經號:   
   (AN.8.70 更新)
增支部8集70經/地震經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在毘舍離大林重閣講堂。
  那時,世尊午前時穿衣、取衣鉢後,為了托鉢進入毘舍離。在毘舍離為了托鉢行走後,用餐後,已從施食返回,召喚尊者阿難:
  「阿難!請你取坐墊布為了白天的住處讓我們去價玻勒塔廟。」
  「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,取坐墊布,在世尊後面緊跟隨。
  那時,世尊去價玻勒塔廟。抵達後,在設置的座位坐下。坐下後,世尊召喚尊者阿難:
  「阿難!毘舍離是能被喜樂的,屋跌塔廟是能被喜樂的,喬答摩葛塔廟是能被喜樂的,七芒果樹塔廟是能被喜樂的,多子塔廟是能被喜樂的,沙楞達達塔廟是能被喜樂的,價玻勒塔廟是能被喜樂的。阿難!凡任何四神足修習、被多作、被作為車輛、被作為基礎、被實行、被累積、被善努力者,阿難!當他希望時,能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來的四神足被修習、被多作、被作為車輛、被作為基礎、被實行、被累積、被善努力,阿難!當如來希望時,能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。」
  尊者阿難當在被世尊這麼作明顯的徵相、作明顯的暗示時,還不能夠洞察,沒求世尊:
  「大德!為了眾人的利益,為了眾人的安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人的需要、利益、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。」如同那顆心被魔纏縛。
  第二次,世尊又……(中略)。
  第三次,世尊又召喚尊者阿難:
  「阿難!毘舍離是能被喜樂的,屋跌塔廟是能被喜樂的,喬答摩葛塔廟是能被喜樂的,七芒果樹塔廟是能被喜樂的,多子塔廟是能被喜樂的,沙楞達達塔廟是能被喜樂的,價玻勒塔廟是能被喜樂的。阿難!凡任何四神足被修習、被多作、被作為車輛、被作為基礎、被實行、被累積、被善努力者,阿難!當他希望時,能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來的四神足被修習、被多作……(中略)阿難!當如來希望時,能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。」
  尊者阿難當在被世尊這麼作明顯的徵相、作明顯的暗示時,還不能夠洞察,沒求世尊:
  「大德!為了眾人的利益,為了眾人的安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人的需要、利益、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。」如同那顆心被魔纏縛。
  那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:
  「阿難!請你走吧!現在是那個你考量的時間。」
  「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,從座位起來、向世尊問訊後,作右繞後,坐在離世尊不遠處的某棵樹下。
  那時,魔波旬在尊者阿難離開不久,對世尊說這個:
  「大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。大德!又,這被世尊說:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非直到我的比丘弟子們將成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的法隨法行的、方正行的隨法行的,把握自己老師的[教導]後將告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,已生起的異論被以如法善折伏,折伏後將教導有神變的法。』大德!又,現在,世尊的比丘弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,把握自己老師的後,告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,已生起的異論被以如法善折伏,折伏後教導有神變的法。大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。
  大德!又,這被世尊說:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非直到我的比丘尼弟子們成為……(中略)除非我的優婆塞弟子們成為……(中略)除非我的優婆夷弟子們將成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,把握自己老師的後將告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,已生起的異論被以如法善折伏,折伏後將教導有神變的法。』大德!又,現在,世尊的優婆夷弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,把握自己老師的後,告知、教導、公告、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,已生起的異論被以如法善折伏,折伏後教導有神變的法。大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。
  大德!又,這被世尊說:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非直到我的這個梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,直到被天、人善知道。』大德!又,現在,世尊的梵行是成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,直到被天、人善知道。大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。」
  「波旬!請你不用操心,不久,將有如來的般涅槃,從現在起三個月後,如來將般涅槃。」
  那時,世尊在價玻勒塔廟具念、正知地捨棄壽行。而在世尊捨棄壽行時,發生大地震,令人恐懼的身毛豎立並且天鼓破裂
  那時,世尊知道這個義理後,在那時候吟出這個優陀那
  「權衡不可比的與存在牟尼捨棄有行
   自身內樂的、入定的,破壞自己的存在如[破壞]鎧甲。」[SN.51.10, Ud.51]
  那時,尊者阿難想這個:
  「這地震確實很大,這地震確實非常大,令人恐懼、身毛豎立,並且天鼓破裂。大地震出現是什麼因、什麼呢?」
  那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐下的尊者阿難對世尊說這個:
  「大德!這地震確實很大,大德!這地震確實非常大,令人恐懼、身毛豎立,並且天鼓破裂。大德!對大地震的出現,什麼是因、什麼是緣呢?」
  「阿難!對大地震的出現,有這八因、八緣,哪八個呢?
  阿難!這大地住立在水上,水住立在風上,風住立於空中。阿難!有時,大風吹起,當大風吹時,它們使水搖動,當水被搖動時,使地搖動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第一個因、第一個緣。
  再者,阿難!有具神通、得心自在的沙門、婆羅門,或大神通力、大威力的天神,他已修習小地想與無量水想,他使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第二個因、第二個緣。
  再者,阿難!當菩薩從兜率天死去後,具念、正知地入母胎時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第三個因、第三個緣。
  再者,阿難!當菩薩具念、正知地出母胎時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第四個因、第四個緣。
  再者,阿難!當如來現正覺無上遍正覺時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第五個因、第五個緣。
  再者,阿難!當無上法輪已被如來轉動時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第六個因、第六個緣。
  再者,阿難!當如來捨棄壽行時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第七個因、第七個緣。
  再者,阿難!當如來般涅槃於無餘涅槃界時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,阿難!這是大地震出現的第八個因、第八個緣。
  阿難!這是大地震出現的八因、八緣。」[DN.16, 166-171段]
  地震品第二,其攝頌
  「欲求、足夠、簡要,伽耶、勝處,
   解脫、二則言說,眾、地震。」
AN.8.70/ 10. Bhūmicālasuttaṃ
   70. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati mahāvane kūṭāgārasālāyaṃ. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya vesāliṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Vesāliyaṃ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – “gaṇhāhi, ānanda, nisīdanaṃ. Yena cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ tenupasaṅkamissāma divāvihārāyā”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā nisīdanaṃ ādāya bhagavantaṃ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhi.
   Atha kho bhagavā yena cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi– “ramaṇīyā ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtakaṃ cetiyaṃ; ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, ākaṅkhamāno so, ānanda, kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. Ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā”ti. Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ; na bhagavantaṃ yāci– “tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan”ti, yathā taṃ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto.
   Dutiyampi kho bhagavā …pe… tatiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi– “ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, ākaṅkhamāno so, ānanda, kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā …pe… ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā”ti. Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ; na bhagavantaṃ yāci– “tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan”ti, yathā taṃ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto.
   Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi– “gaccha tvaṃ, ānanda, yassa dāni kālaṃ maññasī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā bhagavato avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisīdi. Atha kho māro pāpimā acirapakkante āyasmante ānande bhagavantaṃ etadavoca–
   “Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato. Parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā– ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā pattayogakkhemā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti. Etarahi, bhante, bhikkhū bhagavato sāvakā viyattā vinītā visāradā pattayogakkhemā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti.
   “Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato. Parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā– ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti …pe… yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti …pe… yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā pattayogakkhemā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti. Etarahi, bhante, upāsikā bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā pattayogakkhemā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti.
   “Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato. Parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā– ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi yāva me idaṃ brahmacariyaṃ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitan’ti. Etarahi, bhante, bhagavato brahmacariyaṃ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṃ.
   “Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato. Parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato”ti. “Appossukko tvaṃ, pāpima, hohi. Naciraṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṃ māsānaṃ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī”ti.
   Atha kho bhagavā cāpāle cetiye sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṃ ossaji. Ossaṭṭhe ca bhagavatā āyusaṅkhāre mahābhūmicālo ahosi bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso, devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi–
  “Tulamatulañca sambhavaṃ, bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji muni.
  Ajjhattarato samāhito, abhindi kavacamivattasambhavan”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi– “mahā vatāyaṃ bhūmicālo; sumahā vatāyaṃ bhūmicālo bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso, devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Ko nu kho hetu, ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā”ti?
   Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “mahā vatāyaṃ, bhante, bhūmicālo sumahā vatāyaṃ, bhante, bhūmicālo bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso, devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Ko nu kho, bhante, hetu, ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā”ti?
   “Aṭṭhime, ānanda, hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. Katame aṭṭha? Ayaṃ, ānanda, mahāpathavī udake patiṭṭhitā; udakaṃ vāte patiṭṭhitaṃ; vāto ākāsaṭṭho hoti. So, ānanda, samayo yaṃ mahāvātā vāyanti; mahāvātā vāyantā udakaṃ kampenti; udakaṃ kampitaṃ pathaviṃ kampeti. Ayaṃ, ānanda, paṭhamo hetu, paṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā iddhimā cetovasippatto devatā vā mahiddhikā mahānubhāvā. Tassa parittā pathavīsaññā bhāvitā hoti, appamāṇā āposaññā. So imaṃ pathaviṃ kampeti saṅkampeti sampakampeti sampavedheti. Ayaṃ, ānanda, dutiyo hetu, dutiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā bodhisatto tusitā kāyā cavitvā sato sampajāno mātukucchiṃ okkamati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, tatiyo hetu; tatiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā bodhisatto sato sampajāno mātukucchismā nikkhamati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, catuttho hetu, catuttho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, pañcamo hetu, pañcamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavatteti, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, chaṭṭho hetu, chaṭṭho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṃ ossajjati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, sattamo hetu, sattamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.
   “Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, aṭṭhamo hetu, aṭṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. Ime kho, ānanda, aṭṭha hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā”ti. Dasamaṃ.
   Bhūmicālavaggo dutiyo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Icchā alañca saṃkhittaṃ, gayā abhibhunā saha.
   Vimokkho dve ca vohārā, parisā bhūmicālenāti.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):