassa ce, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyetha, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyetha, kodhanassa kodho pahīyetha, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyetha, makkhissa makkho pahīyetha, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyetha, issukissa issā pahīyetha, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyetha, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyetha, māyāvissa māyā pahīyetha, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyetha, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyetha, tamenaṃ mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā jātameva naṃ saṅghāṭikaṃ kareyyuṃ, saṅghāṭikattameva samādapeyyuṃ – ‘ehi tvaṃ, bhadramukha, saṅghāṭiko hohi, saṅghāṭikassa te sato saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyissati, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyissati, kodhanassa kodho pahīyissati, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyissati, makkhissa makkho pahīyissati, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyissati, issukissa issā pahīyissati, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyissati, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyissati, māyāvissa māyā pahīyissati, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyissati, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyissatī’ti. Yasmā ca kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, saṅghāṭikampi idhekaccaṃ passāmi abhijjhāluṃ byāpannacittaṃ kodhanaṃ upanāhiṃ makkhiṃ paḷāsiṃ issukiṃ macchariṃ saṭhaṃ māyāviṃ pāpicchaṃ micchādiṭṭhikaṃ, tasmā na saṅghāṭikassa saṅghāṭidhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   “Acelakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… rajojallikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… udakorohakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… rukkhamūlikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… abbhokāsikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… ubbhaṭṭhakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… pariyāyabhattikassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… mantajjhāyakassa ce, bhikkhave …pe… jaṭilakassa ce, bhikkhave, jaṭādhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyetha, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyetha kodhanassa kodho pahīyetha, upanāhissa upanāho pahīyetha, makkhissa makkho pahīyetha, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīyetha, issukissa issā pahīyetha, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīyetha, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīyetha, māyāvissa māyā pahīyetha, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyetha, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyetha, tamenaṃ mittāmaccā ñātisālohitā jātameva naṃ jaṭilakaṃ kareyyuṃ, jaṭilakattameva samādapeyyuṃ– ‘ehi tvaṃ, bhadramukha, jaṭilako hohi, jaṭilakassa te sato jaṭādhāraṇamattena abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīyissati byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīyissati, kodhanassa kodho pahīyissati …pe… pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīyissati micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīyissatī’ti. Yasmā ca kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, jaṭilakampi idhekaccaṃ passāmi abhijjhāluṃ byāpannacittaṃ kodhanaṃ upanāhiṃ makkhiṃ palāsiṃ issukiṃ macchariṃ saṭhaṃ māyāviṃ pāpicchaṃ micchādiṭṭhiṃ, tasmā na jaṭilakassa jaṭādhāraṇamattena sāmaññaṃ vadāmi.
   438. “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno hoti? Yassa kassaci, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno abhijjhālussa abhijjhā pahīnā hoti, byāpannacittassa byāpādo pahīno hoti, kodhanassa kodho pahīno hoti, upanāhissa upanāho pahīno hoti, makkhissa makkho pahīno hoti, paḷāsissa paḷāso pahīno hoti, issukissa issā pahīnā hoti, maccharissa macchariyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, saṭhassa sāṭheyyaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, māyāvissa māyā pahīnā hoti, pāpicchassa pāpikā icchā pahīnā hoti, micchādiṭṭhikassa micchādiṭṭhi pahīnā hoti– imesaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhikkhave, samaṇamalānaṃ samaṇadosānaṃ samaṇakasaṭānaṃ āpāyikānaṃ ṭhānānaṃ duggativedaniyānaṃ pahānā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. So sabbehi imehi pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi visuddhamattānaṃ samanupassati ( ). Tassa sabbehi imehi pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi visuddhamattānaṃ samanupassato pāmojjaṃ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.
   “So mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Karuṇāsahagatena cetasā …pe… muditāsahagatena cetasā …pe… upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthaṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, pokkharaṇī acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setakā supatitthā ramaṇīyā. Puratthimāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya ghammābhitatto ghammapareto kilanto tasito pipāsito. So taṃ pokkharaṇiṃ āgamma vineyya udakapipāsaṃ vineyya ghammapariḷāhaṃ …pe… pacchimāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya …pe… uttarāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya …pe… dakkhiṇāya cepi disāya puriso āgaccheyya. Yato kuto cepi naṃ puriso āgaccheyya ghammābhitatto ghammapareto, kilanto tasito pipāsito. So taṃ pokkharaṇiṃ āgamma vineyya udakapipāsaṃ, vineyya ghammapariḷāhaṃ. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, khattiyakulā cepi agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti, so ca tathāgatappaveditaṃ dhammavinayaṃ āgamma, evaṃ mettaṃ karuṇaṃ muditaṃ upekkhaṃ bhāvetvā labhati ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ vūpasamā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi. Brāhmaṇakulā cepi …pe… vessakulā cepi …pe… suddakulā cepi …pe… yasmā kasmā cepi kulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti so ca tathāgatappaveditaṃ dhammavinayaṃ āgamma, evaṃ mettaṃ karuṇaṃ muditaṃ upekkhaṃ bhāvetvā labhati ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ. Ajjhattaṃ vūpasamā ‘samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadaṃ paṭipanno’ti vadāmi.
   “Khattiyakulā cepi agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti. So ca āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Āsavānaṃ khayā samaṇo hoti. Brāhmaṇakulā cepi …pe… vessakulā cepi… suddakulā cepi… yasmā kasmā cepi kulā agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito hoti, so ca āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. Āsavānaṃ khayā samaṇo hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Cūḷa-assapurasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dasamaṃ.
   Mahāyamakavaggo niṭṭhito catuttho.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Giñjakasālavanaṃ pariharituṃ, paññavato puna saccakanisedho;
   Mukhavaṇṇapasīdanatāpindo, kevaṭṭa-assapurajaṭilena.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「沙門道跡(MA.183)」,南傳作「沙門適當道跡」(samaṇasāmīcippaṭipadā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「對禁欲修道者妥善之路」(the way proper to the recluse)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「沙門適當的(anucchavikā)、沙門隨順的道跡(anulomappaṭipadā)」解說。
  「內止(MA.183)」,南傳作「內在的寂靜」(ajjhattaṃ vūpasamaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「內在的平和」(internal peace)。