經號:   
   (AN.3.71 更新)
增支部3集71經/布薩經(莊春江譯)
  我聽到這樣
  有一次世尊住在舍衛城東園鹿母講堂。
  那時,鹿母-毘舍佉在布薩日去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊對鹿母-毘舍佉這麼說:
  「那麼,毘舍佉!你為何中午來呢?」
  「大德!今天我入布薩。」
  「毘舍佉!有三種布薩,哪三種呢?牧牛人的布薩、尼乾陀的布薩、聖者的布薩。
  毘舍佉!如何是牧牛人的布薩呢?毘舍佉!猶如牧牛人在傍晚時交出主人的牛後,像這樣省察:『今天,牛到這樣、那樣的地方,在這樣、那樣的地方喝水,明天牛將到這樣、那樣的地方,將在這樣、那樣的地方喝水。』同樣的,毘舍佉!這裡,某人在布薩日像這樣省察:『今天,我吃這個、那個硬食,吃這個、那個軟食,明天,我將吃這個、那個硬食,將吃這個、那個軟食。』他以貪婪俱行之心度過這一天。毘舍佉!這樣是牧牛人的布薩,毘舍佉!牧牛人的布薩這樣的布薩沒有大果、大效益、大光輝、大遍滿。
  毘舍佉!如何是尼乾陀的布薩呢?毘舍佉!有名叫尼乾陀的沙門之屬,他們這麼勸導弟子們:『喂!來!男子!請你對東方超過一百由旬處的生物放下棒杖;請你對西方超過一百由旬處的生物放下棒杖;請你對北方超過一百由旬處的生物放下棒杖;請你對南方超過一百由旬處的生物放下棒杖。』像這樣,他們勸導對某些生物同情與憐愍,勸導對某些生物不同情與不憐愍。在布薩日,他們這麼勸導弟子們:『喂!來!男子!你放下全部的衣服後,請這麼說:『我不屬於任何人、任何地方;任何地方的任何事物,在那裡也不屬於我。』然而,他們的父母知道:『這位是我們的兒子。』他也知道:『他們是我的父母。』妻兒知道:『這位是扶養我們者。』他也知道:『這是我的妻兒。』奴僕、工人們知道:『這位是我們的主人。』他也知道:『這是我的奴僕、工人。』像這樣,當他們應該被勸導為真實的時,那時,他們勸導[他們]妄語,我說,這是屬於他的妄語。當那夜過後,他吃未被給予的食物,我說,這是屬於他的未給予而取。毘舍佉!這樣是尼乾陀的布薩,毘舍佉!尼乾陀的布薩這樣的布薩沒有大果、大效益、大光輝、大遍滿。
  毘舍佉!如何是聖者的布薩呢?毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化,毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶如來:『像這樣,那位世尊是阿羅漢遍正覺者明與行具足者善逝世間知者應該被調御人的無上調御者人天之師佛陀、世尊。』當他回憶如來時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!猶如雜染的頭以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的頭如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!緣於糊漿、粘土、水,以及緣於男子適當的精進,毘舍佉!這樣,雜染的頭以方法淨化。同樣的,毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶如來:『像這樣,那位世尊是阿羅漢、遍正覺者、明與行具足者、善逝、世間知者、應該被調御人的無上調御者、人天之師、佛陀、世尊。』當他回憶如來時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!這被稱為:『聖弟子作梵的布薩,與梵一同共住,關於梵而心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷。』毘舍佉!雜染的心這樣以方法淨化。
  毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化,毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶法:『法是被世尊善說的、直接可見的、即時的、請你來見的、能引導的、智者應該自己經驗的。』當他回憶法時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!猶如雜染的身體以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的身體如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!緣於洗背刷、洗粉、水,以及緣於男子適當的精進,毘舍佉!這樣,雜染的身體以方法淨化。同樣的,毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶法:『法是被世尊善說的、直接可見的、即時的、請你來見的、能引導的、智者應該自己經驗的。』當他回憶法時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!這被稱為:『聖弟子作法的布薩,與法一同共住,關於法而心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷。』毘舍佉!雜染的心這樣以方法淨化。
  毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化,毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶僧團:『世尊的弟子僧團是依善而行者,世尊的弟子僧團是依正直而行者,世尊的弟子僧團是依真理而行者,世尊的弟子僧團是如法而行者,即:四雙之人、八輩之士,這世尊的弟子僧團應該被奉獻、應該被供奉、應該被供養、應該被合掌,為世間的無上福田。』當他回憶僧團時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!猶如雜染的衣服以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的衣服如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!緣於熱、鹼、牛糞、水,以及緣於男子適當的精進,毘舍佉!這樣,雜染的衣服以方法淨化。同樣的,毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶僧團:『世尊的弟子僧團是依善而行者,……(中略)為世間的無上福田。』當他回憶僧團時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!這被稱為:『聖弟子作僧團的布薩,與僧團一同共住,關於僧團而心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷。』毘舍佉!雜染的心這樣以方法淨化。
  毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化,毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶自己無毀壞的、無瑕疵的、無污點的、無雜色的、自由的、智者所稱讚的、不取著的、導向定的戒。當他回憶戒時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!猶如雜染的鏡子以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的鏡子如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!緣於油、灰、馬尾刷,以及緣於男子適當的精進,毘舍佉!這樣,雜染的鏡子以方法淨化。同樣的,毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶自己無毀壞的、……(中略)導向定的戒。當他回憶戒時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!這被稱為:『聖弟子作戒的布薩,與戒一同共住,關於戒而心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷。』毘舍佉!雜染的心這樣以方法淨化。
  毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化,毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶諸天:『有四大王天,有三十三天,有夜摩天,有兜率天,有化樂天,有他化自在天,有梵眾天,有其他更高之諸天。這些天具備這模樣的信,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的信;這些天具備這模樣的戒,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的戒;這些天具備這模樣的博聞,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的博聞;這些天具備這模樣的施捨,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的施捨;這些天具備這模樣的慧,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的慧。』當他回憶諸天時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!猶如雜染的金子以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的金子如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!緣於火炬、鹽、紅土、吹管與鉗子,以及緣於男子適當的精進,毘舍佉!這樣,雜染的金子以方法淨化。同樣的,毘舍佉!雜染的心以方法淨化。毘舍佉!雜染的心如何以方法淨化呢?毘舍佉!這裡,聖弟子回憶諸天:『有四大王天,……(中略)有其他更高之諸天。這些天具備這模樣的信,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的信……(中略)戒……(中略)博聞……(中略)施捨;這些天具備這模樣的慧,從此處死後,往生到那裡,我也存在著像那模樣的慧。』當他回憶自己與那些天的信、戒、博聞、施捨、慧時,心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷,毘舍佉!這被稱為:『聖弟子作諸天的布薩,與諸天一同共住,關於諸天而心明淨,欣悅生起,凡心的隨雜染它們被捨斷。』毘舍佉!雜染的心這樣以方法淨化。
  毘舍佉!那位聖弟子像這樣省察:『只要活著,阿羅漢們捨斷殺生後,成為離殺生者,他住於已捨離棍棒、已捨離刀劍、有羞恥的、同情的、對一切活的生物憐愍的,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也捨斷殺生後,成為離殺生者,我也住於已捨離棍棒、已捨離刀劍、有羞恥的、同情的、對一切活的生物憐愍的,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們捨斷未給予而取後,成為離未給予而取者、給予而取者、只期待給予物者,以不盜取而自我住於清淨,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也捨斷未給予而取後,成為離未給予而取者、給予而取者、只期待給予物者,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們捨斷非梵行後,成為梵行者,遠離俗法而住,已離婬欲,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也捨斷非梵行後,成為梵行者,遠離俗法而住,已離婬欲,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們捨斷妄語後,成為離妄語者、真實語者、緊隨真實者、能信賴者、應該信賴者、對世間無詐欺者,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也捨斷妄語後,成為離妄語者、真實語者、緊隨真實者、能信賴者、應該信賴者、對世間無詐欺者,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們捨斷榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處後,成為離榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處者,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也捨斷榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處後,成為離榖酒、果酒、酒放逸處者,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們是晚上停止、戒絕非時食的一日一食者,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也成為晚上停止、戒絕非時食的一日一食者,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們是離跳舞、歌曲、音樂、看戲、花環、香料、香膏之持用與莊嚴、裝飾狀態者,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也成為離跳舞、歌曲、音樂、看戲者,成為離花環之配戴、芳香之莊嚴、塗抹物之打扮狀態者,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  『只要活著,阿羅漢們是離高床、大床者,他們躺在較低臥床或草蓆上,今天,這[一]日、夜,我也成為離高床、大床者,躺在較低臥床或草蓆上,我將仿效阿羅漢這部分,我將入布薩。』
  毘舍佉!這樣是聖者的布薩,毘舍佉!聖者的布薩這樣的布薩有大果、大效益、大光輝、大遍滿。有多少大果、大效益、大光輝、大遍滿呢?毘舍佉!猶如凡如果作這十六大國很多七寶的統治權支配的王權者,即:鴦伽、摩揭陀、迦尸、憍薩羅、跋耆、末羅、支提、番伽、俱盧、般遮羅、婆蹉、首羅先那、阿濕伽、阿槃提、健陀羅、劍浮闍,這不值具備八支布薩之十六分之一,那是什麼原因呢?毘舍佉!人類王權比天樂卑微。
  毘舍佉!人類五十年是這四大王天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之五百天年是四大王天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與四大王天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』
  毘舍佉!人類一百年是這三十三天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之一千天年是三十三天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與三十三天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』
  毘舍佉!人類二百年是夜摩天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之二千天年是夜摩天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與夜摩天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』
  毘舍佉!人類四百年是這兜率天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之四千天年是兜率天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與兜率天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』
  毘舍佉!人類八百年是這化樂天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之八千天年是化樂天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與化樂天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』
  毘舍佉!人類一千六百年是這他化自在天的一日夜,以彼夜之三十夜是一個月,以彼月之十二個月是一年,以彼年之一萬六千天年是他化自在天的壽命量。毘舍佉!這是可能的:凡某位女子或男子具備這八支入布薩後,以身體的崩解,死後能往生到與他化自在天諸天為同伴。毘舍佉!根據此而說:『人類王權比天樂卑微。』」
  「不應該殺生不應該未給予而取,不應該說虛妄不應該成為飲酒者,
   應該戒離非梵行的行婬,晚上不應該吃非時食。
   不應該配戴花環不應該塗抹芳香,應該睡[低]床或地上的鋪墊,
   他們說這是八支布薩,被已達到苦的結束的佛陀宣說。
   只要日月兩者環繞,放光、好看,
   行於空中破除黑暗,光照四方。
   凡存在於這中間的財產,真珠、寶珠、琉璃、妙寶,
   牛角狀的黃金、山金,天然金、被稱為『沙金』的,
   對具備八支布薩者來說,它們不及十六分之一,如全部眾星對月光。
   因此持戒的男女,具備八支布薩者,
   作了福德後生起樂,無過失地到達天界處。」
  大品第{七}[二?],其攝頌
  「教派、恐怖、偉那額,沙羅玻與給瑟目大,
   薩哈、談論之基礎,外道者、根、布薩。」
AN.3.71/ 10. Uposathasuttaṃ
   71. Evaṃ me sutaṃ– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati pubbārāme migāramātupāsāde. Atha kho visākhā migāramātā tadahuposathe yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho visākhaṃ migāramātaraṃ bhagavā etadavoca– “handa kuto nu tvaṃ, visākhe, āgacchasi divā divassā”ti? “Uposathāhaṃ, bhante, ajja upavasāmī”ti.
   “Tayo khome, visākhe, uposathā. Katame tayo? Gopālakuposatho, nigaṇṭhuposatho, ariyuposatho. Kathañca, visākhe, gopālakuposatho hoti? Seyyathāpi, visākhe, gopālako sāyanhasamaye sāmikānaṃ gāvo niyyātetvā iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ajja kho gāvo amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese cariṃsu, amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese pānīyāni piviṃsu; sve dāni gāvo amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese carissanti, amukasmiñca amukasmiñca padese pānīyāni pivissantī’ti; evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, idhekacco uposathiko iti paṭisañcikkhati– ‘ahaṃ khvajja idañcidañca khādanīyaṃ khādiṃ, idañcidañca bhojanīyaṃ bhuñjiṃ sve dānāhaṃ idañcidañca khādanīyaṃ khādissāmi, idaṃ cidañca bhojanīyaṃ bhuñjissāmī’ti. So tena abhijjhāsahagatena cetasā divasaṃ atināmeti. Evaṃ kho visākhe, gopālakuposatho hoti. Evaṃ upavuttho kho, visākhe, gopālakuposatho na mahapphalo hoti na mahānisaṃso na mahājutiko na mahāvipphāro.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho hoti? Atthi, visākhe, nigaṇṭhā nāma samaṇajātikā. Te sāvakaṃ evaṃ samādapenti – ‘ehi tvaṃ, ambho purisa, ye puratthimāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye pacchimāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye uttarāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhi; ye dakkhiṇāya disāya pāṇā paraṃ yojanasataṃ tesu daṇḍaṃ nikkhipāhī’ti. Iti ekaccānaṃ pāṇānaṃ anuddayāya anukampāya samādapenti, ekaccānaṃ pāṇānaṃ nānuddayāya nānukampāya samādapenti. Te tadahuposathe sāvakaṃ evaṃ samādapenti – ‘ehi tvaṃ, ambho purisa, sabbacelāni nikkhipitvā evaṃ vadehi – nāhaṃ kvacani kassaci kiñcanatasmiṃ, na ca mama kvacani katthaci kiñcanatatthī’ti. Jānanti kho panassa mātāpitaro– ‘ayaṃ amhākaṃ putto’ti; sopi jānāti– ‘ime mayhaṃ mātāpitaro’ti. Jānāti kho panassa puttadāro ‘ayaṃ mayhaṃ bhattā’ti; sopi jānāti– ‘ayaṃ mayhaṃ puttadāro’ti. Jānanti kho panassa dāsakammakaraporisā– ‘ayaṃ amhākaṃ ayyo’ti; sopi jānāti– ‘ime mayhaṃ dāsakammakaraporisā’ti. Iti yasmiṃ samaye sacce samādapetabbā musāvāde tasmiṃ samaye samādapenti. Idaṃ tassa musāvādasmiṃ vadāmi. So tassā rattiyā accayena bhoge adinnaṃyeva paribhuñjati. Idaṃ tassa adinnādānasmiṃ vadāmi. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho hoti. Evaṃ upavuttho kho, visākhe, nigaṇṭhuposatho na mahapphalo hoti na mahānisaṃso na mahājutiko na mahāvipphāro.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, ariyuposatho hoti? Upakkiliṭṭhassa visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako tathāgataṃ anussarati– ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. Tassa tathāgataṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati. Ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Kakkañca paṭicca mattikañca paṭicca udakañca paṭicca purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca, evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa sīsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Evamevaṃ kho visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako tathāgataṃ anussarati– ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti. Tassa tathāgataṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe– ‘ariyasāvako brahmuposathaṃ upavasati, brahmunā saddhiṃ saṃvasati, brahmañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Upakkiliṭṭhassa, visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako dhammaṃ anussarati – ‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ti. Tassa dhammaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Sottiñca paṭicca, cuṇṇañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa kāyassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako dhammaṃ anussarati – ‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ti. Tassa dhammaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe, ‘ariyasāvako dhammuposathaṃ upavasati, dhammena saddhiṃ saṃvasati, dhammañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Upakkiliṭṭhassa visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako saṅghaṃ anussarati– ‘suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ti. Tassa saṅghaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Usmañca paṭicca, khārañca paṭicca, gomayañca paṭicca, udakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa vatthassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako saṅghaṃ anussarati– ‘suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho …pe… anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ti. Tassa saṅghaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe, ‘ariyasāvako saṅghuposathaṃ upavasati, saṅghena saddhiṃ saṃvasati, saṅghañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Upakkiliṭṭhassa, visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako attano sīlāni anussarati akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṃvattanikāni. Tassa sīlaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Telañca paṭicca chārikañca paṭicca, vālaṇḍupakañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa ādāsassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha visākhe, ariyasāvako attano sīlāni anussarati akhaṇḍāni …pe… samādhisaṃvattanikāni. Tassa sīlaṃ anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe, ‘ariyasāvako sīluposathaṃ upavasati, sīlena saddhiṃ saṃvasati, sīlañcassa ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Upakkiliṭṭhassa, visākhe, cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Kathañca, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha visākhe, ariyasāvako devatā anussarati – ‘santi devā cātumahārājikā, santi devā tāvatiṃsā, santi devā yāmā, santi devā tusitā, santi devā nimmānaratino, santi devā paranimmitavasavattino, santi devā brahmakāyikā, santi devā tatuttari. Yathārūpāya saddhāya samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā saddhā saṃvijjati. Yathārūpena sīlena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sīlaṃ saṃvijjati. Yathārūpena sutena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpaṃ sutaṃ saṃvijjati. Yathārūpena cāgena samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpo cāgo saṃvijjati. Yathārūpāya paññāya samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā paññā saṃvijjatī’ti. Tassa attano ca tāsañca devatānaṃ saddhañca sīlañca sutañca cāgañca paññañca anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti, seyyathāpi, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Ukkañca paṭicca, loṇañca paṭicca, gerukañca paṭicca, nāḷikasaṇḍāsañca paṭicca, purisassa ca tajjaṃ vāyāmaṃ paṭicca. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa jātarūpassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti. Evamevaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Kathañca visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti? Idha, visākhe, ariyasāvako devatā anussarati– ‘santi devā cātumahārājikā, santi devā tāvatiṃsā …pe… santi devā tatuttari. Yathārūpāya saddhāya samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā saddhā saṃvijjati. Yathārūpena sīlena …pe… sutena …pe… cāgena …pe… paññāya samannāgatā tā devatā ito cutā tatthupapannā, mayhampi tathārūpā paññā saṃvijjatī’ti. Tassa attano ca tāsañca devatānaṃ saddhañca sīlañca sutañca cāgañca paññañca anussarato cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti. Ayaṃ vuccati, visākhe, ‘ariyasāvako devatuposathaṃ upavasati, devatāhi saddhiṃ saṃvasati, devatā ārabbha cittaṃ pasīdati, pāmojjaṃ uppajjati, ye cittassa upakkilesā te pahīyanti’. Evaṃ kho, visākhe, upakkiliṭṭhassa cittassa upakkamena pariyodapanā hoti.
   “Sa kho so, visākhe, ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati – ‘yāvajīvaṃ arahanto pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭiviratā nihitadaṇḍā nihitasatthā lajjī dayāpannā sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharanti; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharāmi. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭiviratā dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharanti; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharāmi. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto abrahmacariyaṃ pahāya brahmacārī ārācārī viratā methunā gāmadhammā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ abrahmacariyaṃ pahāya brahmacārī ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭiviratā saccavādī saccasandhā thetā paccayikā avisaṃvādakā lokassa; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato saccavādī saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaṃvādako lokassa. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭiviratā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānaṃ pahāya surāmerayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto ekabhattikā rattūparatā viratā vikālabhojanā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ ekabhattiko rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto naccagītavāditavisūkadassanamālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭiviratā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ naccagītavāditavisūkadassanamālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭivirato Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissati.
   “Yāvajīvaṃ arahanto uccāsayanamahāsayanaṃ pahāya uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭiviratā nīcaseyyaṃ kappenti mañcake vā tiṇasanthārake vā; ahampajja imañca rattiṃ imañca divasaṃ uccāsayanamahāsayanaṃ pahāya uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato nīcaseyyaṃ kappemi mañcake vā tiṇasanthārake vā. Imināpi aṅgena arahataṃ anukaromi, uposatho ca me upavuttho bhavissatī”ti.
   “Evaṃ kho, visākhe, ariyuposatho hoti. Evaṃ upavuttho kho, visākhe, ariyuposatho mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso mahājutiko mahāvipphāro”.
   “Kīvamahapphalo hoti kīvamahānisaṃso kīvamahājutiko kīvamahāvipphāro”? “Seyyathāpi, visākhe, yo imesaṃ soḷasannaṃ mahājanapadānaṃ pahūtarattaratanānaṃ issariyādhipaccaṃ rajjaṃ kāreyya seyyathidaṃ– aṅgānaṃ, magadhānaṃ, kāsīnaṃ, kosalānaṃ, vajjīnaṃ, mallānaṃ, cetīnaṃ, vaṅgānaṃ, kurūnaṃ, pañcālānaṃ, macchānaṃ, sūrasenānaṃ, assakānaṃ, avantīnaṃ, gandhārānaṃ, kambojānaṃ, aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgatassa uposathassa etaṃ kalaṃ nāgghati soḷasiṃ. Taṃ kissa hetu? Kapaṇaṃ, visākhe, mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya”.
   “Yāni, visākhe, mānusakāni paññāsa vassāni, cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni pañca vassasatāni cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā cātumahārājikānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’”.
   “Yaṃ visākhe, mānusakaṃ vassasataṃ, tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbaṃ vassasahassaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā tāvatiṃsānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’”.
   “Yāni, visākhe, mānusakāni dve vassasatāni, yāmānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni dve vassasahassāni yāmānaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā yāmānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’”.
   “Yāni, visākhe, mānusakāni cattāri vassasatāni, tusitānaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni cattāri vassasahassāni tusitānaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā tusitānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’”.
   “Yāni, visākhe, mānusakāni aṭṭha vassasatāni, nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni aṭṭha vassasahassāni nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā nimmānaratīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāya’”.
   “Yāni, visākhe, mānusakāni soḷasa vassasatāni, paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ eso eko rattindivo. Tāya rattiyā tiṃsarattiyo māso. Tena māsena dvādasamāsiyo saṃvaccharo. Tena saṃvaccharena dibbāni soḷasa vassasahassāni paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ. Ṭhānaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, vijjati yaṃ idhekacco itthī vā puriso vā aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgataṃ uposathaṃ upavasitvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā paranimmitavasavattīnaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjeyya. Idaṃ kho panetaṃ, visākhe, sandhāya bhāsitaṃ– ‘kapaṇaṃ mānusakaṃ rajjaṃ dibbaṃ sukhaṃ upanidhāyā’”ti.
  “Pāṇaṃ na haññe na cadinnamādiye,
  Musā na bhāse na ca majjapo siyā.
  Abrahmacariyā virameyya methunā,
  Rattiṃ na bhuñjeyya vikālabhojanaṃ.
  “Mālaṃ na dhāre na ca gandhamācare,
  Mañce chamāyaṃ va sayetha santhate.
  Etañhi aṭṭhaṅgikamāhuposathaṃ,
  Buddhena dukkhantagunā pakāsitaṃ.
  “Cando ca sūriyo ca ubho sudassanā,
  Obhāsayaṃ anupariyanti yāvatā.
  Tamonudā te pana antalikkhagā,
  Nabhe pabhāsanti disāvirocanā.
  “Etasmiṃ yaṃ vijjati antare dhanaṃ,
  Muttā maṇi veḷuriyañca bhaddakaṃ.
  Siṅgī suvaṇṇaṃ atha vāpi kañcanaṃ,
  Yaṃ jātarūpaṃ haṭakanti vuccati.
  “Aṭṭhaṅgupetassa uposathassa,
  Kalampi te nānubhavanti soḷasiṃ.
  Candappabhā tāragaṇā ca sabbe.
  “Tasmā hi nārī ca naro ca sīlavā,
  Aṭṭhaṅgupetaṃ upavassuposathaṃ.
  Puññāni katvāna sukhudrayāni,
  Aninditā saggamupenti ṭhānan”ti. Dasamaṃ.
   Mahāvaggo sattamo.
   Tassuddānaṃ–
   Titthabhayañca venāgo, sarabho kesamuttiyā;
   Sāḷho cāpi kathāvatthu, titthiyamūluposathoti.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「以方法」(upakkamena,另譯為「以行動」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「以努力」(by exertion)。按:《滿足希求》以「各自的勇猛paccattapurisakārena),或方法」解說。
  「馬尾刷」(vālaṇḍupakañca),菩提比丘長老英譯為「一卷布」(a roll of cloth)。按:《滿足希求》以「用馬尾毛(assavālehi)或一種樹皮纖維毛等(makacivālādīhi)作成的捲圈(aṇḍupakaṃ)」解說。