經號:   
   (AN.4.180 更新)
增支部4集180經/大法教經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊住在財富城的阿難塔廟。
  在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:「比丘們!」
  「尊師!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!我將教導你們這四大法教,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」
  「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「比丘們!什麼是四大法教?比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『學友們!我從世尊的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那位世尊、阿羅漢遍正覺者之語,這是這位比丘的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『學友們!我從世尊的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是這位比丘的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第一大法教。
  又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『有上座、有上首的僧團住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那個僧團的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那個僧團的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『有上座、有上首的僧團住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那個僧團的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那個僧團的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第二大法教。
  又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『眾多多聞、通曉阿含持法、持律、持本母的上座比丘們住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那些上座們的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那些上座們的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『眾多多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持本母的上座比丘們住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那些上座們的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那些上座們的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第三大法教。
  又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『某位多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持本母的上座比丘住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那位上座的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那位上座的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『某位多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持本母的上座比丘住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那位上座的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜[認可],也不應該排斥,不歡喜[認可]、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那位上座的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第四大法教。
  比丘們!這些是四大法教。」
  故思品第三,其攝頌
  「思、解析、拘絺羅,阿難、優波摩那為第五則,
   祈願、羅侯羅、泥沼池,涅槃、大法教。」
AN.4.180/ 10. Mahāpadesasuttaṃ
   180. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā bhoganagare viharati ānandacetiye. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi– “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca– “cattārome, bhikkhave, mahāpadese desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha sādhukaṃ manasi karotha; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Katame, bhikkhave, cattāro mahāpadesā? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘sammukhā metaṃ, āvuso, bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte otaranti na vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; imassa ca bhikkhuno duggahitan’ti. Iti hetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘sammukhā metaṃ, āvuso, bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva otaranti vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; imassa ca bhikkhuno suggahitan’ti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse saṅgho viharati sathero sapāmokkho. Tassa me saṅghassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte otaranti na vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa tassa ca saṅghassa duggahitan’ti. Iti hetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse saṅgho viharati sathero sapāmokkho. Tassa me saṅghassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni, vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva otaranti vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; tassa ca saṅghassa suggahitan’ti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse sambahulā therā bhikkhū viharanti bahussutā āgatāgamā dhammadharā vinayadharā mātikādharā. Tesaṃ me therānaṃ sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte otaranti na vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; tesañca therānaṃ duggahitan’ti. Iti hetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse sambahulā therā bhikkhū viharanti bahussutā āgatāgamā dhammadharā vinayadharā mātikādharā. Tesaṃ me therānaṃ sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva otaranti vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; tesañca therānaṃ suggahitan’ti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse eko thero bhikkhu viharati bahussuto āgatāgamo dhammadharo vinayadharo mātikādharo. Tassa me therassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte otaranti na vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; tassa ca therassa duggahitan’ti. Iti hetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha.
   “Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya– ‘asukasmiṃ nāma āvāse eko thero bhikkhu viharati bahussuto āgatāgamo dhammadharo vinayadharo mātikādharo. Tassa me therassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ– ayaṃ dhammo, ayaṃ vinayo, idaṃ satthusāsanan’ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva otaranti vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ– ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ arahato sammāsambuddhassa; tassa ca therassa suggahitan’ti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, catutthaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha. Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro mahāpadesā”ti. Dasamaṃ.
  Sañcetaniyavaggo tatiyo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Cetanā vibhatti koṭṭhiko, ānando upavāṇapañcamaṃ;
   Āyācana-rāhula-jambālī, nibbānaṃ mahāpadesenāti.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「四大廣演(AA.28.5);四大教法(DA.16)」,南傳作「四大法教」(cattāro… mahāpadese),Maurice Walshe先生英譯為「四個標準」(four criteria),菩提比丘長老英譯為「四大參考」(four great references)。按:「大法教」,《吉祥悅意》、《滿足希求》都以「大場所」(mahāokāse)解說,兩者的註疏也都以「法的大確立處」(Mahantāni dhammassa patiṭṭhāpanaṭṭhānāni)解說「大場所」。
  「應該能被進入經中」(sutte otāretabbāni),菩提比丘長老英譯為「在經中核對它們」(check for them in the discourses)。