經號:   
   (AN.10.55 更新)
增支部10集55經/退失經(莊春江譯)
  在那裡,尊者舍利弗召喚比丘們:「比丘學友們!」
  「學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗這麼說:
  「學友們!被稱為『退失法之人,退失法之人。』學友們!被稱為『不退失法之人,不退失法之人。』學友們!什麼情形是世尊所說的退失法之人呢?而什麼情形是世尊所說的不退失法之人呢?」
  「學友!我們從遠處來到尊者舍利弗面前想知道這所說的義理,如果尊者舍利弗能說明這所說的義理,那就好了!聽聞尊者舍利弗的[教說]後,學友們將會記住的。」
  「那樣的話,學友們!你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」
  「是的,學友!」那些比丘回答尊者舍利弗。
  尊者舍利弗這麼說:
  「學友們!什麼情形是世尊所說的退失法之人呢?學友們!比丘不聽聞未聽聞的法,而且,所聽聞的法走入忘失,那些以前心所觸之法不被想到,不了知不知道的,學友們!這個情形是世尊所說的退失法之人。
  學友們!什麼情形是世尊所說的不退失法之人呢?學友們!比丘聽聞未聽聞的法,而且,所聽聞的法不走入忘失,那些以前心所觸之法被想到,了知不知道的,學友們!這個情形是世尊所說的不退失法之人。
  學友們!如果比丘不是他心法門的熟練者,那時[應該這麼學]:『我將成為自心法門的熟練者。』學友們!你們應該這麼學。
  學友們!比丘如何是自心法門的熟練者呢?學友們!猶如年輕而喜歡裝飾的女子或男子,當在鏡中,或在遍淨、潔淨、清澈的水鉢中觀察自己的面貌時,在那裡,如果看見塵垢或污穢,他為塵垢或污穢的捨斷而努力。在那裡,如果沒看見塵垢或污穢,因為那樣,他變得悅意、意向圓滿:『這確實是我的獲得,我確實是乾淨的。』同樣的,學友們!比丘的觀察在善法上是非常有用的:『我多住於不貪婪嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於無瞋害心嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於離惛沈睡眠嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於不掉舉嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於脫離疑嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於無憤怒嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我多住於心不被污染嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我得到內在法的欣悅嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我是內心的止之得到者嗎?我的這個法存在與否?我是觀法增上慧的得到者嗎?我的這個法存在與否?』
  學友們!如果比丘觀察時,沒看見自己的全部這些善法,學友們!因為那樣,比丘應該為全部這些善法的獲得作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。學友們!猶如衣服已被燒,或頭已被燒,就應該為那衣服或頭的熄滅作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。同樣的,學友們!因為那樣,比丘應該為全部這些善法的獲得作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。
  但,學友們!如果比丘觀察時,他看見自己的某些善法,沒看見自己的另一些善法,學友們!因為那樣,比丘就在那些他看見自己的善法上住立後,應該為那些他沒看見自己的善法之獲得作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。學友們!猶如衣服已被燒,或頭已被燒,就應該為那衣服或頭的熄滅作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。同樣的,學友們!因為那樣,比丘就在那些他看見自己的善法上住立後,應該對那些他沒看見自己的善法之獲得作極度的意欲、精進、勇猛、努力、不畏縮、念、正知。
  但,學友們!如果比丘觀察時,看見自己全部的這些善法,學友們!因為那樣,比丘就在那些善法上住立後,更應該為諸煩惱的滅盡作努力。」
AN.10.55/ 5. Parihānasuttaṃ
   55. Tatra kho āyasmā sāriputto bhikkhū āmantesi– “āvuso bhikkhave”ti. “Āvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca–
   “‘Parihānadhammo puggalo, parihānadhammo puggalo’ti, āvuso, vuccati. ‘Aparihānadhammo puggalo, aparihānadhammo puggalo’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, parihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā, kittāvatā ca pana aparihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā”ti? “Dūratopi kho mayaṃ, āvuso, āgacchāma āyasmato sāriputtassa santike etassa bhāsitassa atthamaññātuṃ. Sādhu vatāyasmantaṃyeva sāriputtaṃ paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho Āyasmato sāriputtassa sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī”ti.
   “Tenahāvuso suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evamāvuso”ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa paccassosuṃ. Āyasmā sāriputto etadavoca–
   “Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, parihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu assutañceva dhammaṃ na suṇāti, sutā cassa dhammā sammosaṃ gacchanti, ye cassa dhammā pubbe cetaso asamphuṭṭhapubbā te cassa na samudācaranti, aviññātañceva na vijānāti. Ettāvatā kho, āvuso, parihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā.
   “Kittāvatā ca panāvuso, aparihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu assutañceva dhammaṃ suṇāti, sutā cassa dhammā na sammosaṃ gacchanti, ye cassa dhammā pubbe cetaso asamphuṭṭhapubbā te cassa samudācaranti, aviññātañceva vijānāti. Ettāvatā kho, āvuso, aparihānadhammo puggalo vutto bhagavatā.
   “No ce, āvuso, bhikkhu paracittapariyāyakusalo hoti, atha ‘sacittapariyāyakusalo bhavissāmī’ti– evañhi vo, āvuso, sikkhitabbaṃ.
   “Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu sacittapariyāyakusalo hoti? Seyyathāpi, āvuso, itthī vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇḍanakajātiko ādāse vā parisuddhe pariyodāte acche vā udapatte sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno sace tattha passati rajaṃ vā aṅgaṇaṃ vā, tasseva rajassa vā aṅgaṇassa vā pahānāya vāyamati. No ce tattha passati rajaṃ vā aṅgaṇaṃ vā, tenevattamano hoti paripuṇṇasaṅkappo ‘lābhā vata me, parisuddhaṃ vata me’ti. Evameva kho, āvuso, bhikkhuno paccavekkhaṇā bahukārā hoti kusalesu dhammesu– ‘anabhijjhālu nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, abyāpannacitto nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, vigatathinamiddho nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, anuddhato nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, tiṇṇavicikiccho nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, akkodhano nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, asaṃkiliṭṭhacitto nu kho bahulaṃ viharāmi, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, lābhī nu khomhi ajjhattaṃ dhammapāmojjassa, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, lābhī nu khomhi ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no, lābhī nu khomhi adhipaññādhammavipassanāya, saṃvijjati nu kho me eso dhammo udāhu no’ti.
   “Sace pana, āvuso, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno sabbepime kusale dhamme attani na samanupassati, tenāvuso, bhikkhunā sabbesaṃyeva imesaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābhāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañc karaṇīyaṃ. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, ādittacelo vā ādittasīso vā. Tasseva celassa vā sīsassa vā nibbāpanāya adhimattaṃ chandañca vāyāmañca ussāhañca ussoḷhiñca appaṭivāniñca satiñca sampajaññañc kareyya. Evamevaṃ kho, āvuso, tena bhikkhunā sabbesaṃyeva kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābhāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañc karaṇīyaṃ.
   “Sace panāvuso, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno ekacce kusale dhamme attani samanupassati, ekacce kusale dhamme attani na samanupassati, tenāvuso, bhikkhunā ye kusale dhamme attani samanupassati tesu kusalesu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya, ye kusale dhamme attani na samanupassati tesaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābhāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañca karaṇīyaṃ. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, ādittacelo vā ādittasīso vā. Tasseva celassa vā sīsassa vā nibbāpanāya adhimattaṃ chandañca vāyāmañca ussāhañca ussoḷhiñca appaṭivāniñca satiñca sampajaññañca kareyya. Evamevaṃ kho, āvuso, tena bhikkhunā ye kusale dhamme attani samanupassati tesu kusalesu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya, ye kusale dhamme attani na samanupassati tesaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ paṭilābhāya adhimatto chando ca vāyāmo ca ussāho ca ussoḷhī ca appaṭivānī ca sati ca sampajaññañca karaṇīyaṃ.
   “Sace panāvuso, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno sabbepime kusale dhamme attani samanupassati, tenāvuso, bhikkhunā sabbesveva imesu kusalesu dhammesu patiṭṭhāya uttari āsavānaṃ khayāya yogo karaṇīyo”ti. Pañcamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「有法本所修行(MA.96)」,南傳作「以前心所觸之法」(dhammā pubbe cetaso asamphuṭṭhapubbā, dhammā pubbe cetaso samphuṭṭhapubbā, Cetasā samphuṭṭapubbā te ca samudācaranti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「他以前所熟悉的教導(教義)」(teachings with which he is already familiar)。
  「淨法衰退(MA.96)」,南傳作「退失法」(parihānadhammo),菩提比丘長老英譯為「屬於退步」(subject to decline)。