經號:   
   (AN.8.51 更新)
2.第二個五十則
(6) 1.喬達彌品
增支部8集51經/喬達彌經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在釋迦族人的迦毘羅衛城尼拘律園。
  那時,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活那就好了!」
  「喬達彌!夠了!你不要喜好婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  第二次,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,那就好了!」
  「喬達彌!夠了!你不要喜好婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  第三次,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,那就好了!」
  「喬達彌!夠了!你不要喜好婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  那時,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌[心想]:
  「世尊不允許婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」沮喪、悲傷、淚流滿面、哭泣著向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。
  那時,世尊如其意住在迦毘羅衛城後,向毘舍離出發遊行。次第進行遊行,抵達毘舍離,在那裡,世尊就住在毘舍離的大林重閣講堂。
  那時,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌剃除頭髮,裹上袈裟衣後,與眾多女釋迦族人一起向毘舍離出發,次第來到毘舍離的大林重閣講堂。那時,摩訶波闍波提喬達彌腳腫脹地、身體沾滿塵土地、沮喪、悲傷、淚流滿面、哭泣著站在門屋外面。
  尊者阿難看見摩訶波闍波提喬達彌腳腫脹、身體沾滿塵土、沮喪、悲傷、淚流滿面、哭泣著站在門屋外面。看見後,對摩訶波闍波提喬達彌這麼說:
  「喬達彌!你為何腳腫脹、身體沾滿塵土、沮喪、悲傷、淚流滿面、哭泣著站在門屋外面?」
  「像這樣,大德!因為世尊不允許婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  「那樣的話,喬達彌!請你就在這裡片刻,讓我乞求世尊[讓]婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!這位摩訶波闍波提喬達彌腳腫脹、身體沾滿塵土、沮喪、悲傷、淚流滿面、哭泣著站在門屋外面[說]:『世尊不允許婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。』大德!願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,那就好了!」
  「阿難!夠了!你不要喜好婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  第二次,……(中略)。第三次,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,那就好了!」
  「阿難!夠了!你不要喜好婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  那時,尊者阿難這麼想:
  「世尊不允許婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,讓我以其他法門乞求世尊[讓]婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活。」
  那時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!婦女能夠在如來宣說的法律中從在家出家,成為非家生活後,作證入流果,或一來果,或不還果,或阿羅漢果嗎?」
  「阿難!婦女能夠在如來宣說的法律中從在家出家,成為非家生活後,作證入流果,或一來果,或不還果,或阿羅漢果。」
  「大德!如果婦女能夠在如來宣說的法律中從在家出家,成為非家生活後,作證入流果,或一來果,或不還果,或阿羅漢果,大德!摩訶波闍波提喬達彌對世尊多所助益,是姨母、奶媽、養母、授乳者:出生後母乳已死而使世尊飲[乳]。願婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,那就好了!」
  「阿難!如果摩訶波闍波提喬達彌接受八敬重法,則令它成為她的具足戒:
  已受具足戒百年的比丘尼對當天受具足戒的比丘應該作問訊、起立迎接、合掌行為、恭敬行為。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  比丘尼不應該靠近沒有比丘住處之處雨期安居。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  每半個月比丘尼應該到比丘僧團冀求二法:問布薩與親近教誡。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  當雨期安居已過時,比丘尼應該在兩個僧團中對三種狀況作自恣:所見、所聽聞、所疑。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  犯敬重法時,比丘尼應該在兩個僧團中行半個月的摩那埵。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  對六法已學習兩年的式叉摩那應該在兩個僧團中求具足戒。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  比丘尼不應該以任何理由責罵比丘。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  從今天起,禁止比丘尼告誡比丘,不禁止比丘告誡比丘尼。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  阿難!如果摩訶波闍波提喬達彌接受這八敬重法,則令它成為她的具足戒。」
  那時,尊者阿難在世尊面前學得這八敬重法後,去見摩訶波闍波提喬達彌。抵達後,對摩訶波闍波提喬達彌這麼說:
  「喬達彌!如果你接受八敬重法,則它將成為你的具足戒:
  已受具足戒百年的比丘尼對當天受具足戒的比丘應該作問訊、起立迎接、合掌行為、恭敬行為。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。……(中略)
  從今天起,禁止比丘尼告誡比丘,不禁止比丘告誡比丘尼。此法應該被恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬後,有生之年不應該逾越。
  喬達彌!如果你接受這八敬重法,則它將成為你的具足戒。」
  「大德阿難!猶如年輕、年少、喜好裝飾的女子或男子,頭已洗,得到青蓮花環、大茉莉花環、善思花環,以兩手領受後,會戴在頭頂上。同樣的,大德阿難!我接受這八敬重法,有生之年不會逾越。」
  那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!摩訶波闍波提喬達彌已接受八敬重法,有生之年不會逾越。」
  「阿難!如果婦女不在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,阿難!梵行會是久住的,正法將能住立千年,但,阿難!因為婦女在如來宣說的法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,阿難!現在,梵行將是不久住的,阿難!現在,正法將只能住立五百年。
  阿難!猶如凡多女人而少男子的家容易被盜賊、小偷侵犯。同樣的,阿難!當婦女在無論什麼法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,則梵行將是不久住的。
  阿難!猶如當稻田已成熟時,生黴菌病而到下,這樣,稻田是不久住的。同樣的,阿難!當婦女在無論什麼法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,則梵行將是不久住的。
  阿難!猶如當甘蔗田已成熟時,生暗紅病而到下,這樣,甘蔗田是不久住的。同樣的,阿難!當婦女在無論什麼法律中獲得從在家出家,成為非家生活,則梵行將是不久住的。
  阿難!猶如男子會預先綁好大池的堤防,使水不溢出。同樣的,阿難!我預先為比丘尼安立八敬重法,有生之年不應該逾越。」
2. Dutiyapaṇṇāsakaṃ
(6) 1. Gotamīvaggo
AN.8.51/ 1. Gotamīsuttaṃ
   51. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sakkesu viharati kapilavatthusmiṃ nigrodhārāme. Atha kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu, bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Alaṃ, gotami! Mā te rucci mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā”ti.
   Dutiyampi kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu, bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Alaṃ, gotami! Mā te rucci mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā”ti. “Tatiyampi kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Alaṃ, gotami! Mā te rucci mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā”ti.
   Atha kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī “na bhagavā anujānāti mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti dukkhī dummanā assumukhī rudamānā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
   Atha kho bhagavā kapilavatthusmiṃ yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā yena vesālī tena cārikaṃ pakkāmi Anupubbena cārikaṃ caramāno yena vesālī tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati mahāvane kūṭāgārasālāyaṃ. Atha kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī kese chedāpetvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā sambahulāhi sākiyānīhi saddhiṃ yena vesālī tena pakkāmi. Anupubbena yena vesālī mahāvanaṃ kūṭāgārasālā tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho mahāpajāpatī gotamī sūnehi pādehi rajokiṇṇena gattena dukkhī dummanā assumukhī rudamānā bahidvārakoṭṭhake aṭṭhāsi.
   Addasā kho āyasmā ānando mahāpajāpatiṃ gotamiṃ sūnehi pādehi rajokiṇṇena gattena dukkhiṃ dummanaṃ assumukhiṃ rudamānaṃ bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhitaṃ. Disvāna mahāpajāpatiṃ gotamiṃ etadavoca– “kiṃ nu tvaṃ, gotami, sūnehi pādehi rajokiṇṇena gattena dukkhī dummanā assumukhī rudamānā bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhitā”ti? “Tathā hi pana, bhante ānanda, na bhagavā anujānāti mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Tena hi tvaṃ, gotami, muhuttaṃ idheva tāva hohi, yāvāhaṃ bhagavantaṃ yācāmi mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “esā, bhante, mahāpajāpatī gotamī sūnehi pādehi rajokiṇṇena gattena dukkhī dummanā assumukhī rudamānā bahidvārakoṭṭhake ṭhitā– ‘na bhagavā anujānāti mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan’ti. Sādhu, bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Alaṃ, ānanda! Mā te rucci mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā”ti.
   Dutiyampi kho …pe… tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “sādhu, bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. “Alaṃ, ānanda! Mā te rucci mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjā”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi– “na bhagavā anujānāti mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjaṃ. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ aññenapi pariyāyena bhagavantaṃ yāceyyaṃ mātugāmassa tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “bhabbo nu kho, bhante, mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā sotāpattiphalaṃ vā sakadāgāmiphalaṃ vā anāgāmiphalaṃ vā arahattaphalaṃ vā sacchikātun”ti? “Bhabbo, ānanda, mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā sotāpattiphalampi sakadāgāmiphalampi anāgāmiphalampi arahattaphalampi sacchikātun”ti. “Sace, bhante, bhabbo mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajitvā sotāpattiphalampi …pe… arahattaphalampi sacchikātuṃ, bahukārā, bhante, mahāpajāpatī gotamī bhagavato mātucchā āpādikā posikā khīrassa dāyikā; bhagavantaṃ janettiyā kālaṅkatāya thaññaṃ pāyesi. Sādhu, bhante, labheyya mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjan”ti.
   “Sace, ānanda, mahāpajāpatī gotamī aṭṭha garudhamme paṭiggaṇhāti, sāvassā hotu upasampadā–
   “vassasatūpasampannāya bhikkhuniyā tadahūpasampannassa bhikkhuno abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ kattabbaṃ. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Na bhikkhuniyā abhikkhuke āvāse vassaṃ upagantabbaṃ. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Anvaḍḍhamāsaṃ bhikkhuniyā bhikkhusaṅghato dve dhammā paccāsīsitabbā – uposathapucchakañca, ovādūpasaṅkamanañca Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Vassaṃvuṭṭhāya bhikkhuniyā ubhatosaṅghe tīhi ṭhānehi pavāretabbaṃ– diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Garudhammaṃ ajjhāpannāya bhikkhuniyā ubhatosaṅghe pakkhamānattaṃ caritabbaṃ. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Dve vassāni chasu dhammesu sikkhitasikkhāya sikkhamānāya ubhatosaṅghe upasampadā pariyesitabbā. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Na kenaci pariyāyena bhikkhuniyā bhikkhu akkositabbo paribhāsitabbo. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Ajjatagge ovaṭo bhikkhunīnaṃ bhikkhūsu vacanapatho, anovaṭo bhikkhūnaṃ bhikkhunīsu vacanapatho. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo.
   “Sace, ānanda, mahāpajāpatī gotamī ime aṭṭha garudhamme paṭiggaṇhāti, sāvassā hotu upasampadā”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato santike ime aṭṭha garudhamme uggahetvā yena mahāpajāpatī gotamī tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā mahāpajāpatiṃ gotamiṃ etadavoca–
   “Sace kho tvaṃ, gotami, aṭṭha garudhamme paṭiggaṇheyyāsi, sāva te bhavissati upasampadā–
   “Vassasatūpasampannāya bhikkhuniyā tadahūpasampannassa bhikkhuno abhivādanaṃ paccuṭṭhānaṃ añjalikammaṃ sāmīcikammaṃ kattabbaṃ. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo …pe….
   “Ajjatagge ovaṭo bhikkhunīnaṃ bhikkhūsu vacanapatho, anovaṭo bhikkhūnaṃ bhikkhunīsu vacanapatho. Ayampi dhammo sakkatvā garuṃ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyo. Sace kho tvaṃ, gotami, ime aṭṭha garudhamme paṭiggaṇheyyāsi, sāva te bhavissati upasampadā”ti.
   “Seyyathāpi bhante ānanda, itthī vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇḍanakajātiko sīsaṃnhāto uppalamālaṃ vā vassikamālaṃ vā adhimuttakamālaṃ vā labhitvā ubhohi hatthehi paṭiggahetvā uttamaṅge sirasmiṃ patiṭṭhāpeyya; evamevaṃ kho ahaṃ, bhante ānanda, ime aṭṭha garudhamme paṭiggaṇhāmi yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīye”ti.
   Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca– “paṭiggahitā, bhante, mahāpajāpatiyā gotamiyā aṭṭha garudhammā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyā”ti.
   “Sace, ānanda, nālabhissa mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjaṃ, ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, ānanda, brahmacariyaṃ abhavissa, vassasahassameva saddhammo tiṭṭheyya. Yato ca kho, ānanda, mātugāmo tathāgatappavedite dhammavinaye agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajito, na dāni, ānanda, brahmacariyaṃ ciraṭṭhitikaṃ bhavissati. Pañceva dāni, ānanda, vassasatāni saddhammo ṭhassati.
   “Seyyathāpi, ānanda, yāni kānici kulāni bahutthikāni appapurisakāni, tāni suppadhaṃsiyāni honti corehi kumbhatthenakehi; evamevaṃ kho, ānanda, yasmiṃ dhammavinaye labhati mātugāmo agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjaṃ, na taṃ brahmacariyaṃ ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti.
   “Seyyathāpi ānanda, sampanne sālikkhette setaṭṭhikā nāma rogajāti nipatati, evaṃ taṃ sālikkhettaṃ na ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti; evamevaṃ kho, ānanda, yasmiṃ dhammavinaye labhati mātugāmo agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjaṃ, na taṃ brahmacariyaṃ ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti.
   “Seyyathāpi ānanda, sampanne ucchukkhette mañjiṭṭhikā nāma rogajāti nipatati, evaṃ taṃ ucchukkhettaṃ na ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti; evamevaṃ kho, ānanda, yasmiṃ dhammavinaye labhati mātugāmo agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajjaṃ, na taṃ brahmacariyaṃ ciraṭṭhitikaṃ hoti.
   “Seyyathāpi ānanda, puriso mahato taḷākassa paṭikacceva āḷiṃ bandheyya yāvadeva udakassa anatikkamanāya; evamevaṃ kho, ānanda, mayā paṭikacceva bhikkhunīnaṃ aṭṭha garudhammā paññattā yāvajīvaṃ anatikkamanīyā”ti. Paṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「有穢生者(MA.116)」,南傳作「生黴菌病而到下」(setaṭṭhikā nāma rogajāti nipatati),菩提比丘長老英譯為「白病攻擊它」(the bleaching disease attacks it)。
  「尊師法(MA.116)」,南傳作「敬重法」(garudhamme,另譯為「重法;尊重法;敬法」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「尊敬的原則」(principles of respect)。
  「說比丘所犯(MA.116)」,南傳作「告誡比丘」(bhikkhūsu vacanapatho),菩提比丘長老英譯為「告誡比丘」(admonishing bhikkhus)。「告誡」(vacanapatho),原意為「語法;語路」,《滿足希求》以「訓誡、教誡、法的談論」(ovādānusāsanadhammakathāsaṅkhāto)解說。
  「十五日行不慢(MA.116)」,南傳作「行半個月的摩那埵」(pakkhamānattaṃ caritabbaṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「應該遵守半個月的懲罰期」(should observe a half-month's penalty period)。按:「摩那埵」(mānatta),這是犯「僧殘」(saṅghādisesa,音譯為「僧伽婆尸沙」)的出罪處分方式:別住於僧團邊,不得與僧團共語,為僧團做卑下的服務工作。
  「始受具足比丘(MA.116)」,南傳作「對當天受具足戒的比丘」(tadahūpasampannassa bhikkhuno),菩提比丘長老英譯為「就在那一天任命的比丘」(a bhikkhu who has been ordained that same day)。
  「喜好」(rucci),菩提比丘長老英譯為「偏愛」(favor)。
  「生暗紅病而到下」(mañjiṭṭhikā nāma rogajāti nipatati),菩提比丘長老英譯為「鏽病攻擊它」(the rusting disease attacks it)。