經號:   
   (AN.8.14 更新)
增支部8集14經/未調馬經(莊春江譯)
  「比丘們!我將教導八種未調馬與八種馬的過失,以及八種如未調馬之人與八種人的過失,你們要聽!要好好作意,我要說了。」
  「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!什麼是八種未調馬與八種馬的過失呢?
  比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠從後面[腿]退後,使車輛從背後繞圈轉。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第一種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠以後面[腿]躍起,破壞車桿、破壞三腳臺。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第二種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,腿從車轅鬆脫後,踩碎車轅。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第三種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠取旁道,使車離路。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第四種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠前身躍起,舉踢前腿。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第五種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,不理會調御者、不理會刺棒,以牙齒破壞馬銜後,往想去的地方出發。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第六種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,既不前進也不後退,就像柱子在那裡住立。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第七種馬的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,當某類未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠彎曲收起前腿、彎曲收起後腿後,就在那裡坐在四條腿上。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調馬,比丘們!這是第八種馬的過失。
  比丘們!這些是八種未調馬與八種馬的過失。
  比丘們!什麼是八種如未調馬之人與八種人的過失呢?
  比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他以忘記搪塞:『我不記得了。』比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠從後面[腿]退後,使車輛從背後繞圈轉,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第一種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他就對抗責備者:『愚癡無能的你所說的是什麼意思呢?你也認為你有應該說的嗎?』比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠以後面[腿]躍起,破壞車桿、破壞三腳臺,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第二種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他就反駁責備者:『你犯了像這樣名稱的戒,你就先懺悔吧!』比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,腿從車轅鬆脫後,踩碎車轅,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第三種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他以無關的答非所問,離題向外,出現憤怒、瞋恚、不滿。比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠取旁道,使車離路,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第四種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他在僧團中揮舞手臂。比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠前身躍起,舉踢前腿,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第五種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他不理會僧團、不理會責備者,身為犯戒者而往想去的地方出發。比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,不理會調御者、不理會刺棒,以牙齒破壞馬銜後,往想去的地方出發,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第六種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他既不說:『我犯戒』,也不說:『我沒犯戒。』以沈默困擾僧團。比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,既不前進也不後退,就像柱子在那裡住立,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第七種人的過失。
  再者,比丘們!這裡,比丘們責備比丘犯戒,當那位比丘被比丘們責備犯戒時,他這麼說:『尊者們!你們為何一直極度管關於我的事,現在,我要放棄學而後還俗。』他放棄學而後還俗後,這麼說:『尊者們!現在,你們滿意了嗎?』比丘們!猶如當那未調馬被說:『去吧!』且持續被調御者刺打、呵責時,牠彎曲收起前腿、彎曲收起後腿後,就在那裡坐在四條腿上,比丘們!我說此人像這樣的譬喻。比丘們!這裡,有像這樣一類的未調人,比丘們!這是第八種人的過失。
  比丘們!這些是八種如未調馬之人與八種人的過失。」
AN.8.14/ 4. Assakhaḷuṅkasuttaṃ
   14. “Aṭṭha ca, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅke desessāmi aṭṭha ca assadose, aṭṭha ca purisakhaḷuṅke aṭṭha ca purisadose. Taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Katame ca, bhikkhave, aṭṭha assakhaḷuṅkā aṭṭha ca assadosā? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā pacchato paṭikkamati, piṭṭhito rathaṃ pavatteti. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, paṭhamo assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā pacchā laṅghati, kubbaraṃ hanati, tidaṇḍaṃ bhañjati. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, dutiyo assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā rathīsāya satthiṃ ussajjitvā rathīsaṃyeva ajjhomaddati. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, tatiyo assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā ummaggaṃ gaṇhati, ubbaṭumaṃ rathaṃ karoti. Evarūpopi bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, catuttho assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā laṅghati purimakāyaṃ paggaṇhati purime pāde. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, pañcamo assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā anādiyitvā sārathiṃ anādiyitvā patodalaṭṭhiṃ dantehi mukhādhānaṃ vidhaṃsitvā yena kāmaṃ pakkamati. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, chaṭṭho assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā neva abhikkamati no paṭikkamati tattheva khīlaṭṭhāyī ṭhito hoti. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, sattamo assadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā purime ca pāde saṃharitvā pacchime ca pāde saṃharitvā tattheva cattāro pāde abhinisīdati. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco assakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, aṭṭhamo assadoso. Ime kho, bhikkhave, aṭṭha assakhaḷuṅkā aṭṭha ca assadosā.
   “Katame ca, bhikkhave, aṭṭha purisakhaḷuṅkā aṭṭha ca purisadosā? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno ‘na sarāmī’ti asatiyā nibbeṭheti. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā pacchato paṭikkamati, piṭṭhito rathaṃ vatteti; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, paṭhamo purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno codakaṃyeva paṭippharati– ‘kiṃ nu kho tuyhaṃ bālassa abyattassa bhaṇitena! Tvampi nāma bhaṇitabbaṃ maññasī’ti! Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā pacchā laṅghati, kubbaraṃ hanati, tidaṇḍaṃ bhañjati; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, dutiyo purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno codakasseva paccāropeti – ‘tvaṃ khosi itthannāmaṃ āpattiṃ āpanno, tvaṃ tāva paṭhamaṃ paṭikarohī’ti. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā rathīsāya satthiṃ ussajjitvā rathīsaṃyeva ajjhomaddati; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, tatiyo purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno aññenāññaṃ paṭicarati, bahiddhā kathaṃ apanāmeti, kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā ummaggaṃ gaṇhati, ubbaṭumaṃ rathaṃ karoti; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, catuttho purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno saṅghamajjhe bāhuvikkhepaṃ karoti. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā laṅghati, purimakāyaṃ paggaṇhati purime pāde; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, pañcamo purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno anādiyitvā saṅghaṃ anādiyitvā codakaṃ sāpattikova yena kāmaṃ pakkamati. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā anādiyitvā sārathiṃ anādiyitvā patodalaṭṭhiṃ dantehi mukhādhānaṃ vidhaṃsitvā yena kāmaṃ pakkamati; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, chaṭṭho purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno ‘nevāhaṃ āpannomhi, na panāhaṃ āpannomhī’ti so tuṇhībhāvena saṅghaṃ viheṭheti. Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā neva abhikkamati no paṭikkamati tattheva khīlaṭṭhāyī ṭhito hoti; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, sattamo purisadoso.
   “Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhū bhikkhuṃ āpattiyā codenti. So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi āpattiyā codiyamāno evamāha – ‘kiṃ nu kho tumhe āyasmanto atibāḷhaṃ mayi byāvaṭā yāva idānāhaṃ sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattissāmī’ti. So sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyāvattitvā evamāha– ‘idāni kho tumhe āyasmanto attamanā hothā’ti? Seyyathāpi so, bhikkhave, assakhaḷuṅko ‘pehī’ti vutto, viddho samāno codito sārathinā purime ca pāde saṃharitvā pacchime ca pāde saṃharitvā tattheva cattāro pāde abhinisīdati; tathūpamāhaṃ, bhikkhave, imaṃ puggalaṃ vadāmi. Evarūpopi, bhikkhave, idhekacco purisakhaḷuṅko hoti. Ayaṃ, bhikkhave, aṭṭhamo purisadoso. Ime kho, bhikkhave, aṭṭha purisakhaḷuṅkā aṭṭha ca purisadosā”ti. Catutthaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):