經號:   
   (中部39經 更新)
中部39經/馬城大經(雙大品[4])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在鴦伽,一個名叫馬城的鴦伽市鎮。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!人們稱呼你們『沙門、沙門』,而,當你們被問:『你們是誰?』時,你們回答:『我們是沙門。』比丘們!你們這麼被稱呼,這麼自稱,你們應該這麼學:『凡沙門所作與婆羅門所作之法,我們將受持後轉起那些法,這樣,我們的稱呼與自稱將成為真實與事實,而且,我們受用衣服、施食、住處、病人的需要物、醫藥必需品,那些在我們身上做這些的行為者必將有大果、大效益,我們這出家必將是功不唐捐的、有成果的、有果實的。』
  比丘們!什麼是沙門所作與婆羅門所作之法呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們將具備。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們的身行儀將成為遍淨的、明顯的、開敞的、沒有缺陷的、已防護的,我們將既不以那遍淨的身行儀稱讚自己,我們也將不輕蔑他人。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們的語行儀將成為遍淨的、明顯的、開敞的、沒有缺陷的、已防護的,我們將既不以那遍淨的語行儀稱讚自己,我們也將不輕蔑他人。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們的意行儀將成為遍淨的、明顯的、開敞的、沒有缺陷的、已防護的,我們將既不以那遍淨的意行儀稱讚自己,我們也將不輕蔑他人。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們的生活維持將成為遍淨的、明顯的、開敞的、沒有缺陷的、已防護的,我們將既不以那遍淨的生活維持稱讚自己,我們也將不輕蔑他人。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,我們的生活維持已被遍淨,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們將成為已守護根門者:以眼見色後,不成為相的執取者、細相的執取者,因為當住於眼根的不防護時,貪憂、惡不善法會流入,我們依其自制而行動,保護眼根,在眼根上達到自制;以耳聽聲音後,……以鼻聞氣味後,……以舌嚐味道後,……以身觸所觸後,……以意識知法後,不成為相的執取者、細相的執取者,因為當住於意根的不防護時,貪憂、惡不善法會流入,我們依其自制而行動,保護意根,在意根上達到自制。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,我們的生活維持已被遍淨,我們是已守護根門者,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們將成為飲食知適量者:我們將如理省察而吃食物:「不為了享樂,不為了陶醉,不為了好身材,不為了莊嚴,只為了這個身體的存續、生存,為了止息傷害,為了資助梵行。這樣,我們將擊退之前的感受,不激起新的感受,健康、無過失,安樂住。」』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,我們的生活維持已被遍淨,我們是已守護根門者、飲食知適量者,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們將成為已專修清醒者:在白天我們以經行、坐禪將心從障礙法淨化。在初夜時段,我們以經行、坐禪將心從障礙法淨化。在中夜時段,我們以右脅作獅子臥,將[左]腳放在[右]腳上,正念、正知,作意了起來想。在後夜時段,我們以經行、坐禪將心從障礙法淨化。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,我們的生活維持已被遍淨,我們是已守護根門者、飲食知適量者、已專修清醒者,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!你們應該這麼學:『我們將具備正念、正知,在前進、後退時是正知於行為者;在前視、後視時是正知於行為者;在[肢體]曲伸時是正知於行為者;在[穿]衣、持鉢與大衣時是正知於行為者;在飲、食、嚼、嚐時是正知於行為者;在大小便動作時是正知於行為者;在行、住、坐、臥、清醒、語、默時是正知於行為者。』而,比丘們!你們會這麼想:『我們已具備慚與愧,我們的身行儀已被遍淨,我們的語行儀已被遍淨,我們的意行儀已被遍淨,我們的生活維持已被遍淨,我們是已守護根門者、飲食知適量者,已專修清醒者,具備正念、正知,這樣足夠了,這樣做足夠了,沙門義已到達,對我們來說,沒有任何更進一步應該作的。』你們會就以那些來到滿足。比丘們!我告訴你們,比丘們!我要你們知道:『當有更進一步應該作的時,尋求沙門性的你們不要從沙門義衰退了。』
  比丘們!什麼是更進一步應該作的呢?比丘們!這裡,比丘親近獨居的住處:林野、樹下、山岳、洞窟、山洞、墓地、森林、露地、稻草堆。他食畢,從施食處返回,坐下,盤腿後,挺直身體,建立起面前的正念後,捨斷對世間的貪婪,以離貪婪心而住,使心從貪婪中清淨。捨斷惡意與瞋怒後,住於無瞋害心、對一切活的生物憐愍,使心從惡意與瞋怒中清淨。捨斷惛沈睡眠後,住於離惛沈睡眠、有光明想、正念、正知,使心從惛沈睡眠中清淨。捨斷掉舉後悔後,住於不掉舉、自身內心寂靜,使心從掉舉後悔中清淨。捨斷疑惑後,住於脫離疑惑、在善法上無疑,使心從疑惑中清淨。
  比丘們!猶如男子如果拿了借款後從事事業,如果他的那些事業成功,他會終結那舊的借款本金,會有超出的餘額扶養妻子,他這麼想:『我以前拿了借款後會從事事業,我的那些事業成功,我終結了那舊的借款本金,有超出的餘額扶養我的妻子。』他從此因緣而會得到欣悅,會到達喜悅。
  比丘們!猶如男子如果生病、痛苦、重病,他會不喜歡食物,身體會沒力氣,過些時候,如果他從那個病脫離,他會喜歡食物,他的身體會有力氣,他這麼想:『我以前生病、痛苦、重病,我不喜歡食物,我的身體沒力氣,現在,我從那個病脫離,我喜歡食物,我的身體會有力氣。』他從此因緣而會得到欣悅,會到達喜悅。
  比丘們!猶如男子如果被關在監獄裡,過些時候,如果他從那個監獄被平安地、無恐怖地釋放,沒有任何財物損失,他這麼想:『以前,我被關在監獄裡,現在,我從那個監獄被平安地、無恐怖地釋放,沒有任何財物損失。』他從此因緣而會得到欣悅,會到達喜悅。
  比丘們!猶如男子如果是奴隸、非依靠自己者、依靠他人者,不能去想去的地方,過些時候,如果他從那奴隸被釋放,是依靠自己者、不依靠他人者、自由者,能去想去的地方,他這麼想:『以前,我是奴隸、非依靠自己者、依靠他人者,不能去想去的地方,現在,我從那奴隸被釋放,是依靠自己者、不依靠他人者、自由者,能去想去的地方。』他從此因緣而會得到欣悅,會到達喜悅。
  比丘們!猶如有財富、有財物的男子如果走上曠野道路,過些時候,如果他從那個曠野平安地、無恐怖地度脫,沒有任何財物損失,他這麼想:『以前,有財富、有財物的我走上曠野道路,現在,我從那個曠野平安地、無恐怖地度脫,沒有任何財物損失。』他從此因緣而會得到欣悅,會到達喜悅。
  同樣的,比丘們!比丘看這些自己未捨斷的五蓋如借款、疾病、監獄、奴隸、曠野道路;看這些自己已捨斷的五蓋如無借款、無疾病、從監獄被釋放、自由者、安穩的終極之地。
  他捨斷這些心的隨雜染、慧的減弱之五蓋後,從離欲、離不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺離而生喜、樂的初禪,他以離而生喜、樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被離而生喜、樂遍滿。比丘們!猶如熟練的澡堂師傅或澡堂師傅的徒弟在銅皿中撒佈沐浴粉後,與水充分攪拌,沐浴粉團隨之濕潤、來到濕潤、內外被滲透濕潤而無遺漏。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以離而生喜、樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被離而生喜、樂遍滿。
  再者,比丘們!比丘以尋與伺的平息,自信一心,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪,他以定而生喜、樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被定而生喜、樂遍滿。比丘們!猶如有湧泉的水池,其在東方無進水口,在西方無進水口,在北方無進水口,在南方無進水口,天又不能經常給予正確的水流,而那水池的冷水保持湧出後,那水池會被冷水潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿,全水池沒有任何地方不會被冷水遍滿。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以定而生喜、樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被離而生喜、樂遍滿。
  再者,比丘們!比丘以喜的褪去與住於平靜,正念、正知,以身體感受樂,進入後住於這聖弟子宣說:『他是平靜、專注、住於樂者』的第三禪,他以離喜之樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被離喜之樂遍滿。比丘們!猶如在青蓮池、紅蓮池、白蓮池中,一些青蓮、紅蓮、白蓮生在水中,長在水中,依止於水面下,沈在水下生長,從其頂點到根被冷水潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿,全青蓮、紅蓮、白蓮沒有任何地方不會被冷水遍滿。同樣的,比丘們!比丘以離喜之樂潤澤、遍流、充滿、遍滿此身,全身沒有任何地方不被離喜之樂遍滿。
  再者,比丘們!比丘以樂的捨斷與苦的捨斷,及以之前喜悅與憂的滅沒,進入後住於不苦不樂,由平靜而正念遍淨的第四禪,他以遍淨、皎潔之心遍滿此身後而坐,全身沒有任何地方不被遍淨、皎潔之心遍滿。比丘們!猶如男子會以白衣包含頭裹上後而坐,全身沒有任何地方不會被白衣遍滿。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向許多前世住處回憶之智。他回憶起許多前世住處,即:一生、二生、……(中略)像這樣,他回憶起許多前世住處有這樣的行相與境遇。比丘們!猶如男子如果從自己的村落走到其它村落,再從那個村落走到其它村落,再從那個村落走回自己的村落,他這麼想:『我從自己的村落走到那個村落,在那裡,我這麼站,這麼坐,這麼說話,這麼沈默,再從那個村落走到那個村落,在那裡,我這麼站,這麼坐,這麼說話,這麼沈默,我再從那個村落走回自己的村落。』同樣的,比丘們!比丘回憶起許多前世住處,即:一生、二生、……(中略)像這樣,他回憶起許多前世住處有這樣的行相與境遇。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向眾生死亡與往生之智,他以清淨、超越人的天眼,看見當眾生死時、往生時,在下劣、勝妙,美、醜,幸、不幸中,了知眾生依業流轉:……(中略)。比丘們!猶如兩間有門的家屋,在那裡,有眼的男子們站在中間能看見進、出,走動、探查家的人們。同樣的,比丘們!他以清淨、超越人的天眼,看見當眾生死時、往生時,在下劣、勝妙,美、醜,幸、不幸中,了知眾生依業流轉:……(中略)。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向煩惱之滅盡智。他如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是導向苦滅道跡。』如實了知:『這些是煩惱。』如實了知:『這是煩惱集。』如實了知:『這是煩惱滅。』如實了知:『這是導向煩惱滅道跡。』當他這麼知、這麼見時,心從欲的煩惱解脫,心從有的煩惱解脫,心從無明的煩惱解脫。當解脫時,有『[這是]解脫』之智,他了知:『出生已盡梵行已完成應該作的已作不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。』比丘們!猶如峽谷中的水池清澈、清淨、不濁,在那裡,有眼的男子站在岸邊能看見牡蠣、貝類、砂礫、小石、魚群悠游與停止,他這麼想:『這水池清澈、清淨、不濁,在那裡,有這些牡蠣、貝類、砂礫、小石、魚群悠游與停止。』同樣的,比丘們!他如實了知:『這是苦。』……(中略)『……不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。』
  比丘們!這位比丘被稱為『沙門』、『婆羅門』、『沐浴者』、『明智者』、『聞解者』、『聖者』、『阿羅漢』。
  比丘們!比丘如何是沙門呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]靜止,這樣,比丘是沙門。
  比丘們!比丘如何是婆羅門呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]排斥,這樣,比丘是婆羅門。
  比丘們!比丘如何是沐浴者呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]沐浴,這樣,比丘是沐浴者。
  比丘們!比丘如何是明智者呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]知道,這樣,比丘是明智者。
  比丘們!比丘如何是聞解者呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]流失,這樣,比丘是聞解者。
  比丘們!比丘如何是聖者呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]遠離,這樣,比丘是聖者。
  比丘們!比丘如何是阿羅漢呢?污染的、再生的、有憂苦的、苦報的、未來被生老死的惡不善法被[他]遠離,這樣,比丘是阿羅漢。」
  這就是世尊所說,悅意的那些比丘歡喜世尊所說。
  馬城大經第九終了。
MN.39/(9) Mahā-assapurasuttaṃ
   415. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā aṅgesu viharati assapuraṃ nāma aṅgānaṃ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Samaṇā samaṇāti vo, bhikkhave, jano sañjānāti. Tumhe ca pana ‘ke tumhe’ti puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇāmhā’ti paṭijānātha; tesaṃ vo, bhikkhave, evaṃsamaññānaṃ sataṃ evaṃpaṭiññānaṃ sataṃ ‘ye dhammā samaṇakaraṇā ca brāhmaṇakaraṇā ca te dhamme samādāya vattissāma, evaṃ no ayaṃ amhākaṃ samaññā ca saccā bhavissati paṭiññā ca bhūtā. Yesañca mayaṃ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilāna-ppaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paribhuñjāma, tesaṃ te kārā amhesu mahapphalā bhavissanti mahānisaṃsā, amhākañcevāyaṃ pabbajjā avañjhā bhavissati saphalā sa-udrayā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ.
   416. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā samaṇakaraṇā ca brāhmaṇakaraṇā ca? ‘Hirottappena samannāgatā bhavissāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   417. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Parisuddho no kāyasamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṃvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhakāyasamācāratāya nevattānukkaṃsessāma na paraṃ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   418. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Parisuddho no vacīsamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṃvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhavacīsamācāratāya nevattānukkaṃsessāma na paraṃ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   419. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Parisuddho no manosamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṃvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhamano-samācāratāya nevattānukkaṃsessāma na paraṃ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   420. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Parisuddho no ājīvo bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṃvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhājīvatāya nevattānukkaṃsessāma na paraṃ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   421. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Indriyesu guttadvārā bhavissāma; cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjissāma, rakkhissāma cakkhundriyaṃ, cakkhundriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjissāma. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā …pe… ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā …pe… jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā …pe… kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā …pe… manasā dhammaṃ viññāya na nimittaggāhī nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṃ manindriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ, tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjissāma, rakkhissāma manindriyaṃ, manindriye saṃvaraṃ āpajjissāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   422. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Bhojane mattaññuno bhavissāma, paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṃ āharissāma, neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya, vihiṃsūparatiyā, brahmacariyānuggahāya, iti purāṇañca vedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāma navañca vedanaṃ na uppādessāma, yātrā ca no bhavissati, anavajjatā ca, phāsu vihāro cā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   423. “Kiñca bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Jāgariyaṃ anuyuttā bhavissāma, divasaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhessāma. Rattiyā paṭhamaṃ yāmaṃ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhessāma. Rattiyā majjhimaṃ yāmaṃ dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṃ kappessāma pāde pādaṃ accādhāya, sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṃ manasi karitvā. Rattiyā pacchimaṃ yāmaṃ paccuṭṭhāya caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṃ parisodhessāmā’ti, evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa– ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno, jāgariyaṃ anuyuttā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti, tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   424. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? ‘Satisampajaññena samannāgatā bhavissāma, abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī’ti, evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṃ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṃ evamassa ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno, jāgariyaṃ anuyuttā, satisampajaññena samannāgatā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṃ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave– ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṃ sataṃ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṃ karaṇīye’.
   425. “Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṃ karaṇīyaṃ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati– araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanappatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ. So pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā, ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So abhijjhaṃ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati, abhijjhāya cittaṃ parisodheti; byāpādapadosaṃ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī byāpādapadosā cittaṃ parisodheti; thīnamiddhaṃ pahāya vigatathīnamiddho viharati, ālokasaññī sato sampajāno, thīnamiddhā cittaṃ parisodheti; uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṃ vūpasantacitto, uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṃ parisodheti; vicikicchaṃ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati, akathaṃkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṃ parisodheti.
   426. “Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, puriso iṇaṃ ādāya kammante payojeyya. Tassa te kammantā samijjheyyuṃ. So yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantī kareyya, siyā cassa uttariṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ dārabharaṇāya. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho pubbe iṇaṃ ādāya kammante payojesiṃ, tassa me te kammantā samijjhiṃsu. Sohaṃ yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantī akāsiṃ, atthi ca me uttariṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ dārabharaṇāyā’ti. So tatonidānaṃ labhetha pāmojjaṃ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso ābādhiko assa dukkhito bāḷhagilāno, bhattañcassa nacchādeyya, na cassa kāye balamattā. So aparena samayena tamhā ābādhā mucceyya, bhattañcassa chādeyya, siyā cassa kāye balamattā. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho pubbe ābādhiko ahosiṃ dukkhito bāḷhagilāno, bhattañca me nacchādesi, na ca me āsi kāye balamattā, somhi etarahi tamhā ābādhā mutto, bhattañca me chādeti, atthi ca me kāye balamattā’ti. So tatonidānaṃ labhetha pāmojjaṃ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso bandhanāgāre baddho assa. So aparena samayena tamhā bandhanā mucceyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṃ vayo. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho pubbe bandhanāgāre baddho ahosiṃ, somhi etarahi tamhā bandhanā mutto, sotthinā abbhayena, natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṃ vayo’ti. So tatonidānaṃ labhetha pāmojjaṃ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, puriso dāso assa anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṃgamo. So aparena samayena tamhā dāsabyā mucceyya attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṃgamo. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho pubbe dāso ahosiṃ anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṃgamo, somhi etarahi tamhā dāsabyā mutto attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṃgamo’ti. So tatonidānaṃ labhetha pāmojjaṃ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṃ.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṃ paṭipajjeyya. So aparena samayena tamhā kantārā nitthareyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṃ vayo. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṃ paṭipajjiṃ. Somhi etarahi tamhā kantārā nitthiṇṇo sotthinā abbhayena, natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṃ vayo’ti. So tatonidānaṃ labhetha pāmojjaṃ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṃ.
   “Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathā iṇaṃ yathā rogaṃ yathā bandhanāgāraṃ yathā dāsabyaṃ yathā kantāraddhānamaggaṃ, ime pañca nīvaraṇe appahīne attani samanupassati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, āṇaṇyaṃ yathā ārogyaṃ yathā bandhanāmokkhaṃ yathā bhujissaṃ yathā khemantabhūmiṃ; evameva bhikkhu ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassati.
   427. “So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho nhāpako vā nhāpakantevāsī vā kaṃsathāle nhānīyacuṇṇāni ākiritvā udakena paripphosakaṃ paripphosakaṃ sanneyya. Sāyaṃ nhānīyapiṇḍi snehānugatā snehaparetā santarabāhirā, phuṭā snehena na ca pagghariṇī. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti.
   428. “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, udakarahado ubbhidodako. Tassa nevassa puratthimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na pacchimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na uttarāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, na dakkhiṇāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṃ, devo ca na kālena kālaṃ sammādhāraṃ anuppaveccheyya. Atha kho tamhāva udakarahadā sītā vāridhārā ubbhijjitvā tameva udakarahadaṃ sītena vārinā abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripūreyya paripphareyya, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato udakarahadassa sītena vārinā apphuṭaṃ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti.
   429. “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti, yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti– ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, uppaliniyaṃ vā paduminiyaṃ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṃ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṃvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni antonimuggaposīni, tāni yāva caggā yāva ca mūlā sītena vārinā abhisannāni parisannāni paripūrāni paripphuṭāni, nāssa kiñci sabbāvataṃ uppalānaṃ vā padumānaṃ vā puṇḍarīkānaṃ vā sītena vārinā apphuṭaṃ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti.
   430. “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā, adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṃ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṃ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso odātena vatthena sasīsaṃ pārupetvā nisinno assa, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa odātena vatthena apphuṭaṃ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṃ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṃ hoti.
   431. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ– ekampi jātiṃ, dvepi jātiyo …pe… iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṃ gāmaṃ gaccheyya, tamhāpi gāmā aññaṃ gāmaṃ gaccheyya, so tamhā gāmā sakaṃyeva gāmaṃ paccāgaccheyya. Tassa evamassa– ‘ahaṃ kho sakamhā gāmā amuṃ gāmaṃ agacchiṃ, tatrapi evaṃ aṭṭhāsiṃ evaṃ nisīdiṃ evaṃ abhāsiṃ evaṃ tuṇhī ahosiṃ; tamhāpi gāmā amuṃ gāmaṃ agacchiṃ, tatrapi evaṃ aṭṭhāsiṃ evaṃ nisīdiṃ evaṃ abhāsiṃ evaṃ tuṇhī ahosiṃ; somhi tamhā gāmā sakaṃyeva gāmaṃ paccāgato’ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ– ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo …pe… iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati.
   432. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti …pe… seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dve agārā sadvārā. Tattha cakkhumā puriso majjhe ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṃ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi, anucaṅkamantepi anuvicarantepi Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti …pe….
   433. “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. ‘Ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti– ‘khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti.
   “Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, pabbatasaṅkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya sippisambukampi sakkharakathalampi macchagumbampi, carantampi tiṭṭhantampi. Tassa evamassa– ‘ayaṃ kho udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tatrime sippisambukāpi sakkharakathalāpi macchagumbāpi carantipi tiṭṭhantipīti Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti …pe… nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti.
   434. “Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘samaṇo’ itipi ‘brāhmaṇo’itipi ‘nhātako’itipi ‘vedagū’itipi ‘sottiyo’itipi ‘ariyo’itipi ‘arahaṃ’itipi. Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇo hoti? Samitāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇo hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu brāhmaṇo hoti? Bāhitāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu brāhmaṇo hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu nhātako hoti? Nhātāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu nhātako hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedagū hoti? Viditāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedagū hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sottiyo hoti? Nissutāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sottiyo hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti Ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti.
   “Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ hoti? Ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṃkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṃ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṃ hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Mahā-assapurasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ navamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「如沙門法及如梵志法(MA.182);沙門法行婆羅門法行(AA.49.8)」,南傳作「沙門所作與婆羅門所作之法」(dhammā samaṇakaraṇā ca brāhmaṇakaraṇā ca ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「那些成為沙門之事」(those things that make one a recluse, that make one a brahmin)。按:此處的「梵志;婆羅門」(brāhmaṇa),是經文結尾處所說的惡不善法的「被排斥」(Bāhitāssa)狀態,在巴利語中兩者有諧音的關係。
  「息止(MA.182)」,南傳作「被[他]靜止」(Samitāssa),智髻比丘長老英譯為「他使之靜下來」(He has quieted down),菩提比丘長老解說,此處的「沙門」與「靜止」在巴利語有諧音的關係,其它「婆羅門」與「排斥」,「明智者」與「知道」,「聞解者」與「流失」、「聖者」與「遠離」、「阿羅漢」與「遠離」在巴利語也是諧音的關係。
  「從障礙法」(āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi),智髻比丘長老英譯為「屬於妨礙的狀態」(of obstructive states)。