經號:   
   (AN.3.92 更新)
增支部3集92經/勝葛哇經(莊春江譯)
  有一次世尊與大比丘僧團一起在憍薩羅國進行遊行,抵達名叫勝葛哇的憍薩羅城鎮,在那裡,世尊就住在勝葛哇。
  當時,名叫迦葉氏的比丘是勝葛哇的舊住者
  在那裡,世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜。而當世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,迦葉氏比丘就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:『這位沙門太嚴格了。』
  那時,世尊如其意住在勝葛哇後,向王舍城出發遊行。次第進行遊行,抵達王舍城,在那裡,世尊就住在王舍城。
  當世尊離去不久,那時,迦葉氏比丘就變得後悔、悔憾[,心想]:「這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,我就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:『這位沙門太嚴格了。』讓我去見世尊,抵達後,能在世尊面前對過失懺悔是過失。」
  那時,迦葉氏比丘收拾好住所後,取衣鉢,向王舍城出發。次第來到王舍城,到耆闍崛山去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,迦葉氏比丘對世尊這麼說:
  「大德!這裡,有一次,世尊住在勝葛哇。大德!在那裡,世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜。當世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,我就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:『這位沙門太嚴格了。』那時,世尊如其意住在勝葛哇後,向王舍城出發遊行。大德!當世尊離去不久,那時,我就變得後悔、悔憾[,心想]:『這確實是我的損失,確實不是我的獲得;確實是我的惡獲得,確實不是我的好獲得:當世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,我就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:「這位沙門太嚴格了。」』讓我去見世尊,抵達後,能在世尊面前對過失懺悔是過失。大德!我犯了過錯,如愚者、如愚昧者、如不善者:當世尊以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,我就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:『這位沙門太嚴格了。』大德!為了未來的自制,請世尊原諒我那樣的罪過為罪過。」
  「迦葉!你確實犯了過錯,如愚者、如愚昧者、如不善者:當我以有關學處的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵比丘們,使之歡喜時,你就變得不堪忍、不滿[,心想]:『這位沙門太嚴格了。』但,迦葉!由於你對罪過見到是罪過後如法懺悔,我們原諒你。迦葉!凡對罪過見到是罪過後如法懺悔者,未來做到自制,在聖者之律中,這是增長。
  迦葉!如果上座比丘是不欲學的,是不受持學的稱讚者;他為了不學而勸導其他那些不欲學的比丘們;他不真實地、如實地、適時地稱讚那些欲學的比丘們,迦葉!則我不稱讚像這樣的上座比丘,那是什麼原因呢?因為,如果『大師稱讚他。』其他比丘會親近他,而那些親近他的會來到效法所看到的,如果他們來到效法所看到的,那會有他們長久的不利與苦,迦葉!因此,我不稱讚像這樣的上座比丘。
  迦葉!如果中臘比丘是……(中略)迦葉!如果新比丘是不欲學的,是不受持學的稱讚者;他為了不學而勸導其他那些不欲學的比丘們;他不真實地、如實地、適時地稱讚那些欲學的比丘們,迦葉!則我不稱讚像這樣的新比丘,那是什麼原因呢?因為,如果『大師稱讚他。』其他比丘會親近他,而那些親近他的會來到效法所看到的,如果他們來到效法所看到的,那會有他們長久的不利與苦,迦葉!因此,我不稱讚像這樣的新比丘。」
  迦葉!如果上座比丘是欲學的,是受持學的稱讚者;他為了學而勸導其他那些不欲學的比丘們;他真實地、如實地、適時地稱讚那些欲學的比丘們,迦葉!則我稱讚像這樣的上座比丘,那是什麼原因呢?因為,如果『大師稱讚他。』其他比丘會親近他,而那些親近他的會來到效法所看到的,如果他們來到效法所看到的,那會對他們有長久的利益與安樂,迦葉!因此,我稱讚像這樣的上座比丘。
  迦葉!如果中臘比丘是……(中略)迦葉!如果新比丘是欲學的,是受持學的稱讚者;他為了學而勸導其他那些不欲學的比丘們;他真實地、如實地、適時地稱讚那些欲學的比丘們,迦葉!則我稱讚像這樣的新比丘,那是什麼原因呢?因為,如果『大師稱讚他。』其他比丘會親近他,而那些親近他的會來到效法所看到的,如果他們來到效法所看到的,那會對他們有長久的利益與安樂,迦葉!因此,我稱讚像這樣的新比丘。」
  沙門品第九,其攝頌
  「沙門、驢子、田,跋耆族之子與有學者,
   學三說,二則學與勝葛哇。」
AN.3.92/ 11. Saṅkavāsuttaṃ
   92. Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṃ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena saṅkavā nāma kosalānaṃ nigamo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā saṅkavāyaṃ viharati. Tena kho pana samayena kassapagotto nāma bhikkhu saṅkavāyaṃ āvāsiko hoti. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandasseti samādapeti samuttejeti sampahaṃseti. Atha kho kassapagottassa bhikkhuno bhagavati sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo– “adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo”ti. Atha kho bhagavā saṅkavāyaṃ yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā yena rājagahaṃ tena cārikaṃ pakkāmi. Anupubbena cārikaṃ caramāno yena rājagahaṃ tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā rājagahe viharati.
   Atha kho kassapagottassa bhikkhuno acirapakkantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro– “alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ; yassa me bhagavati sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo – ‘adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo’ti. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkameyyaṃ; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato santike accayaṃ accayato deseyyan”ti. Atha kho kassapagotto bhikkhu senāsanaṃ saṃsāmetvā pattacīvaramādāya yena rājagahaṃ tena pakkāmi. Anupubbena yena rājagahaṃ yena gijjhakūṭo pabbato yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho kassapagotto bhikkhu bhagavantaṃ etadavoca–
   “Ekamidaṃ, bhante, samayaṃ bhagavā saṅkavāyaṃ viharati, saṅkavā nāma kosalānaṃ nigamo. Tatra, bhante, bhagavā sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi. Tassa mayhaṃ bhagavati sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo ‘adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo’ti. Atha kho bhagavā saṅkavāyaṃ yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā yena rājagahaṃ tena cārikaṃ pakkāmi. tassa mayhaṃ, bhante, acirapakkantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro– alābhā vata me, na vata me lābhā; dulladdhaṃ vata me, na vata me suladdhaṃ; yassa me bhagavati sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo – ‘adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo’ti. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkameyyaṃ; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato santike accayaṃ accayato deseyyanti. Accayo maṃ, bhante accagamā yathābālaṃ yathāmūḷhaṃ yathā-akusalaṃ yassa me bhagavati sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo – ‘adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo’ti. Tassa me, bhante, bhagavā accayaṃ accayato paṭiggaṇhātu, āyatiṃ saṃvarāyā”ti.
   “Taggha taṃ, kassapa, accayo accagamā yathābālaṃ yathāmūḷhaṃ yathā-akusalaṃ, yassa te mayi sikkhāpadapaṭisaṃyuttāya dhammiyā kathāya bhikkhū sandassente samādapente samuttejente sampahaṃsente ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo– ‘adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo’ti. Yato ca kho tvaṃ, kassapa, accayaṃ accayato disvā yathādhammaṃ paṭikarosi, taṃ te mayaṃ paṭiggaṇhāma. Vuddhihesā, kassapa, ariyassa vinaye yo accayaṃ accayato disvā yathādhammaṃ paṭikaroti, āyatiṃ saṃvaraṃ āpajjati.
   “Thero cepi kassapa, bhikkhu hoti na sikkhākāmo na sikkhāsamādānassa vaṇṇavādī, ye caññe bhikkhū na sikkhākāmā te ca na sikkhāya samādapeti, ye caññe bhikkhū sikkhākāmā tesañca na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇati bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ kālena, evarūpassāhaṃ, kassapa, therassa bhikkhuno na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Satthā hissa vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇatīti aññe naṃ bhikkhū bhajeyyuṃ, ye naṃ bhajeyyuṃ tyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ, yyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ tesaṃ taṃ assa dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāyāti. Tasmāhaṃ, kassapa, evarūpassa therassa bhikkhuno na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi.
   “Majjhimo cepi, kassapa, bhikkhu hoti …pe… navo cepi, kassapa, bhikkhu hoti na sikkhākāmo na sikkhāsamādānassa vaṇṇavādī, ye caññe bhikkhū na sikkhākāmā te ca na sikkhāya samādapeti, ye caññe bhikkhū sikkhākāmā tesañca na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇati bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ kālena, evarūpassāhaṃ, kassapa, navassa bhikkhuno na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Satthā hissa vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇatīti aññe naṃ bhikkhū bhajeyyuṃ, ye naṃ bhajeyyuṃ tyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ, yyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ tesaṃ taṃ assa dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāyāti. Tasmāhaṃ, kassapa, evarūpassa navassa bhikkhuno na vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi.
   “Thero cepi, kassapa, bhikkhu hoti sikkhākāmo sikkhāsamādānassa vaṇṇavādī, ye caññe bhikkhū na sikkhākāmā te ca sikkhāya samādapeti, ye caññe bhikkhū sikkhākāmā tesañca vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇati bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ kālena, evarūpassāhaṃ, kassapa, therassa bhikkhuno vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Satthā hissa vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇatīti aññe naṃ bhikkhū bhajeyyuṃ, ye naṃ bhajeyyuṃ tyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ, yyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ tesaṃ taṃ assa dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāyāti. Tasmāhaṃ, kassapa, evarūpassa therassa bhikkhuno vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi.
   “Majjhimo cepi, kassapa, bhikkhu hoti sikkhākāmo …pe… navo cepi, kassapa, bhikkhu hoti sikkhākāmo sikkhāsamādānassa vaṇṇavādī, ye caññe bhikkhū na sikkhākāmā te ca sikkhāya samādapeti, ye caññe bhikkhū sikkhākāmā tesañca vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇati bhūtaṃ tacchaṃ kālena, evarūpassāhaṃ, kassapa, navassa bhikkhuno vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmi. Taṃ kissa hetu? Satthā hissa vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇatīti aññe naṃ bhikkhū bhajeyyuṃ, ye naṃ bhajeyyuṃ tyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ, yyāssa diṭṭhānugatiṃ āpajjeyyuṃ tesaṃ taṃ assa dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāyāti. Tasmāhaṃ, kassapa, evarūpassa navassa bhikkhuno vaṇṇaṃ bhaṇāmī”ti. Ekādasamaṃ.
   Samaṇavaggo navamo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Samaṇo gadrabho khettaṃ, vajjiputto ca sekkhakaṃ;
   Tayo ca sikkhanā vuttā, dve sikkhā saṅkavāya cāti.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「不忍(SA.830)」,南傳作「不堪忍」(akkhanti,另譯為「不忍」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「無耐性的」(impatient)。
  「相習近(SA.830)」,南傳作「會親近」(bhajeyyuṃ),菩提比丘長老英譯為「結交」(associate with)。
  「舊住者」(āvāsiko),菩提比丘長老英譯為「居住的,居留的」(resident)。