經號:   
   (AN.5.50 更新)
增支部5集50經/那羅陀經(莊春江譯)
  有一次尊者那羅陀住在巴連弗城雞園。
  當時,木達王所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,由於所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,他既不沐浴,也不塗油、不吃食物、不從事工作,日夜昏迷在皇后跋陀的遺體上。
  那時,木達王召喚國庫守護人皮亞葛:
  「那麼,親愛的皮亞葛!請你將皇后跋陀的遺體放進鐵油槽後,以另一個鐵槽覆蓋,以便我們能更久地看到皇后跋陀的遺體。」
  「是的,陛下!」國庫守護人皮亞葛回答木達王後,將皇后跋陀的遺體放進鐵油槽後,以另一個鐵槽覆蓋。
  那時,國庫守護人皮亞葛這麼想:
  「這位木達王所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,由於所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,他既不沐浴,也不塗油、不吃食物、不從事工作,日夜昏迷在皇后跋陀的遺體上,哪位沙門婆羅門木達王能親近,聽聞他的法後,能捨斷憂愁之箭?」
  那時,國庫守護人皮亞葛這麼想:
  「這位尊者那羅陀住在巴連弗城雞園,又,那位尊者那羅陀有這樣的好名聲被傳播著:『他是賢智者、聰明者、有智慧者、多聞者、雄辯者、應辯善巧者、年長者、阿羅漢。』如果木達王親近尊者那羅陀,或許木達王聽聞尊者那羅陀的法後,能捨斷憂愁之箭。」
  那時,國庫守護人皮亞葛去見木達王,抵達後,對木達王這麼說:
  「陛下!這位尊者那羅陀住在巴連弗城雞園,又,那位尊者那羅陀有這樣的好名聲被傳播著:『他是賢智者、聰明者、有智慧者、多聞者、雄辯者、應辯善巧者、年長者、阿羅漢。』如果陛下親近尊者那羅陀,或許陛下聽聞尊者那羅陀的法後,能捨斷憂愁之箭。」
  「那麼,親愛的皮亞葛!請你通知尊者那羅陀。像我這樣的人怎能想在未預先通知之前就去見住在領土中的沙門、婆羅門?」
  「是的,陛下!」國庫守護人皮亞葛回答木達王後,去見尊者那羅陀。抵達後,向尊者那羅陀問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,國庫守護人皮亞葛對尊者那羅陀這麼說:
  「大德!這位木達王所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,由於所愛的、合意的皇后跋陀死了,他既不沐浴,也不塗油、不吃食物、不從事工作,日夜昏迷在皇后跋陀的遺體上,大德!請尊者那羅陀教導木達王法,以便木達王聽聞尊者那羅陀的法後,能捨斷憂愁之箭。」
  「皮亞葛!現在請木達王考量適當的時間。」
  那時,國庫守護人皮亞葛起座向尊者那羅陀問訊,然後作右繞,接著去見木達王。抵達後,對木達王這麼說:
  「陛下!尊者那羅陀已給了機會,現在請陛下考量適當的時間。」
  「那麼,親愛的皮亞葛!請你將一輛輛吉祥車上軛。」
  「是的,陛下!」國庫守護人皮亞葛回答木達王後,將一輛輛吉祥車上軛,然後對木達王這麼說:
  「陛下!那一輛輛吉祥車已上軛,現在請陛下考量適當的時間。」
  那時,木達王登上一輛吉祥車,然後以國王的威勢盛況,為了見尊者那羅陀,一輛輛吉祥車向雞園出發,以車輛一直到車輛能通行之處,然後下車步行,進入園林。那時,木達王去見尊者那羅陀。抵達後,向尊者那羅陀問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者那羅陀對木達王這麼說:
  「大王!有這五種不能被沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵或世間中任何者得到的情況,哪五個呢?『願老法不要變老』是不能被世間中任何沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵得到的情況;『願病法不要生病』……(中略)『願死法不要死』……『願滅盡法不要被滅盡』……『願消失法不要消失』是不能被世間中任何沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵得到的情況。
  大王!未受教導的一般人之老法變老;當老法變老時,他不像這樣深慮:『不只我的老法變老,但所有來、去;死沒、往生的眾生之所及,一切眾生的老法[都]變老。當老法變老時,如果我悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,我會沒食慾,身體也會進入醜陋,不能繼續進行工作,敵人會高興,朋友會悲傷。』當老法變老時,他悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,大王!這被稱為:『未受教導的一般人被有毒的愁箭刺穿,他徒然折磨自己。』
  再者,大王!未受教導的一般人之病法生病,……(中略)死法死去……滅盡法被滅盡……消失法消失;當消失法消失時,他不像這樣深慮:『不只我的消失法消失,但所有來、去;死沒、往生的眾生之所及,一切眾生的消失法[都]消失。當消失法消失時,如果我悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,我會沒食慾,身體也會進入醜陋,不能繼續進行工作,敵人會高興,朋友會悲傷。』當消失法消失時,他悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,大王!這被稱為:『未受教導的一般人被有毒的愁箭刺穿,他徒然折磨自己。』
  大王!已受教導的聖弟子之老法變老;當老法變老時,他像這樣深慮:『不只我的老法變老,但所有來、去;死沒、往生的眾生之所及,一切眾生的老法[都]變老。當老法變老時,如果我悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,我會沒食慾,身體也會進入醜陋,不能繼續進行工作,敵人會高興,朋友會悲傷。』當老法變老時,他不悲傷、不疲累、不悲泣、不搥胸號哭,不來到迷亂,大王!這被稱為:『已受教導的聖弟子拔除那未受教導的一般人被刺穿而徒然折磨自己的有毒愁箭。』無愁、離惱的聖弟子就使自己般涅槃。
  再者,大王!已受教導的聖弟子之病法生病,……(中略)死法死去……滅盡法被滅盡……消失法消失;當消失法消失時,他像這樣深慮:『不只我的消失法消失,但所有來、去;死沒、往生的眾生之所及,一切眾生的消失法[都]消失。當消失法消失時,如果我悲傷、疲累、悲泣、搥胸號哭,來到迷亂,我會沒食慾,身體也會進入醜陋,不能繼續進行工作,敵人會高興,朋友會悲傷。』當消失法消失時,他不悲傷、不疲累、不悲泣、不搥胸號哭,不來到迷亂,大王!這被稱為:『已受教導的聖弟子拔除那未受教導的一般人被刺穿而徒然折磨自己的有毒愁箭。』無愁、離惱的聖弟子就使自己般涅槃。
  大王!這些是五種不能被沙門、婆羅門、天、魔、梵或世間中任何者得到的情況。
  這裡非以憂愁、悲泣,而獲得微少的利益,
  知道他悲傷、痛苦後,怨敵高興。
  當賢智者在災禍中不戰慄,知道辨別的利益
  看見昔日面貌沒改變,[就]有怨敵的痛苦。
  以祈願、咒語、善語,以施與或以傳統
  只要能得到目標處,就應該往該處努力。
  如果了知,這個目標不能被我或其他人得到,
  不悲傷、能接受:業是堅固的,如今我[又]能做什麼呢?」
  當這麼說時,木達王對尊者那羅陀這麼說:
  「大德!這個法的教說的名字是什麼?」
  「大王!這個法的教說的名字是憂愁之箭的除去。」
  「大德!確實是憂愁之箭的除去!大德!因為,我聽聞這個法的教說後,憂愁之箭已被捨斷。」
  那時,木達王召喚國庫守護人皮亞葛:
  「那麼,親愛的皮亞葛!請你火化皇后跋陀的遺體,請你建,從今天起,我將沐浴、塗油、吃食物、從事工作。」
  木達王品第五,其攝頌
  「利用、善人、令人想要的,施與合意的者、福德之潤澤,
   具足與財、情況,憍薩羅與那羅陀。」
  第一個五十則終了。
AN.5.50/ 10. Nāradasuttaṃ
   50. Ekaṃ samayaṃ āyasmā nārado pāṭaliputte viharati kukkuṭārāme. Tena kho pana samayena muṇḍassa rañño bhaddā devī kālaṅkatā hoti piyā manāpā. So bhaddāya deviyā kālaṅkatāya piyāya manāpāya neva nhāyati na vilimpati na bhattaṃ bhuñjati na kammantaṃ payojeti– rattindivaṃ bhaddāya deviyā sarīre ajjhomucchito. Atha kho muṇḍo rājā piyakaṃ kosārakkhaṃ āmantesi– “tena hi, samma piyaka bhaddāya deviyā sarīraṃ āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjatha, yathā mayaṃ bhaddāya deviyā sarīraṃ cirataraṃ passeyyāmā”ti. “Evaṃ, devā”ti kho piyako kosārakkho muṇḍassa rañño paṭissutvā bhaddāya deviyā sarīraṃ āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujji.
   Atha kho piyakassa kosārakkhassa etadahosi– “imassa kho muṇḍassa rañño bhaddā devī kālaṅkatā piyā manāpā. So bhaddāya deviyā kālaṅkatāya piyāya manāpāya neva nhāyati na vilimpati na bhattaṃ bhuñjati na kammantaṃ payojeti rattindivaṃ bhaddāya deviyā sarīre ajjhomucchito. Kaṃ nu kho muṇḍo rājā samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā payirupāseyya, yassa dhammaṃ sutvā sokasallaṃ pajaheyyā”ti!
   Atha kho piyakassa kosārakkhassa etadahosi– “ayaṃ kho āyasmā nārado pāṭaliputte viharati kukkuṭārāme. Taṃ kho panāyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ evaṃ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato– ‘paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī bahussuto cittakathī kalyāṇapaṭibhāno vuddho ceva arahā ca’. Yaṃnūna muṇḍo rājā āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ payirupāseyya, appeva nāma muṇḍo rājā āyasmato nāradassa dhammaṃ sutvā sokasallaṃ pajaheyyā”ti.
   Atha kho piyako kosārakkho yena muṇḍo rājā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā muṇḍaṃ rājānaṃ etadavoca– “ayaṃ kho, deva, āyasmā nārado pāṭaliputte viharati kukkuṭārāme. Taṃ kho panāyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ evaṃ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato– ‘paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī bahussuto cittakathī kalyāṇapaṭibhāno vuddho ceva arahā ca’. Yadi pana devo āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ payirupāseyya, appeva nāma devo āyasmato nāradassa dhammaṃ sutvā sokasallaṃ pajaheyyā”ti. “Tena hi, samma piyaka āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ paṭivedehi. Kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā vijite vasantaṃ pubbe appaṭisaṃvidito upasaṅkamitabbaṃ maññeyyā”ti “Evaṃ, devā”ti kho piyako kosārakkho muṇḍassa rañño paṭissutvā yenāyasmā nārado tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho piyako kosārakkho āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ etadavoca–
   “Imassa bhante, muṇḍassa rañño bhaddā devī kālaṅkatā piyā manāpā. So bhaddāya deviyā kālaṅkatāya piyāya manāpāya neva nhāyati na vilimpati na bhattaṃ bhuñjati na kammantaṃ payojeti– rattindivaṃ bhaddāya deviyā sarīre ajjhomucchito. Sādhu, bhante, āyasmā nārado muṇḍassa rañño tathā dhammaṃ desetu yathā muṇḍo rājā āyasmato nāradassa dhammaṃ sutvā sokasallaṃ pajaheyyā”ti. “Yassadāni, piyaka, muṇḍo rājā kālaṃ maññatī”ti.
   Atha kho piyako kosārakkho uṭṭhāyāsanā āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā yena muṇḍo rājā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā muṇḍaṃ rājānaṃ etadavoca– “katāvakāso kho, deva, āyasmatā nāradena. Yassadāni devo kālaṃ maññatī”ti. “Tena hi, samma piyaka, bhadrāni bhadrāni yānāni yojāpehī”ti. “Evaṃ, devā”ti kho piyako kosārakkho muṇḍassa rañño paṭissutvā bhadrāni bhadrāni yānāni yojāpetvā muṇḍaṃ rājānaṃ etadavoca– “yuttāni kho te, deva, bhadrāni bhadrāni yānāni. Yassadāni devo kālaṃ maññatī”ti.
   Atha kho muṇḍo rājā bhadraṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhadrehi bhadrehi yānehi yena kukkuṭārāmo tena pāyāsi mahaccā rājānubhāvena āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ dassanāya. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikova ārāmaṃ pāvisi. Atha kho muṇḍo rājā yena āyasmā nārado tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho muṇḍaṃ rājānaṃ āyasmā nārado etadavoca–
   “Pañcimāni, mahārāja, alabbhanīyāni ṭhānāni samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ. Katamāni pañca? ‘Jarādhammaṃ mā jīrī’ti alabbhanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ. ‘Byādhidhammaṃ mā byādhīyī’ti …pe… ‘maraṇadhammaṃ mā mīyī’ti… ‘khayadhammaṃ mā khīyī’ti… ‘nassanadhammaṃ mā nassī’ti alabbhanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmiṃ.
   “Assutavato mahārāja, puthujjanassa jarādhammaṃ jīrati. So jarādhamme jiṇṇe na iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘na kho mayhevekassa jarādhammaṃ jīrati, atha kho yāvatā sattānaṃ āgati gati cuti upapatti sabbesaṃ sattānaṃ jarādhammaṃ jīrati. Ahañceva kho pana jarādhamme jiṇṇe soceyyaṃ kilameyyaṃ parideveyyaṃ, urattāḷiṃ kandeyyaṃ, sammohaṃ āpajjeyyaṃ, bhattampi me nacchādeyya, kāyepi dubbaṇṇiyaṃ okkameyya, kammantāpi nappavatteyyuṃ, amittāpi attamanā assu, mittāpi dummanā assū’ti. So jarādhamme jiṇṇe socati kilamati paridevati, urattāḷiṃ kandati, sammohaṃ āpajjati. Ayaṃ vuccati, mahārāja– ‘assutavā puthujjano viddho savisena sokasallena attānaṃyeva paritāpeti’”.
   “Puna caparaṃ, mahārāja, assutavato puthujjanassa byādhidhammaṃ byādhīyati …pe… maraṇadhammaṃ mīyati… khayadhammaṃ khīyati… nassanadhammaṃ nassati. So nassanadhamme naṭṭhe na iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘na kho mayhevekassa nassanadhammaṃ nassati, atha kho yāvatā sattānaṃ āgati gati cuti upapatti sabbesaṃ sattānaṃ nassanadhammaṃ nassati. Ahañceva kho pana nassanadhamme naṭṭhe soceyyaṃ kilameyyaṃ parideveyyaṃ, urattāḷiṃ kandeyyaṃ, sammohaṃ āpajjeyyaṃ, bhattampi me nacchādeyya, kāyepi dubbaṇṇiyaṃ okkameyya, kammantāpi nappavatteyyuṃ, amittāpi attamanā assu, mittāpi dummanā assū’ti. So nassanadhamme naṭṭhe socati kilamati paridevati, urattāḷiṃ kandati, sammohaṃ āpajjati. Ayaṃ vuccati, mahārāja– ‘assutavā puthujjano viddho savisena sokasallena attānaṃyeva paritāpeti’”.
   “Sutavato ca kho, mahārāja, ariyasāvakassa jarādhammaṃ jīrati. So jarādhamme jiṇṇe iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘na kho mayhevekassa jarādhammaṃ jīrati, atha kho yāvatā sattānaṃ āgati gati cuti upapatti sabbesaṃ sattānaṃ jarādhammaṃ jīrati. Ahañceva kho pana jarādhamme jiṇṇe soceyyaṃ kilameyyaṃ parideveyyaṃ, urattāḷiṃ kandeyyaṃ, sammohaṃ āpajjeyyaṃ, bhattampi me nacchādeyya, kāyepi dubbaṇṇiyaṃ okkameyya, kammantāpi nappavatteyyuṃ, amittāpi attamanā assu, mittāpi dummanā assū’ti. So jarādhamme jiṇṇe na socati na kilamati na paridevati, na urattāḷiṃ kandati, na sammohaṃ āpajjati. Ayaṃ vuccati, mahārāja– ‘sutavā ariyasāvako abbuhi savisaṃ sokasallaṃ, yena viddho assutavā puthujjano attānaṃyeva paritāpeti. Asoko visallo ariyasāvako attānaṃyeva parinibbāpeti’”.
   “Puna caparaṃ, mahārāja, sutavato ariyasāvakassa byādhidhammaṃ byādhīyati …pe… maraṇadhammaṃ mīyati… khayadhammaṃ khīyati… nassanadhammaṃ nassati. So nassanadhamme naṭṭhe iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘na kho mayhevekassa nassanadhammaṃ nassati, atha kho yāvatā sattānaṃ āgati gati cuti upapatti sabbesaṃ sattānaṃ nassanadhammaṃ nassati. Ahañceva kho pana nassanadhamme naṭṭhe soceyyaṃ kilameyyaṃ parideveyyaṃ, urattāḷiṃ kandeyyaṃ, sammohaṃ āpajjeyyaṃ, bhattampi me nacchādeyya, kāyepi dubbaṇṇiyaṃ okkameyya, kammantāpi nappavatteyyuṃ, amittāpi attamanā assu, mittāpi dummanā assū’ti. So nassanadhamme naṭṭhe na socati na kilamati na paridevati, na urattāḷiṃ kandati, na sammohaṃ āpajjati. Ayaṃ vuccati, mahārāja– ‘sutavā ariyasāvako abbuhi savisaṃ sokasallaṃ, yena viddho assutavā puthujjano attānaṃyeva paritāpeti. Asoko visallo ariyasāvako attānaṃyeva parinibbāpeti ”.
   “Imāni kho, mahārāja, pañca alabbhanīyāni ṭhānāni samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā devena vā mārena vā brahmunā vā kenaci vā lokasmin”ti.
  “Na socanāya paridevanāya, atthodha labbhā api appakopi.
  Socantamenaṃ dukhitaṃ viditvā, paccatthikā attamanā bhavanti.
  “Yato ca kho paṇḍito āpadāsu, na vedhatī atthavinicchayaññū.
  Paccatthikāssa dukhitā bhavanti, disvā mukhaṃ avikāraṃ purāṇaṃ.
  “Jappena mantena subhāsitena, anuppadānena paveṇiyā vā.
  Yathā yathā yattha labhetha atthaṃ, tathā tathā tattha parakkameyya.
  “Sace pajāneyya alabbhaneyyo, mayāva aññena vā esa attho.
  Asocamāno adhivāsayeyya, kammaṃ daḷhaṃ kinti karomi dānī”ti .
   Evaṃ vutte muṇḍo rājā āyasmantaṃ nāradaṃ etadavoca– “ko nāmo ayaṃ, bhante, dhammapariyāyo”ti? “Sokasallaharaṇo nāma ayaṃ, mahārāja, dhammapariyāyo”ti. “Taggha, bhante, sokasallaharaṇo! Imañhi me, bhante, dhammapariyāyaṃ sutvā sokasallaṃ pahīnan”ti.
   Atha kho muṇḍo rājā piyakaṃ kosārakkhaṃ āmantesi– “tena hi, samma piyaka, bhaddāya deviyā sarīraṃ jhāpetha; thūpañcassā karotha. Ajjatagge dāni mayaṃ nhāyissāma ceva vilimpissāma bhattañca bhuñjissāma kammante ca payojessāmā”ti. Dasamaṃ.
   Muṇḍarājavaggo pañcamo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Ādiyo sappuriso iṭṭhā, manāpadāyībhisandaṃ;
   Sampadā ca dhanaṃ ṭhānaṃ, kosalo nāradena cāti.
   Paṭhamapaṇṇāsakaṃ samattaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「我會沒食慾」(bhattampi me nacchādeyya,直譯為「會不喜歡我的食物」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「我會失去我的食慾」(I would lose my appetite)。
  「知道辨別的利益」(atthavinicchayaññū),菩提比丘長老英譯為「知道如何決定什麼是好的」(knowing how to determine what is good)。按:《滿足希求》以「於辨別上所作之利益是善的」(kāraṇatthavinicchaye kusalo)解說。「辨別」(vinicchaya),另譯為「決定;決斷;審判」。
  「以施與或以傳統」(anuppadānena paveṇiyā vā),菩提比丘長老英譯為「禮物或傳統」(gifts, or tradition)。按:《滿足希求》以「成千上百的布施」(satassa vā sahassassa vā dānena)解說「施與」(anuppadānena),以「家系」(kulavaṃsena)解說「傳統」(paveṇiyā):「這是我們傳統所作而這不是。」這樣的傳統論之意(‘‘idaṃ amhākaṃ paveṇiyā āciṇṇaṃ, idaṃ anāciṇṇa’’nti evaṃ paveṇikathanenāti attho)。