經號:   
   (中部28經 更新)
中部28經/象足跡譬喻大經(譬喻品[3])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,尊者舍利弗召喚比丘們:
  「比丘學友們!」
  「學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗這麼說:
  「學友們!猶如凡任何叢林生物的足跡種類,一切都包含在那些象的足跡中,象的足跡被說為其中之第一,即:以其之大。同樣的,比丘們!凡任何善法,一切都攝入那四聖諦中,哪四個中呢?苦聖諦中、苦聖諦中、苦聖諦中、導向苦滅道跡聖諦中。
  學友們!什麼是苦聖諦?生是苦,老也是苦,死也是苦,愁、悲、苦、憂、絕望也是苦,所求不得也是苦,總括之,五取蘊是苦。
  學友們!什麼是五取蘊?即色取蘊、受取蘊、想取蘊、行取蘊、識取蘊。
  學友們!什麼是色取蘊?四大與四大之所造色。
  學友們!什麼是四大?地界、水界、火界、風界。
  學友們!什麼是地界?地界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!什麼是自身內的地界?凡自身內、各自的、粗硬的、凝固的、執取的,即:頭髮、體毛、指甲、牙齒、皮膚、肌肉、筋腱、骨骼、骨髓、腎臟、心臟、肝臟、肋膜、脾臟、肺臟、腸子、腸間膜、胃、糞便,或凡任何其它自身內、各自的、粗硬的、凝固的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的地界。又,凡自身內的地界、外部的地界,都只是地界,它應該以正確之慧被這樣如實看作:『這不是我的我不是這個這不是我的真我。』以正確之慧這樣如實看它後,他在地界上,他使心在地界上離染
  學友們!有時,外部的水界發怒,那時,外部的地界消失。學友們!即使像這麼大的外部地界,無常性將被了知;滅盡法的狀態將被了知;消散法的狀態將被了知;變易法的狀態將被了知,何況這只被渴愛執取,存續一下子的身體呢?『我』、『我的』、『我是』是不會存在的。
  學友們!如果其他人辱罵、誹謗、傷害、騷擾那位比丘,他這麼了知:『我的這耳觸所生苦受已生起,它是有緣的,非無緣的,緣什麼呢?觸。』他看見:『觸是無常的。』他看見:『受是無常的。』他看見:『想是無常的。』他看見:『行是無常的。』他看見:『識是無常的。』就以界為所緣,他的心躍入、明淨、住立勝解
  學友們!如果其他人以非令人想要、不可愛、不合意地對待那位比丘:以拳觸、以土塊觸、以棍棒觸、以刀觸,他這麼了知:『這個身體有這樣的性質:拳觸、土塊觸、棍棒觸、刀觸來到身體上。又,這鋸子譬喻說為世尊所說:「比丘們!即使盜賊、調查員以兩邊都有木把的鋸子[將你]一個肢體、一個肢體地切開,在那裡會使心惹惱,那樣也非我的教導。」但我的活力已被激發而不退,念已現前而不忘失,身已寧靜而無激情,心已入定而一境,現在,寧願讓拳觸、土塊觸、棍棒觸、刀觸來到身體上,因為,這正是佛陀的教導被執行。』
  學友們!當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜不確立,他因為那樣而驚怖、來到畏懼:『這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當我這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,善所依止的平靜不確立。』學友們!猶如媳婦看見公公後,驚怖、來到畏懼。同樣的,學友們!當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜不確立,他因為那樣而驚怖、來到畏懼:『這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當我這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,善依止的平靜不確立。』當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善依止的平靜確立,他因為那樣而是悅意的。學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多
  學友們!什麼是水界?水界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!什麼是自身內的水界?凡自身內、各自的,是水、與水有關的、執取的,即:膽汁、痰、膿、血、汗、脂肪、眼淚、油脂、唾液、鼻涕、關節液、尿,或凡任何其它自身內、各自的,是水、與水有關的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的水界。又,凡自身內的水界、外部的水界,都只是水界,它應該以正確之慧被這樣如實看作:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』以正確之慧這樣如實看它後,他在水界上厭,他使心在水界上離染。
  學友們!有時,外部的水界發怒,它沖走村落、城鎮、城市、地方、國土,學友們!有時,大海裡一百由旬的水下沈了,二百由旬的水下沈了,三百由旬的水下沈了,四百由旬的水下沈了,五百由旬的水下沈了,六百由旬的水下沈了,七百由旬的水下沈了,學友們!有時,大海裡的水立於七棵棕櫚樹的高度、六棵棕櫚樹的高度、五棵棕櫚樹的高度、四棵棕櫚樹的高度、三棵棕櫚樹的高度、二棵棕櫚樹的高度,大海裡的水立於一棵棕櫚樹的高度,學友們!有時,大海裡的水立於七人高的高度、六人高的高度、五人高的高度、四人高的高度、三人高的高度、二人高的高度、一人高的高度,學友們!有時,大海裡的水立於半人高的高度、腰部高的高度、膝部高的高度、立於腳踝高的高度,學友們!有時,大海裡的水沒有潤濕手指節高的高度。學友們!即使像這麼大的外部水界,無常性將被了知;滅盡法的狀態將被了知;消散法的狀態將被了知;變易法的狀態將被了知,何況這只被渴愛執取,存續一下子的身體呢?『我』、『我的』、『我是』是不會存在的。……(中略)當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜確立,他因為那樣而是悅意的。學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多。
  學友們!什麼是火界?火界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!什麼是自身內的火界?凡自身內、各自的,是火、與火有關的、執取的,即:依其而被弄熱、被消化、被遍燒,依其而吃的、喝的、嚼的、嘗的走到完全消化,或凡任何其它自身內、各自的,是火、與火有關的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的火界。又,凡自身內的火界、外部的火界,都只是火界,它應該以正確之慧被這樣如實看作:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』以正確之慧這樣如實看它後,他在火界上厭,他使心在火界上離染。
  學友們!有時,外部的火界發怒,它燒掉村落、城鎮、城市、地方、國土,它來到那青草、岩石、水、令人愉快的平坦大地後,無燃料而被熄滅。學友們!有時,他們竟以雞毛、腱片求火。即使像這麼大的外部火界,無常性將被了知;滅盡法的狀態將被了知;消散法的狀態將被了知;變易法的狀態將被了知,何況這只被渴愛執取,存續一下子的身體呢?『我』、『我的』、『我是』是不會存在的。……(中略)當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善依止的平靜確立,他因為那樣而是悅意的。學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多。
  學友們!什麼是風界?風界會有自身內的,會有外部的。學友們!什麼是自身內的風界?凡自身內、各自的,是風、與風有關的、執取的,即:上行風、下行風、腹部中的風、腹腔中的風、隨行於四肢中的風呼吸等,或凡任何其它自身內、各自的,是風、與風有關的、執取的,學友們!這被稱為自身內的風界。又,凡自身內的風界、外部的風界,都只是風界,它應該以正確之慧被這樣如實看作:『這不是我的,我不是這個,這不是我的真我。』以正確之慧這樣如實看它後,他在風界上厭,他使心在風界上離染。
  學友們!有時,外部的風界發怒,它吹走村落、城鎮、城市、地方、國土。學友們!有時,他們在夏季的最後一個月以棕櫚葉、扇子遍求風,連茅草也不動。即使像這麼大的外部風界,無常性將被了知;滅盡法的狀態將被了知;消散法的狀態將被了知;變易法的狀態將被了知,何況這只被渴愛執取,存續一下子的身體呢?『我』、『我的』、『我是』是不會存在的。
  學友們!如果其他人辱罵、誹謗、傷害、騷擾那位比丘,他這麼了知:『我的這耳觸所生苦受已生起,它是有緣的,非無緣的,緣什麼呢?緣觸。』他看見:『觸是無常的。』他看見:『受是無常的。』他看見:『想是無常的。』他看見:『行是無常的。』他看見:『識是無常的。』就以界為所緣,他的心躍入、明淨、住立、勝解。
  學友們!如果其他人以非令人想要、不可愛、不合意地對待那位比丘:以拳觸、以土塊觸、以棍棒觸、以刀觸,他這麼了知:『這個身體有這樣的性質:拳觸、土塊觸、棍棒觸、刀觸來到身體上。又,這鋸子譬喻說為世尊所說:「比丘們!即使盜賊、調查員以兩邊都有木把的鋸子[將你]一個肢體、一個肢體地切開,在那裡會使心惹惱,那樣也非我的教導。」但我的活力已被激發而不退,念已現前而不忘失,身已寧靜而無激情,心已入定而一境,現在,寧願讓拳觸、土塊觸、棍棒觸、刀觸來到身體上,因為,這正是佛陀的教導被執行。』
  學友們!當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜不確立,他因為那樣而驚怖、來到畏懼:『這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當我這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,善所依止的平靜不確立。』學友們!猶如媳婦看見公公後,驚怖、來到畏懼。同樣的,學友們!當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜不確立,他因為那樣而驚怖、來到畏懼:『這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當我這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,善所依止的平靜不確立。』當那位比丘這麼回憶佛、這麼回憶法、這麼回憶僧團時,如果他善所依止的平靜確立,他因為那樣而是悅意的。學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多。
  學友們!猶如於木材、蔓草、茅草、粘土圍繞虛空而被以家屋為名。同樣的,學友們!緣於骨骼、筋腱、肉、皮膚圍繞虛空而被以色為名。學友們!如果自身內的眼不被破壞,但外部的色不來到其領域,以及沒有對應的注意,則沒有對應之識的部分出現。如果自身內的眼不被破壞,而外部的色來到其領域,但沒有對應的注意,則沒有對應之識的部分出現。學友們!因為自身內的眼不被破壞,且外部的色來到其領域,以及有對應的注意,這樣,有對應之識的部分出現。凡像這樣存在的色攝入於色取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的受攝入於受取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的想攝入於想取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的行攝入於行取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的識攝入於識取蘊中。
  他這麼了知:『這五取蘊的會合、集合、結合確實是這樣。又,這被世尊所說:「凡見緣起者則見法;凡見法者則見緣起。」而這五取蘊即是緣所生的。凡對於這五取蘊的欲、依住、隨從、取著,那是苦集;凡對於這五取蘊的欲貪的調伏、欲貪的捨斷,那是苦滅。』學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多。
  學友們!如果自身內的耳不被破壞,……(中略)鼻不被破壞,……(中略)舌不被破壞,……(中略)身不被破壞,……(中略)意不被破壞,但外部的法不來到其領域,以及沒有對應的注意,則沒有對應之識的部分出現。如果自身內的意不被破壞,而外部的法來到其領域,但沒有對應的注意,則沒有對應之識的部分出現。學友們!因為自身內的意不被破壞,且外部的法來到其領域,以及有對應的注意,這樣,有對應之識的部分出現。凡像這樣存在的色攝入於色取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的受攝入於受取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的想攝入於想取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的行攝入於行取蘊中;凡像這樣存在的識攝入於識取蘊中,他這麼了知:『這五取蘊的會合、集合、結合確實是這樣。又,這被世尊所說:「凡見緣起者則見法;凡見法者則見緣起。」而這五取蘊即是緣所生的。凡對於這五取蘊的欲、依住、隨從、取著,那是苦集;凡對於這五取蘊的欲貪的調伏、欲貪的捨斷,那是苦滅。』學友們!在這裡,那位比丘確實做了很多。」
  這就是尊者舍利弗所說,悅意的那些比丘歡喜尊者舍利弗所說。
  象足跡譬喻大經第八終了。
MN.28/(8) Mahāhatthipadopamasuttaṃ
   300. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho āyasmā sāriputto bhikkhū āmantesi– “āvuso bhikkhave”ti. “Āvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca– “seyyathāpi, āvuso, yāni kānici jaṅgalānaṃ pāṇānaṃ padajātāni sabbāni tāni hatthipade samodhānaṃ gacchanti, hatthipadaṃ tesaṃ aggamakkhāyati yadidaṃ mahantattena; evameva kho, āvuso, ye keci kusalā dhammā sabbete catūsu ariyasaccesu saṅgahaṃ gacchanti. Katamesu catūsu? Dukkhe ariyasacce dukkhasamudaye ariyasacce, dukkhanirodhe ariyasacce, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ariyasacce”.
   301. “Katamañcāvuso, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ? Jātipi dukkhā, jarāpi dukkhā, maraṇampi dukkhaṃ, sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsāpi dukkhā, yampicchaṃ na labhati tampi dukkhaṃ; saṃkhittena, pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā. Katame cāvuso, pañcupādānakkhandhā? Seyyathidaṃ– rūpupādānakkhandho, vedanupādānakkhandho, saññupādānakkhandho, saṅkhārupādānakkhandho, viññāṇupādānakkhandho.
   “Katamo cāvuso, rūpupādānakkhandho? Cattāri ca mahābhūtāni, catunnañca mahābhūtānaṃ upādāya rūpaṃ.
   “Katamā cāvuso, cattāro mahābhūtā? Pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu tejodhātu, vāyodhātu.
   302. “Katamā cāvuso, pathavīdhātu? Pathavīdhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ– kesā lomā nakhā dantā taco maṃsaṃ nhāru aṭṭhi aṭṭhimiñjaṃ vakkaṃ hadayaṃ yakanaṃ kilomakaṃ pihakaṃ papphāsaṃ antaṃ antaguṇaṃ udariyaṃ karīsaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ kakkhaḷaṃ kharigataṃ upādinnaṃ. Ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā pathavīdhātu, yā ca bāhirā pathavīdhātu, pathavīdhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti – evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā pathavīdhātuyā nibbindati, pathavīdhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā āpodhātu pakuppati. Antarahitā tasmiṃ samaye bāhirā pathavīdhātu hoti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya pathavīdhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesenti, so evaṃ pajānāti– ‘uppannā kho me ayaṃ sotasamphassajā dukkhavedanā Sā ca kho paṭicca, no apaṭicca. Kiṃ paṭicca? Phassaṃ paṭicca’. So phasso aniccoti passati, vedanā aniccāti passati, saññā aniccāti passati, saṅkhārā aniccāti passati, viññāṇaṃ aniccanti passati. Tassa dhātārammaṇameva cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare aniṭṭhehi akantehi amanāpehi samudācaranti– pāṇisamphassenapi leḍḍusamphassenapi daṇḍasamphassenapi satthasamphassenapi. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘tathābhūto kho ayaṃ kāyo yathābhūtasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamanti, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamanti, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamanti, satthasamphassāpi kamanti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā kakacūpamovāde – “ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ, tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya na me so tena sāsanakaro”ti. Āraddhaṃ kho pana me vīriyaṃ bhavissati asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ. Kāmaṃ dāni imasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamantu, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamantu, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamantu, satthasamphassāpi kamantu, karīyati hidaṃ buddhānaṃ sāsanan’ti.
   “Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ, yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, suṇisā sasuraṃ disvā saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati; evameva kho, āvuso, tassa ce bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti, so tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ, yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   303. “Katamā cāvuso, āpodhātu? Āpodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso ajjhattikā āpodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – pittaṃ semhaṃ pubbo lohitaṃ sedo medo assu vasā kheḷo siṅghāṇikā lasikā muttaṃ, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ āpo āpogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā āpodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā āpodhātu yā ca bāhirā āpodhātu, āpodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā āpodhātuyā nibbindati, āpodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā āpodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi vahati, nigamampi vahati, nagarampi vahati, janapadampi vahati, janapadapadesampi vahati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde yojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, dviyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, tiyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, catuyojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, pañcayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, chayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti, sattayojanasatikānipi udakāni ogacchanti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde sattatālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chattālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, pañcatālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, catuttālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, titālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, dvitālampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, tālamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde sattaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, chapporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, pañcaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, catupporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, tiporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, dviporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, porisamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ mahāsamudde aḍḍhaporisampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, kaṭimattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, jāṇukamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti, gopphakamattampi udakaṃ saṇṭhāti. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo, yaṃ mahāsamudde aṅgulipabbatemanamattampi udakaṃ na hoti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya āpodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmīti’ vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti …pe… tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti. So tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   304. “Katamā cāvuso, tejodhātu? Tejodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati, yena ca pariḍayhati, yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gacchati, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ tejo tejogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā tejodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā tejodhātu yā ca bāhirā tejodhātu, tejodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā tejodhātuyā nibbindati, tejodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā tejodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi dahati, nigamampi dahati, nagarampi dahati, janapadampi dahati, janapadapadesampi dahati. Sā haritantaṃ vā panthantaṃ vā selantaṃ vā udakantaṃ vā ramaṇīyaṃ vā bhūmibhāgaṃ āgamma anāhārā nibbāyati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ kukkuṭapattenapi nhārudaddulenapi aggiṃ gavesanti Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya tejodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti …pe… tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   305. “Katamā cāvuso, vāyodhātu? Vāyodhātu siyā ajjhattikā, siyā bāhirā. Katamā cāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu? Yaṃ ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ, seyyathidaṃ – uddhaṅgamā vātā, adhogamā vātā, kucchisayā vātā, koṭṭhāsayā vātā, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā, assāso passāso iti, yaṃ vā panaññampi kiñci ajjhattaṃ paccattaṃ vāyo vāyogataṃ upādinnaṃ– ayaṃ vuccatāvuso, ajjhattikā vāyodhātu. Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā vāyodhātu, yā ca bāhirā vāyodhātu, vāyodhāturevesā. ‘Taṃ netaṃ mama nesohamasmi na meso attā’ti evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṃ. Evametaṃ yathābhūtaṃ sammappaññāya disvā vāyodhātuyā nibbindati vāyodhātuyā cittaṃ virājeti.
   “Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ bāhirā vāyodhātu pakuppati. Sā gāmampi vahati, nigamampi vahati, nagarampi vahati, janapadampi vahati, janapadapadesampi vahati. Hoti kho so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ gimhānaṃ pacchime māse tālavaṇṭenapi vidhūpanenapi vātaṃ pariyesanti, ossavanepi tiṇāni na icchanti. Tassā hi nāma, āvuso, bāhirāya vāyodhātuyā tāva mahallikāya aniccatā paññāyissati, khayadhammatā paññāyissati, vayadhammatā paññāyissati, vipariṇāmadhammatā paññāyissati. Kiṃ panimassa mattaṭṭhakassa kāyassa taṇhupādinnassa ‘ahanti vā mamanti vā asmī’ti vā? Atha khvāssa notevettha hoti.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesenti. So evaṃ pajānāti, uppannā kho me ayaṃ sotasamphassajā dukkhā vedanā. Sā ca kho paṭicca, no apaṭicca. Kiṃ paṭicca? Phassaṃ paṭicca. Sopi phasso aniccoti passati, vedanā aniccāti passati saññā aniccāti passati, saṅkhārā aniccāti passati, viññāṇaṃ aniccanti passati. Tassa dhātārammaṇameva cittaṃ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati adhimuccati.
   “Tañce, āvuso, bhikkhuṃ pare aniṭṭhehi akantehi amanāpehi samudācaranti, pāṇisamphassenapi leḍḍusamphassenapi daṇḍasamphassenapi satthasamphassenapi. So evaṃ pajānāti ‘tathābhūto kho ayaṃ kāyo yathābhūtasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamanti, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamanti, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamanti, satthasamphassāpi kamanti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā kakacūpamovāde “ubhatodaṇḍakena cepi, bhikkhave, kakacena corā ocarakā aṅgamaṅgāni okanteyyuṃ. Tatrāpi yo mano padūseyya, na me so tena sāsanakaro”ti. Āraddhaṃ kho pana me vīriyaṃ bhavissati asallīnaṃ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggaṃ. Kāmaṃ dāni imasmiṃ kāye pāṇisamphassāpi kamantu, leḍḍusamphassāpi kamantu, daṇḍasamphassāpi kamantu, satthasamphassāpi kamantu. Karīyati hidaṃ buddhānaṃ sāsanan’ti.
   “Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati– ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ. Yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, suṇisā sasuraṃ disvā saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati; evameva kho, āvuso, tassa ce bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhāti. So tena saṃvijjati saṃvegaṃ āpajjati – ‘alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā, dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ. Yassa me evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā na saṇṭhātī’ti. Tassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato, evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato, evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato, upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti, so tena attamano hoti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   306. “Seyyathāpi, āvuso, kaṭṭhañca paṭicca valliñca paṭicca tiṇañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito agāraṃ tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati; evameva kho, āvuso, aṭṭhiñca paṭicca nhāruñca paṭicca maṃsañca paṭicca cammañca paṭicca ākāso parivārito rūpaṃ tveva saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti, bāhirā ca rūpā na āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti bāhirā ca rūpā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yato ca kho, āvuso, ajjhattikañceva cakkhuṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti, bāhirā ca rūpā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, tajjo ca samannāhāro hoti. Evaṃ tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yaṃ tathābhūtassa rūpaṃ taṃ rūpupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa vedanā sā vedanupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa saññā sā saññupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, ye tathābhūtassa saṅkhārā te saṅkhārupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, yaṃ tathābhūtassa viññāṇaṃ taṃ viññāṇupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati.
   “So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘evañhi kira imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ saṅgaho sannipāto samavāyo hoti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā– ‘yo paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati so dhammaṃ passati; yo dhammaṃ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passatīti. Paṭiccasamuppannā kho panime yadidaṃ pañcupādānakkhandhā. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṃ so dukkhasamudayo. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṃ, so dukkhanirodho’ti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti.
   “Ajjhattikañceva, āvuso, sotaṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti …pe… ghānaṃ aparibhinnaṃ hoti… jivhā aparibhinnā hoti… kāyo aparibhinno hoti… mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā na āpāthaṃ āgacchanti no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Ajjhattiko ceva, āvuso, mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti, neva tāva tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yato ca kho, āvuso, ajjhattiko ceva mano aparibhinno hoti, bāhirā ca dhammā āpāthaṃ āgacchanti, tajjo ca samannāhāro hoti, evaṃ tajjassa viññāṇabhāgassa pātubhāvo hoti. Yaṃ tathābhūtassa rūpaṃ taṃ rūpupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa vedanā sā vedanupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, yā tathābhūtassa saññā sā saññupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati, ye tathābhūtassa saṅkhārā te saṅkhārupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchanti, yaṃ tathābhūtassa viññāṇaṃ taṃ viññāṇupādānakkhandhe saṅgahaṃ gacchati. So evaṃ pajānāti– ‘evañhi kira imesaṃ pañcannaṃ upādānakkhandhānaṃ saṅgaho sannipāto samavāyo hoti. Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā– “yo paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati so dhammaṃ passati; yo dhammaṃ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passatī”ti. Paṭiccasamuppannā kho panime yadidaṃ pañcupādānakkhandhā. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṃ so dukkhasamudayo. Yo imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu chandarāgavinayo chandarāgappahānaṃ so dukkhanirodho’ti. Ettāvatāpi kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hotī”ti.
   Idamavoca āyasmā sāriputto. Attamanā te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Mahāhatthipadopamasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「所攝(MA.30)」,南傳作「攝入」(saṅgahaṃ gacchati),智髻比丘長老英譯為「被包含於」(is included in)。
  「善相應捨(MA.30)」,南傳作「善所依止的平靜」(upekkhā kusalanissitā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「被有益支持的平靜」(equanimity supported by the wholesome)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,當回憶鋸子譬喻說時為回憶法,當回憶忍受著被鋸子切比丘的德性(guṇaṃ)時為回憶僧團,「善所依止的平靜」這是毘婆舍那的平靜(vipassanupekkhā)之意,這裡是六部分平靜:煩惱已盡者在令人想要的所緣上無染轉起……。
  「大學(MA.30)」,南傳作「做了很多」(bahukataṃ hoti,直譯為「很多被做了」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「許多被做了」(much has been done)。
  「無受而滅(MA.30)」,南傳作「無燃料而被熄滅」(anāhārā nibbāyati,直譯為「無食物而被熄滅」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「由於缺乏燃料而滅」(It goes out due to lack of fuel)。按:中阿含經都將「取」譯為「受」,而「執取」(upādāna),除了「取;取著;執著」的意思外,還有「燃料」的意思,《破斥猶豫》就說「無食物為無燃料」(nirāhārā nirupādānā),這樣,南北傳經文的含意是一致的。
  「以哆邏葉(MA.30)」,南傳作「以棕櫚葉」(tālavaṇṭenapi,直譯為「棕櫚莖,扇子」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「扇子」(a fan)。
  「則無有念(MA.30)」,南傳作「以及沒有對應的注意」(no ca tajjo samannāhāro hoti),智髻比丘長老英譯為「以及沒有相當的[意識]吸引」(and there is no corresponding [conscious] engagement)。「注意」(samannāhāro),另譯為「存念」,《破斥猶豫》說「生起作意」(uppajjanamanasikāro)。
  「就以界為所緣」(dhātārammaṇameva),智髻比丘長老英譯為「造一個元素為其支持目標」(having made an element its objective support)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,「躍入」為跳入(otarati, 投入),「明淨」為在那個所緣上明淨,因相的連結(Byañjanasandhivasena)而被稱為「就以界為所緣」,「勝解」就是因界之力得到勝解(adhimokkhaṃ),不染著、不瞋惡(na rajjati, na dussati)。菩提比丘長老說「界為所緣」有二種解說,一是將「界」解說為如聲音、觸、受等,一是解說為「地界」。
  「惡獲得」(dulladdhaṃ,另譯為「惡得;不好的獲得」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「對我是壞的」(bad for me)。「好獲得」(suladdhaṃ,另譯為「善得;好的獲得」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「對我是好的」(good for me)。
  「識的部分」(viññāṇabhāgassa),智髻比丘長老英譯為「識類」(class of consciousness)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「識的部分」(viññāṇakoṭṭhāsassa)解說。
  「欲、依住、隨從、取著」(chando ālayo anunayo ajjhosānaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「想要、放縱、嗜好與握住」(The desire, indulgence, inclination, and holding)。按:「依住」(ālayo),另譯為「阿賴耶(音譯);執著;愛著;所執處(窟;宅;依處;藏)」,另參看印順法師著《印度佛教思想史》p.25。