經號:   
   (中部20經 更新)
中部20經/尋之止息經(師子吼品[2])(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!專修增上心的比丘應該經常作意五相,哪五個呢?
  比丘們!這裡,當比丘由於作意某個相而有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋生起時,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘因那個相而應該作意其它有關善的相。當因那個相而作意其它有關善的相時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。比丘們!猶如熟練的石匠或石匠的徒弟會以細楔子頂出、引出、退出粗楔子。同樣的,比丘們!當比丘由於作意某個相而有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋生起時,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘因那個相而應該作意其它有關善的相。當因那個相而作意其它有關善的相時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。
  比丘們!如果當比丘因那個相而作意其它有關善的相時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該觀察那些尋的過患:『像這樣,這些尋是不善的;像這樣,這些尋是有罪過的;像這樣,這些尋有苦果報。』當他觀察那些尋的過患時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。比丘們!猶如年輕、年少、喜好裝飾的女子或男子,如果在頸部被懸掛蛇屍或狗屍或人屍,會苦惱、羞恥、厭嫌。同樣的,比丘們!如果當比丘因那個相而作意其它有關善的相時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該觀察那些尋的過患:『像這樣,這些尋是不善的;像這樣,這些尋是有罪過的;像這樣,這些尋有苦果報。』當他觀察那些尋的過患時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。
  比丘們!如果當比丘觀察那些尋的過患時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該走向不念、不作意那些尋。當他走向不念、不作意那些尋時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。比丘們!猶如有眼男子如果不想看到達視野的色時,他會閉眼或注意其它的。同樣的,比丘們!如果當比丘觀察那些尋的過患時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該走向不念、不作意那些尋。當他走向不念、不作意那些尋時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。
  比丘們!如果當比丘走向不念、不作意那些尋時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該作意那些尋的尋行止息。當他作意那些尋的尋行止息時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。比丘們!猶如男子如果快速地走,當他這麼想:『我為何快速地走?讓我慢慢地走。』時,他會慢慢地走。當他這麼想:『我為何慢慢地走?讓我站住。』時,他會站住。當他這麼想:『我為何站著?讓我坐下。』時,他會坐下;當他這麼想:『我為何坐著?讓我躺下。』時,他會躺下。比丘們!這樣,男子會回避較粗的舉止行為後,從事較細的舉止行為。同樣的,比丘們!如果當比丘走向不念、不作意那些尋時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘應該作意那些尋的尋行止息。當他作意那些尋的尋行止息時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。
  比丘們!如果當比丘作意那些尋的尋行止息時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘緊扣牙齒、舌抵上顎後,應該以心抑止、壓迫、破壞心。當他緊扣牙齒、舌抵上顎後,以心抑止、壓迫、破壞心時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。比丘們!猶如有力氣的男子捉住較弱男子的頭或脖子或肩膀後,能抑止、壓迫、破壞。同樣的,比丘們!當比丘作意那些尋的尋行止息時,有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋[仍然]生起,比丘們!因為那樣,比丘緊扣牙齒、舌抵上顎後,應該以心抑止、壓迫、破壞心。當他緊扣牙齒、舌抵上顎後,以心抑止、壓迫、破壞心時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定。
  比丘們!當比丘作意某個相時,由於那個相而有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋生起,因那個相而作意其它有關善的相時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定;當他觀察那些尋的過患時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定;當他走向不念、不作意那些尋時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定;當他作意那些尋的尋行止息時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定;當他緊扣牙齒、舌抵上顎後,以心抑止、壓迫、破壞心時,那些有關欲、瞋、癡的惡不善尋被捨斷、滅沒,以它們的捨斷而內心住立、安靜下來、成為統一、入定,比丘們!這被稱為比丘是在尋的法門之路上的自在者。他將尋思所有他希望之尋,他將不尋思所有他不希望之尋,切斷渴愛,破壞結,以慢的完全止滅得到苦的結束。」
  這就是世尊所說,那些悅意的比丘歡喜世尊所說。
  尋之止息經第十終了。
  獅子吼品第二終了,其攝頌
  獅子吼小[經]、殊勝的身毛豎立,大小苦蘊-推量經,
  荒蕪、林叢、蜜丸、二種尋,品還有五相說。
MN.20/(10) Vitakkasaṇṭhānasuttaṃ
   216. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Adhicittamanuyuttena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā pañca nimittāni kālena kālaṃ manasi kātabbāni. Katamāni pañca? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno yaṃ nimittaṃ āgamma yaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasi kātabbaṃ kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ. Tassa tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ ye pāpakā akusalā itakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho palagaṇḍo vā palagaṇḍantevāsī vā sukhumāya āṇiyā oḷārikaṃ āṇiṃ abhinihaneyya abhinīhareyya abhinivatteyya; evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno yaṃ nimittaṃ āgamma yaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasi kātabbaṃ kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ. Tassa tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.
   217. “Tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ ādīnavo upaparikkhitabbo– ‘itipime vitakkā akusalā, itipime vitakkā sāvajjā, itipime vitakkā dukkhavipākā’ti. Tassa tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ ādīnavaṃ upaparikkhato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, itthī vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇḍanakajātiko ahikuṇapena vā kukkurakuṇapena vā manussakuṇapena vā kaṇṭhe āsattena aṭṭiyeyya harāyeyya jiguccheyya; evameva kho, bhikkhave, tassa ce bhikkhuno tamhāpi nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ ādīnavo upaparikkhitabbo– ‘itipime vitakkā akusalā, itipime vitakkā sāvajjā, itipime vitakkā dukkhavipākā’ti. Tassa tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ ādīnavaṃ upaparikkhato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.
   218. “Tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ ādīnavaṃ upaparikkhato uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ asati-amanasikāro āpajjitabbo. Tassa tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ asati-amanasikāraṃ āpajjato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, cakkhumā puriso āpāthagatānaṃ rūpānaṃ adassanakāmo assa; so nimīleyya vā aññena vā apalokeyya. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, tassa ce bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ ādīnavaṃ upaparikkhato uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.
   219. “Tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ asati-amanasikāraṃ āpajjato uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ manasikātabbaṃ. Tassa tesaṃ vitakkānaṃ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ manasikaroto ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso sīghaṃ gaccheyya. Tassa evamassa– ‘kiṃ nu kho ahaṃ sīghaṃ gacchāmi? Yaṃnūnāhaṃ saṇikaṃ gaccheyyan’ti. So saṇikaṃ gaccheyya. Tassa evamassa– ‘kiṃ nu kho ahaṃ saṇikaṃ gacchāmi? Yaṃnūnāhaṃ tiṭṭheyyan’ti. So tiṭṭheyya Tassa evamassa– ‘kiṃ nu kho ahaṃ ṭhito? Yaṃnūnāhaṃ nisīdeyyan’ti. So nisīdeyya. Tassa evamassa– ‘kiṃ nu kho ahaṃ nisinno? Yaṃnūnāhaṃ nipajjeyyan’ti. So nipajjeyya. Evañhi so, bhikkhave, puriso oḷārikaṃ oḷārikaṃ iriyāpathaṃ abhinivajjetvā sukhumaṃ sukhumaṃ iriyāpathaṃ kappeyya. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, tassa ce bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ asati-amanasikāraṃ āpajjato uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.
   220. “Tassa ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ manasikaroto uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi. Tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā dantebhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṃ āhacca cetasā cittaṃ abhiniggaṇhitabbaṃ abhinippīḷetabbaṃ abhisantāpetabbaṃ Tassa dantebhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṃ āhacca cetasā cittaṃ abhiniggaṇhato abhinippīḷayato abhisantāpayato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, balavā puriso dubbalataraṃ purisaṃ sīse vā gale vā khandhe vā gahetvā abhiniggaṇheyya abhinippīḷeyya abhisantāpeyya; evameva kho, bhikkhave, tassa ce bhikkhuno tesampi vitakkānaṃ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ manasikaroto uppajjanteva pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi. Tena, bhikkhave, bhikkhunā dantebhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṃ āhacca cetasā cittaṃ abhiniggaṇhitabbaṃ abhinippīḷetabbaṃ abhisantāpetabbaṃ. Tassa dantebhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṃ āhacca cetasā cittaṃ abhiniggaṇhato abhinippīḷayato abhisantāpayato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.
   221. “Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno yaṃ nimittaṃ āgamma yaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto uppajjanti pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi, tassa tamhā nimittā aññaṃ nimittaṃ manasikaroto kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Tesampi vitakkānaṃ ādīnavaṃ upaparikkhato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Tesampi vitakkānaṃ asati-amanasikāraṃ āpajjato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Tesampi vitakkānaṃ vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ manasikaroto ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Dantebhidantamādhāya jivhāya tāluṃ āhacca cetasā cittaṃ abhiniggaṇhato abhinippīḷayato abhisantāpayato ye pāpakā akusalā vitakkā chandūpasaṃhitāpi dosūpasaṃhitāpi mohūpasaṃhitāpi te pahīyanti te abbhatthaṃ gacchanti. Tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vasī vitakkapariyāyapathesu. Yaṃ vitakkaṃ ākaṅkhissati taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakkessati, yaṃ vitakkaṃ nākaṅkhissati na taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakkessati. Acchecchi taṇhaṃ, vivattayi saṃyojanaṃ, sammā mānābhisamayā antamakāsi dukkhassā”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Vitakkasaṇṭhānasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dasamaṃ.
   Sīhanādavaggo niṭṭhito dutiyo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Cūḷasīhanādalomahaṃsavaro, mahācūḷadukkhakkhandha-anumānikasuttaṃ.
   Khilapatthamadhupiṇḍikadvidhāvitakka, pañcanimittakathā puna vaggo.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「增上心」(adhicitta),智髻比丘長老英譯為「更高的心」(the higher mind)。按:《破斥猶豫》說,這是因十善法路(dasakusalakammapathavasena)而生起的心,毘婆舍那為基礎的八等至心,比其他心優勝的心。
  「不善念(MA.101)」,南傳作「惡不善尋」(pāpakā akusalā vitakkā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「邪惡、有害的思想」(evil unwholesome thoughts)。
  「異相善相應(MA.101)」,南傳作「其它有關善的相」(aññaṃ nimittaṃ…kusalūpasaṃhitaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「某些其它與有益相連的徵候」(some other sign connected with what is wholesome)。按:「異相」即「其它相」,《破斥猶豫》舉例說,當與欲有關的(chandūpasañhite)尋生起於眾生時,不淨之修習(asubhabhāvanā)名為其它相;當行生起時(Saṅkhāresu uppanne),無常之作意名為其它相;當與瞋有關的尋生起於眾生時,慈之修習(mettābhāvanā)名為其它相,……。
  「思行漸減(MA.101)」,南傳作「尋行止息」(vitakkasaṅkhārasaṇṭhānaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「靜止思想-形成」(stilling the thought-formation)。
  「身麁行(MA.101)」,南傳作「較粗的舉止行為」(oḷārikaṃ oḷārikaṃ iriyāpathaṃ),智髻比丘長老英譯為「每一個較粗的姿態」(each grosser posture)。按:「舉止行為」(iriyāpathaṃ),逐字譯為「威儀路」,「威儀」(iriyā),另譯為「行動」,泛指「行、住、坐、臥」,原意不是「儀表莊嚴」。
  「欲念則念(MA.101)」,南傳作「他將尋思所有他希望之尋」(Yaṃ vitakkaṃ ākaṅkhissati taṃ vitakkaṃ vitakkessati),智髻比丘長老英譯為「他將想所有他要想的思想」(He will think whatever thought he wishes to think)。
  「諸念跡(MA.101)」,南傳作「在尋的法門之路上」(vitakkapariyāyapathesu),智髻比丘長老英譯為「思想路程」(the courses of thought)。按:《破斥猶豫》以「在尋實行之路上是熟練自在者、練達自在者」(vitakkacārapathesu ciṇṇavasī paguṇavasīti)解說。
  「應該走向不念」(asati…āpajjitabbo),智髻比丘長老英譯為「應該試著忘掉」(should try to forget)。