經號:   
   (中部3經 更新)
中部3經/法之繼承人經(根本法門品[1])(莊春江譯)[MA.88, AA.18.3]
  被我這麼聽聞
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城祇樹林給孤獨園。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊說這個:
  「比丘們!你們要成為我的法之繼承人,不要成為財物之繼承人。我在你們上有憐愍:『弟子們是否能成為我的法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人。』比丘們!而如果你們成為我的財物之繼承人,非法之繼承人,你們也因為那樣成為應該被{抓住}[指責]者:『大師的弟子們住於財物之繼承人,非法之繼承人。』我也因為那樣成為應該被指責者:『大師的弟子們住於財物之繼承人,非法之繼承人。』比丘們!而如果你們成為我的法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人,你們也因為那樣不成為應該被指責者:『大師的弟子們住於法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人。』我也因為那樣不成為應該被指責者:『大師的弟子們住於法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人。』比丘們!因此,在這裡,你們要成為我的法之繼承人,不要成為財物之繼承人。我在你們上有憐愍:『弟子們是否能成為我的法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人。』(29)
  比丘們!這裡,如果我是已食者、已滿足者、已充滿者、已完結者、飽足者、盡所需者,而我的施食成為過多法、應該被捨棄法。那時,兩位被飢餓虛弱折磨的比丘到來,我對他們這麼說:『比丘們!我是已食者、已滿足者、已充滿者、已完結者、飽足者、盡所需者,而我的施食成為過多法、應該被捨棄法,如果你們希望,請你們吃,如果你們不吃,現在我將捨棄在少草處,或將使之沈入在無蟲的水中。』在那裡,一位比丘這麼想:『世尊是已食者、已滿足者、已充滿者、已完結者、飽足者、盡所需者,而世尊的這個施食成為過多法、應該被捨棄法,如果我們不吃,現在世尊將捨棄在少草處,或將使之沈入在無蟲的水中。又,這被世尊說:「比丘們!你們要成為我的法之繼承人,不要成為財物之繼承人。」又,這是某種財物,即:施食。讓我不吃這個施食後,就以這個飢餓虛弱這麼度過這個日夜。』他不吃那個施食後,就以那個飢餓虛弱這麼度過那個日夜。那時,第二位比丘這麼想:『世尊是已食者、已滿足者、已充滿者、已完結者、飽足者、盡所需者,而世尊的這個施食成為過多法、應該被捨棄法,如果我們不吃,現在世尊將捨棄在少草處,或將使之沈入在無蟲的水中。讓我吃這個施食後,除去飢餓虛弱後,這麼度過這個日夜。』他吃那個施食後,除去飢餓虛弱後,這麼度過那個日夜。比丘們!即使那位比丘吃那個施食後,除去飢餓虛弱後,這麼度過那個日夜,但前面那位比丘正是更應該被我尊敬者與更應該被讚賞者,那是什麼原因呢?比丘們!因為,那將轉起那位比丘長時間的少欲性、知足、削減、易養性、活力的激發。因此,比丘們!你們要成為我的法之繼承人,不要成為財物之繼承人。我在你們上有憐愍:『弟子們是否能成為我的法之繼承人,非財物之繼承人。』」
  世尊說這個,說這個後,善逝從座位起來後進入住處。(30)
  在那裡,當世尊離開不久,尊者舍利弗召喚比丘們:「比丘學友們!」
  「學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗說這個:
  「學友們!什麼情形住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離呢?還有,什麼情形住於獨居的大師弟子們隨學遠離呢?」
  「學友!我們從遠處來到尊者舍利弗的面前,也為了能了知這個所說的義理,就請尊者舍利弗說明這個所說的義理,那就好了!聽聞尊者舍利弗的[教說]後,比丘們將會憶持。」
  「學友們!那樣的話,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我將說了。」
  「是的,學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗說這個:
  「學友們!什麼情形住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離呢?學友們!這裡,住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離,凡大師說諸法的捨斷者而他們不捨斷那些法,且他們是奢侈者、散漫者、在墮落處走在前面者、在獨居上放下負擔者。學友們!在那裡,以三處上座比丘們成為應該被呵責者:『住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離。』以這第一處上座比丘們成為應該被呵責者。『凡大師說捨斷法者而他們不捨斷那些法。』以這第二處上座比丘們成為應該被呵責者。『且他們是奢侈者、散漫者、在墮落處走在前面者、在獨居上放下負擔者。』以這第三處上座比丘們成為應該被呵責者。學友們!以這三處上座比丘們成為應該被呵責者。學友們!在那裡,中座比丘們……(中略)以三處新比丘們成為應該被呵責者:『住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離。』以這第一處新比丘們成為應該被呵責者。『凡大師說捨斷法者而他們不捨斷那些法。』以這第二處新比丘們成為應該被呵責者。『且他們是奢侈者、散漫者、在墮落處走在前面者、在獨居上放下負擔者。』以這第三處新比丘們成為應該被呵責者。學友們!新比丘們以這三處成為應該被呵責者。學友們!這個情形住於獨居的大師弟子們不隨學遠離。(31)
  學友們!還有,什麼情形住於獨居的大師弟子們隨學遠離呢?學友們!這裡,住於獨住的大師弟子們隨學遠離,凡大師說諸法的捨斷者而他們捨斷那些法,且他們是非奢侈者、非散漫者、在墮落處放下負擔者、在獨居上走在前面者。學友們!在那裡,以三處上座比丘們成為應該被讚賞者:『住於獨居的大師弟子們隨學遠離。』以這第一處上座比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。『凡大師說諸法的捨斷者而他們捨斷那些法。』以這第二處上座比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。『且他們是非奢侈者、非散漫者、在墮落處放下負擔者、在獨居上走在前面者。』以這第三處上座比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。學友們!上座比丘們以這三處成為應該被讚賞者。學友們!在那裡,中座比丘們……(中略)以三處新比丘們成為應該被讚賞者:『住於獨居的大師弟子們隨學遠離。』以這第一處新比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。『凡大師說諸法的捨斷者而他們捨斷那些法。』以這第二處新比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。『且他們是非奢侈者、非散漫者、在墮落處放下負擔者、在獨居上走在前面者。』以這第三處新比丘們成為應該被讚賞者。學友們!新比丘們以這三處成為應該被讚賞者。學友們!這個情形是住於獨居的大師弟子們隨學遠離。(32)
  學友們!這裡,貪是邪惡的,以及瞋恚是邪惡的,有為了貪的捨斷與瞋恚的捨斷,作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道。學友們!而什麼是那個作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道呢?就是這八支聖道,即:正見、正志、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定。學友們!這是那個作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道。
  學友們!這裡,憤怒是邪惡的,以及怨恨是邪惡的……(中略)藏惡是邪惡的,以及專橫是邪惡的……(中略)嫉妒是邪惡的,以及慳吝是邪惡的……(中略)偽詐是邪惡的,以及狡猾是邪惡的……(中略)頑固是邪惡的,以及激情是邪惡的……(中略)慢是邪惡的,以及極慢是邪惡的……(中略)憍慢是邪惡的,以及放逸是邪惡的,有為了憍慢的捨斷與放逸的捨斷,作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道。學友們!而什麼是那作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道呢?就是這八支聖道,即:正見、正志、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定。學友們!這是那個作眼、作智,轉起寂靜、證智、正覺、涅槃的中道。」
  尊者舍利弗說這個,那些悅意的比丘們歡喜尊者舍利弗所說。(33)
  法之繼承人經第三終了。
MN.3/(3) Dhammadāyādasuttaṃ
   29. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Dhammadāyādā me, bhikkhave, bhavatha, mā āmisadāyādā. Atthi me tumhesu anukampā– ‘kinti me sāvakā dhammadāyādā bhaveyyuṃ, no āmisadāyādā’ti. Tumhe ca me, bhikkhave, āmisadāyādā bhaveyyātha no dhammadāyādā, tumhepi tena ādiyā bhaveyyātha– ‘āmisadāyādā satthusāvakā viharanti, no dhammadāyādā’ti; ahampi tena ādiyo bhaveyyaṃ– ‘āmisadāyādā satthusāvakā viharanti, no dhammadāyādā’ti. Tumhe ca me, bhikkhave, dhammadāyādā bhaveyyātha, no āmisadāyādā, tumhepi tena na ādiyā bhaveyyātha– ‘dhammadāyādā satthusāvakā viharanti, no āmisadāyādā’ti; ahampi tena na ādiyo bhaveyyaṃ– ‘dhammadāyādā satthusāvakā viharanti, no āmisadāyādā’ti. Tasmātiha me, bhikkhave, dhammadāyādā bhavatha, mā āmisadāyādā. Atthi me tumhesu anukampā– ‘kinti me sāvakā dhammadāyādā bhaveyyuṃ, no āmisadāyādā’ti.
   30. “Idhāhaṃ, bhikkhave, bhuttāvī assaṃ pavārito paripuṇṇo pariyosito suhito yāvadattho; siyā ca me piṇḍapāto atirekadhammo chaḍḍanīyadhammo. Atha dve bhikkhū āgaccheyyuṃ jighacchādubbalya- paretā Tyāhaṃ evaṃ vadeyyaṃ– ‘ahaṃ khomhi, bhikkhave, bhuttāvī pavārito paripuṇṇo pariyosito suhito yāvadattho; atthi ca me ayaṃ piṇḍapāto atirekadhammo chaḍḍanīyadhammo. Sace ākaṅkhatha, bhuñjatha, no ce tumhe bhuñjissatha, idānāhaṃ appaharite vā chaḍḍessāmi, appāṇake vā udake opilāpessāmī’ti. Tatrekassa bhikkhuno evamassa– ‘bhagavā kho bhuttāvī pavārito paripuṇṇo pariyosito suhito yāvadattho; atthi cāyaṃ bhagavato piṇḍapāto atirekadhammo chaḍḍanīyadhammo. Sace mayaṃ na bhuñjissāma, idāni bhagavā appaharite vā chaḍḍessati, appāṇake vā udake opilāpessati’ Vuttaṃ kho panetaṃ bhagavatā– ‘dhammadāyādā me, bhikkhave, bhavatha, mā āmisadāyādā’ti. Āmisaññataraṃ kho panetaṃ, yadidaṃ piṇḍapāto. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ imaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ abhuñjitvā imināva jighacchādubbalyena evaṃ imaṃ rattindivaṃ vītināmeyyan”ti. So taṃ piṇḍapātaṃ abhuñjitvā teneva jighacchādubbalyena evaṃ taṃ rattindivaṃ vītināmeyya. Atha dutiyassa bhikkhuno evamassa– ‘bhagavā kho bhuttāvī pavārito paripuṇṇo pariyosito suhito yāvadattho; atthi cāyaṃ bhagavato piṇḍapāto atirekadhammo chaḍḍanīyadhammo. Sace mayaṃ na bhuñjissāma, idāni bhagavā appaharite vā chaḍḍessati, appāṇake vā udake opilāpessati. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ imaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjitvā jighacchādubbalyaṃ paṭivinodetvā evaṃ imaṃ rattindivaṃ vītināmeyyan’ti. So taṃ piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjitvā jighacchādubbalyaṃ paṭivinodetvā evaṃ taṃ rattindivaṃ vītināmeyya. Kiñcāpi so, bhikkhave, bhikkhu taṃ piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjitvā jighacchādubbalyaṃ paṭivinodetvā evaṃ taṃ rattindivaṃ vītināmeyya, atha kho asuyeva me purimo bhikkhu pujjataro ca pāsaṃsataro ca. Taṃ kissa hetu? Tañhi tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno dīgharattaṃ appicchatāya santuṭṭhiyā sallekhāya subharatāya vīriyārambhāya saṃvattissati. Tasmātiha me, bhikkhave, dhammadāyādā bhavatha, mā āmisadāyādā. Atthi me tumhesu anukampā– ‘kinti me sāvakā dhammadāyādā bhaveyyuṃ, no āmisadāyādā’”ti.
   Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato uṭṭhāyāsanā vihāraṃ pāvisi.
   31. Tatra kho āyasmā sāriputto acirapakkantassa bhagavato bhikkhū āmantesi– “āvuso bhikkhave”ti. “Āvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca–
   “Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti, kittāvatā ca pana satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanu-sikkhantī”ti? “Dūratopi kho mayaṃ, āvuso, āgacchāma āyasmato sāriputtassa santike etassa bhāsitassa atthamaññātuṃ. Sādhu vatāyasmantaṃyeva sāriputtaṃ paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho; āyasmato sāriputtassa sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti. “Tena hāvuso, suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca –
   “Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti? Idhāvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti, yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha, te ca dhamme nappajahanti, bāhulikā ca honti, sāthalikā, okkamane pubbaṅgamā, paviveke nikkhittadhurā. Tatrāvuso, therā bhikkhū tīhi ṭhānehi gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhantī’ti– iminā paṭhamena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme nappajahantī’ti– iminā dutiyena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Bāhulikā ca, sāthalikā, okkamane pubbaṅgamā, paviveke nikkhittadhurā’ti– iminā tatiyena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. Therā, āvuso, bhikkhū imehi tīhi ṭhānehi gārayhā bhavanti. Tatrāvuso, majjhimā bhikkhū …pe… navā bhikkhū tīhi ṭhānehi gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhantī’ti– iminā paṭhamena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme nappajahantī’ti– iminā dutiyena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. ‘Bāhulikā ca honti, sāthalikā, okkamane pubbaṅgamā, paviveke nikkhittadhurā’ti – iminā tatiyena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū gārayhā bhavanti. Navā, āvuso, bhikkhū imehi tīhi ṭhānehi gārayhā bhavanti. Ettāvatā kho, āvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti.
   32. “Kittāvatā ca, panāvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanusikkhanti Idhāvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanusikkhanti– yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme pajahanti; na ca bāhulikā honti, na sāthalikā okkamane nikkhittadhurā paviveke pubbaṅgamā. Tatrāvuso, therā bhikkhū tīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanusikkhantī’ti– iminā paṭhamena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme pajahantī’ti– iminā dutiyena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Na ca bāhulikā, na sāthalikā okkamane nikkhittadhurā paviveke pubbaṅgamā’ti– iminā tatiyena ṭhānena therā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. Therā, āvuso, bhikkhū imehi tīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃsā bhavanti Tatrāvuso, majjhimā bhikkhū …pe… navā bhikkhū tīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanusikkhantī’ti– iminā paṭhamena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Yesañca dhammānaṃ satthā pahānamāha te ca dhamme pajahantī’ti– iminā dutiyena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. ‘Na ca bāhulikā, na sāthalikā okkamane nikkhittadhurā paviveke pubbaṅgamā’ti– iminā tatiyena ṭhānena navā bhikkhū pāsaṃsā bhavanti. Navā, āvuso, bhikkhū imehi tīhi ṭhānehi pāsaṃsā bhavanti. Ettāvatā kho, āvuso, satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekamanusikkhanti.
   33. “Tatrāvuso, lobho ca pāpako doso ca pāpako. Lobhassa ca pahānāya dosassa ca pahānāya atthi majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati. Katamā ca sā, āvuso, majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ – sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ kho sā, āvuso, majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati.
   “Tatrāvuso, kodho ca pāpako upanāho ca pāpako …pe… makkho ca pāpako paḷāso ca pāpako, issā ca pāpikā maccherañca pāpakaṃ, māyā ca pāpikā sāṭheyyañca pāpakaṃ, thambho ca pāpako sārambho ca pāpako, māno ca pāpako atimāno ca pāpako, mado ca pāpako pamādo ca pāpako. Madassa ca pahānāya pamādassa ca pahānāya atthi majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati. Katamā ca sā, āvuso, majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, seyyathidaṃ– sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammā-ājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Ayaṃ kho sā, āvuso, majjhimā paṭipadā cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattatī”ti.
   Idamavocāyasmā sāriputto. Attamanā te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.
   Dhammadāyādasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ tatiyaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不學捨離(MA.88)」,南傳作「不隨學遠離」(vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti),智髻比丘長老英譯為「不在隔離上訓練」(do not train in seclusion)。「捨離;遠離」(vivekaṃ,另譯為「離;分離;遠離;獨處;隔離」),AA譯作「寂靜之處」。
  「法之繼承人」(dhammadāyādā,另譯為「法嗣」),智髻比丘長老英譯為「在正法上的繼承人」(heirs in Dhamma)。
  「是在墮落上卸下責任者」(okkamane nikkhittadhurā),智髻比丘長老英譯為「他們是避免墮落的熱心者」(they are keen to avoid backsliding)。