經號:   
   (AN.8.54 更新)
增支部8集54經/長膝經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在拘利國名叫鷓鴣羽的拘利族人城鎮。
  那時,拘利族人之子長膝去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊相互歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,拘利族人之子長膝對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!我們住於孩子擁擠的住處;享用迦尸的檀香;戴花環、塗香料、香膏;享有金銀,大德!願尊師教導我們這樣的法,使我們當生受益,當生安樂;來生受益,來生安樂。」
  「虎路!這四法導致善男子的當生受益,當生安樂,哪四個呢?奮起具足,守護具足,善友誼,均衡生活
  又,虎路!什麼是奮起具足呢?虎路!這裡,凡善男子以事業營生:不論以農耕,不論以買賣,不論以牧牛,不論以弓箭射術,不論以[擔任]國王的臣僕,不論以任一技能,在那裡,他是熟練者、不怠惰者,具備觀察適當的方法,適當的行動,適當的安排,虎路!這被稱為奮起具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是守護具足呢?虎路!這裡,善男子以奮起與活力所獲得,以腕力所累積,以流汗所得,如法的如法所得財富,他們以守護、以防護達成:『怎樣既非國王會拿走我的財富,也非盜賊會拿走,也非火會燒盡,也非水會流走,也非不可愛的繼承者會拿走?』虎路!這被稱為守護具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是善友誼?虎路!這裡,凡善男子居住在村落或城鎮,在那裡,他結交那些屋主或屋主之子:年輕的德行成熟者或年長的德行成熟者、信具足者、戒具足者、施捨具足者、慧具足者,與他們一起談話,參與會談,他隨學信具足者信具足的模樣;隨學戒具足者戒具足的模樣;隨學施捨具足者施捨具足的模樣;隨學慧具足者慧具足的模樣,虎路!這被稱為善友誼。
  又,虎路!什麼是均衡生活?虎路!這裡,善男子了知財物收入,了知財物開支後,均衡地營生,不奢侈,也不過度節儉:『這樣,我的收入將超過開支,我的開支將不超過收入。』虎路!猶如商人或商人的徒弟,舉起秤後,就了知:『[秤桿]垂下去這麼多了,翹起來這麼多了。』同樣的,虎路!善男子了知財物收入,了知財物開支後,均衡地營生,不奢侈,也不過度節儉:『這樣,我的收入將超過開支,我的開支將不超過收入。』
  虎路!如果這位善男子收入少而揮霍營生,這就成為所說的:『這位善男子吃財富,像吃優曇鉢果的人。』
  虎路!如果這位善男子收入多而困苦營生,這就成為所說的:『這位善男子將像餓死人般的模樣死去。』
  虎路!當善男子了知財物收入,了知財物開支後,均衡地營生,不奢侈,也不過度節儉:『這樣,我的收入將超過開支,我的開支將不超過收入。』虎路!這被稱為均衡生活。
  虎路!已得的財物,有這樣的四個敗散口:沈溺於女人,沈溺於酒,沈溺於賭,惡朋友、惡伴侶、惡同志。
  虎路!猶如大池的四個入口與四個出口,如果男子關閉所有的入口,並且打開所有的出口,老天又不完全保持補給,虎路!這樣,那大池的減損應該可以被預期,而非增長。同樣的,虎路!已得的財物,有這樣的四個敗散口:沈溺於女人,沈溺於酒,沈溺於賭,惡朋友、惡伴侶、惡同志。
  虎路!已得的財物,有這樣的四個增益口:不沈溺於女人,不沈溺於酒,不沈溺於賭,善友、善伴侶、善同志。
  虎路!猶如大池的四個入口與四個出口,如果男子打開所有的入口,並且關閉所有的出口,老天又完全保持補給,虎路!這樣,那大池的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。同樣的,虎路!已得的財物,有這樣的四個增益口:不沈溺於女人,不沈溺於酒,不沈溺於賭,善友、善伴侶、善同志。
  虎路!這四法導致善男子的當生受益,當生安樂。
  虎路!這四法導致善男子的來生受益,來生安樂,哪四個呢?信具足,戒具足,施捨具足,慧具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是信具足呢?虎路!這裡,善男子是有信者,他信如來的:『像這樣,那位世尊……(中略)人天之師、佛陀、世尊。』虎路!這被稱為信具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是戒具足呢?虎路!這裡,善男子是離殺生者、……(中略)是離榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處者。虎路!這被稱為戒具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是施捨具足呢?虎路!這裡,善男子以離慳垢之心住於在家,自在施捨,親手施與,樂於捨,回應乞求、樂於均分與布施。虎路!這被稱為施捨具足。
  又,虎路!什麼是慧具足呢?虎路!這裡,善男子是有慧者,……(中略)導向苦的完全滅盡之慧,虎路!這被稱為慧具足。
  虎路!這四法導致善男子的來生受益,來生安樂。」
  「在工作領域上奮起,不放逸的與有準備的,
   均衡營生,守護已得的。
   具足信與戒,寬容與離慳,
   常使道淨化,是來世的福祉。
   在家之信者,有這樣的八法,
   被名為真理者說,在二處帶來安樂。
   為了當生的利益,以及來世的安樂,
   在家者正是這樣,增加施捨與福德。」
AN.8.54/ 4. Dīghajāṇusuttaṃ
   54. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā koliyesu viharati kakkarapattaṃ nāma koliyānaṃ nigamo. Atha kho dīghajāṇu koliyaputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho dīghajāṇu koliyaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “mayaṃ, bhante, gihī kāmabhogino puttasambādhasayanaṃ ajjhāvasāma, kāsikacandanaṃ paccanubhoma mālāgandhavilepanaṃ dhārayāma, jātarūparajataṃ sādayāma. Tesaṃ no, bhante, bhagavā amhākaṃ tathā dhammaṃ desetu ye amhākaṃ assu dhammā diṭṭhadhammahitāya diṭṭhadhammasukhāya, samparāyahitāya samparāyasukhāyā”ti.
   “Cattārome, byagghapajja, dhammā kulaputtassa diṭṭhadhammahitāya saṃvattanti diṭṭhadhammasukhāya. Katame cattāro? Uṭṭhānasampadā, ārakkhasampadā, kalyāṇamittatā, samajīvitā. Katamā ca, byagghapajja, uṭṭhānasampadā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto yena kammaṭṭhānena jīvikaṃ kappeti– yadi kasiyā, yadi vaṇijjāya, yadi gorakkhena, yadi issattena, yadi rājaporisena, yadi sippaññatarena – tattha dakkho hoti analaso, tatrupāyāya vīmaṃsāya samannāgato, alaṃ kātuṃ alaṃ saṃvidhātuṃ. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, uṭṭhānasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, ārakkhasampadā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputtassa bhogā honti uṭṭhānavīriyādhigatā bāhābalaparicitā, sedāvakkhittā, dhammikā dhammaladdhā. Te ārakkhena guttiyā sampādeti– ‘kinti me ime bhoge neva rājāno hareyyuṃ, na corā hareyyuṃ, na aggi ḍaheyya, na udakaṃ vaheyya, na appiyā dāyādā hareyyun’ti! Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, ārakkhasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, kalyāṇamittatā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto yasmiṃ gāme vā nigame vā paṭivasati, tattha ye te honti – gahapatī vā gahapatiputtā vā daharā vā vuddhasīlino, vuddhā vā vuddhasīlino, saddhāsampannā, sīlasampannā, cāgasampannā, paññāsampannā – tehi saddhiṃ santiṭṭhati sallapati sākacchaṃ samāpajjati; yathārūpānaṃ saddhāsampannānaṃ saddhāsampadaṃ anusikkhati, yathārūpānaṃ sīlasampannānaṃ sīlasampadaṃ anusikkhati, yathārūpānaṃ cāgasampannānaṃ cāgasampadaṃ anusikkhati, yathārūpānaṃ paññāsampannānaṃ paññāsampadaṃ anusikkhati. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, kalyāṇamittatā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, samajīvitā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto āyañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, vayañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, samaṃ jīvikaṃ kappeti nāccogāḷhaṃ nātihīnaṃ– ‘evaṃ me āyo vayaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassati, na ca me vayo āyaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatī’ti. Seyyathāpi byagghapajja, tulādhāro vā tulādhārantevāsī vā tulaṃ paggahetvā jānāti– ‘ettakena vā onataṃ, ettakena vā unnatan’ti; evamevaṃ kho, byagghapajja, kulaputto āyañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, vayañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, samaṃ jīvikaṃ kappeti nāccogāḷhaṃ nātihīnaṃ– ‘evaṃ me āyo vayaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassati na ca me vayo āyaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatī’ti. Sacāyaṃ, byagghapajja, kulaputto appāyo samāno uḷāraṃ jīvikaṃ kappeti, tassa bhavanti vattāro– ‘udumbarakhādīvāyaṃ kulaputto bhoge khādatī’ti. Sace panāyaṃ, byagghapajja, kulaputto mahāyo samāno kasiraṃ jīvikaṃ kappeti, tassa bhavanti vattāro– ‘ajeṭṭhamaraṇaṃvāyaṃ kulaputto marissatī’ti. Yato ca khoyaṃ, byagghapajja, kulaputto āyañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, vayañca bhogānaṃ viditvā, samaṃ jīvikaṃ kappeti nāccogāḷhaṃ nātihīnaṃ– ‘evaṃ me āyo vayaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassati, na ca me vayo āyaṃ pariyādāya ṭhassatī’ti. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, samajīvitā.
   “Evaṃ samuppannānaṃ, byagghapajja, bhogānaṃ cattāri apāyamukhāni honti– itthidhutto, surādhutto, akkhadhutto, pāpamitto pāpasahāyo pāpasampavaṅko. Seyyathāpi, byagghapajja, mahato taḷākassa cattāri ceva āyamukhāni, cattāri ca apāyamukhāni. Tassa puriso yāni ceva āyamukhāni tāni pidaheyya, yāni ca apāyamukhāni tāni vivareyya; devo ca na sammā dhāraṃ anuppaveccheyya. Evañhi tassa, byagghapajja, mahato taḷākassa parihāniyeva pāṭikaṅkhā, no vuddhi; evamevaṃ, byagghapajja, evaṃ samuppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ cattāri apāyamukhāni honti– itthidhutto, surādhutto, akkhadhutto, pāpamitto pāpasahāyo pāpasampavaṅko.
   “Evaṃ samuppannānaṃ, byagghapajja, bhogānaṃ cattāri āyamukhāni honti– na itthidhutto, na surādhutto, na akkhadhutto kalyāṇamitto kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Seyyathāpi, byagghapajja, mahato taḷākassa cattāri ceva āyamukhāni, cattāri ca apāyamukhāni. Tassa puriso yāni ceva āyamukhāni tāni vivareyya, yāni ca apāyamukhāni tāni pidaheyya; devo ca sammā dhāraṃ anuppaveccheyya. Evañhi tassa, byagghapajja, mahato taḷākassa vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni; evamevaṃ kho, byagghapajja, evaṃ samuppannānaṃ bhogānaṃ cattāri āyamukhāni honti– na itthidhutto na surādhutto, na akkhadhutto, kalyāṇamitto kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Ime kho, byagghapajja, cattāro dhammā kulaputtassa diṭṭhadhammahitāya saṃvattanti diṭṭhadhammasukhāya.
   “Cattārome, byagghapajja, dhammā kulaputtassa samparāyahitāya saṃvattanti samparāyasukhāya. Katame cattāro? Saddhāsampadā, sīlasampadā cāgasampadā, paññāsampadā. Katamā ca, byagghapajja, saddhāsampadā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto saddho hoti, saddahati tathāgatassa bodhiṃ– ‘itipi so bhagavā …pe… satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, saddhāsampadā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, sīlasampadā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti …pe… surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, sīlasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, cāgasampadā? Idha, byagghapajja, kulaputto vigatamalamaccherena cetasā agāraṃ ajjhāvasati muttacāgo payatapāṇi vossaggarato yācayogo dānasaṃvibhāgarato. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, cāgasampadā.
   “Katamā ca, byagghapajja, paññāsampadā? Idha byagghapajja, kulaputto paññavā hoti, udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammā dukkhakkhayagāminiyā. Ayaṃ vuccati, byagghapajja, paññāsampadā. Ime kho, byagghapajja, cattāro dhammā kulaputtassa samparāyahitāya saṃvattanti samparāyasukhāyā”ti.
  “Uṭṭhātā kammadheyyesu, appamatto vidhānavā;
  Samaṃ kappeti jīvikaṃ, sambhataṃ anurakkhati.
  “Saddho sīlena sampanno, vadaññū vītamaccharo;
  Niccaṃ maggaṃ visodheti, sotthānaṃ samparāyikaṃ.
  “Iccete aṭṭha dhammā ca, saddhassa gharamesino;
  Akkhātā saccanāmena, ubhayattha sukhāvahā.
  “Diṭṭhadhammahitatthāya, samparāyasukhāya ca;
  Evametaṃ gahaṭṭhānaṃ, cāgo puññaṃ pavaḍḍhatī”ti. Catutthaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「均衡生活」等,參看下經。