經號:   
   (AN.3.59 更新)
增支部3集59經/低葛那經(莊春江譯)
  那時,低葛那婆羅門去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊互相……(中略)在一旁坐好後,低葛那婆羅門在世尊面前稱讚三明婆羅門:
  「這樣是三明婆羅門,像這樣也是三明婆羅門。」
  「婆羅門!婆羅門們怎樣安立三明婆羅門呢?」
  「喬達摩先生!這裡,婆羅門從母親與父親兩方都是好的出身,直到祖父七代血統清淨,血統論是沒混亂的、無可責難的;是讀誦者、持咒者;是三吠陀的字彙、儀軌、音韻論與語源論、古傳歷史為第五的通曉者,聖句的通曉者、懂文法者;是在世間論與大丈夫相上的無欠缺者,喬達摩先生!婆羅門們這樣安立三明者。」
  「婆羅門!婆羅門們安立的三明婆羅門是一種,但聖者之律中的三明者是另一種。」
  「但,喬達摩先生!聖者之律中的三明者是像怎樣的呢?請世尊教導我聖者之律中三明者這樣的法,那就好了!」
  「那樣的話,婆羅門!你要聽!你要好好作意!我要說了。」
  「是的,先生!」低葛那婆羅門回答世尊。
  世尊這麼說:
  「婆羅門!這裡,比丘從離欲、離不善法後,進入後住於有尋、有伺離而生喜、樂的初禪;以尋與伺的平息,自信一心,進入後住於無尋、無伺,定而生喜、樂的第二禪;以喜的褪去與住於平靜,有念、正知,以身體感受樂,進入後住於這聖弟子宣說:『他是平靜、具念、住於樂者』的第三禪;以樂的捨斷與苦的捨斷,及以之前喜悅與憂的滅沒,進入後住於不苦不樂,由平靜而念遍淨的第四禪。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向許多前世住處回憶之智。他回憶起許多前世住處,即:一生、二生、三生、四生、五生、十生、二十生、三十生、四十生、五十生、百生、千生、十萬生、許多壞劫、許多成劫、許多壞成劫:『在那裡是這樣的名、這樣的姓氏、這樣的容貌、[吃]這樣的食物、這樣的苦樂感受、這樣的壽長,從那裡死後生於那裡,而在那裡又是這樣的名、這樣的姓氏、這樣的容貌、[吃]這樣的食物、這樣的苦樂感受、這樣的壽長,從那裡死後生於這裡。』像這樣,他回憶起許多前世住處有這樣的行相與境遇,這是被證得的第一明,當他住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,無明已被破壞,明已生起;黑闇已被破壞,光明已生起。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向眾生死亡與往生之智,他以清淨、超越人的天眼,看見當眾生死時、往生時,在下劣、勝妙,美、醜,幸、不幸中,了知眾生依業流轉:『這些眾生諸君,具備身惡行、語惡行、意惡行,斥責聖者,邪見與持邪見之業行,他們以身體的崩解,死後往生到苦界、惡趣、下界、地獄,或者這些眾生諸君,具備身善行、語善行、意善行,不斥責聖者,正見與持正見之業行,他們以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界。』這樣,他以清淨、超越人的天眼,看見當眾生死時、往生時,在下劣、勝妙,美、醜,幸、不幸中,了知眾生依業流轉,這是被證得的第二明,當他住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,無明已被破壞,明已生起;黑闇已被破壞,光明已生起。
  當那個心是這樣入定的、遍淨的、淨化的、無穢的、離隨雜染的、可塑的、適合作業的、住立的、到達不動時,他使心轉向煩惱之滅盡智。他如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是苦。』如實了知:『這是導向苦滅道跡。』如實了知:『這些是煩惱。』如實了知:『這是煩惱集。』如實了知:『這是煩惱滅。』如實了知:『這是導向煩惱滅道跡。』當他這麼知、這麼見時,心從欲的煩惱解脫,心從有的煩惱解脫,心從無明的煩惱解脫。當解脫時,有『[這是]解脫』之智,他了知:『出生已盡梵行已完成應該作的已作不再有這樣[輪迴]的狀態了。』這是被證得的第三明,當他住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,無明已被破壞,明已生起;黑闇已被破壞,光明已生起。」
  「其戒無波動者,明智、有禪定者,
   已掌握心者,一境、善入定。
   那驅散黑闇的明智者,死亡已捨者,
   他們說是一切之捨斷者,天人的有益者。
   具足三明者,是住於無癡者,
   正覺者持最後身,他們禮敬他:喬達摩。
   凡知道前世住處;看見天界與苦界;
   且已達生之滅盡者,牟尼已完成證智
   以這三種明,是三明婆羅門,
   我說他是三明者,非其他喃喃而說者。」
  「婆羅門!這樣是聖者之律中的三明者。」
  「喬達摩先生!婆羅門們的三明者是一種,但,聖者之律中的三明者是另一種。婆羅門們的三明者不值聖者之律中的三明者之十六分之一。
  太偉大了,喬達摩先生!……(中略)請喬達摩尊師記得我為優婆塞,從今天起終生歸依。」
AN.3.59/ 8. Tikaṇṇasuttaṃ
   59. Atha kho tikaṇṇo brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ …pe… ekamantaṃ nisinno kho tikaṇṇo brāhmaṇo bhagavato sammukhā tevijjānaṃ sudaṃ brāhmaṇānaṃ vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati– “evampi tevijjā brāhmaṇā, itipi tevijjā brāhmaṇā”ti.
   “Yathā kathaṃ pana, brāhmaṇa, brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṃ tevijjaṃ paññāpentī”ti? “Idha, bho gotama, brāhmaṇo ubhato sujāto hoti mātito ca pitito ca, saṃsuddhagahaṇiko yāva sattamā pitāmahayugā, akkhitto anupakkuṭṭho jātivādena, ajjhāyako, mantadharo, tiṇṇaṃ vedānaṃ pāragū sanighaṇḍukeṭubhānaṃ sākkharappabhedānaṃ itihāsapañcamānaṃ, padako, veyyākaraṇo, lokāyatamahāpurisalakkhaṇesu anavayoti. Evaṃ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā tevijjaṃ paññāpentī”ti.
   “Aññathā kho, brāhmaṇa, brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṃ tevijjaṃ paññapenti, aññathā ca pana ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hotī”ti. “Yathā kathaṃ pana, bho gotama, ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hoti? Sādhu me bhavaṃ gotamo tathā dhammaṃ desetu yathā ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hotī”ti. “Tena hi, brāhmaṇa, suṇāhi, sādhukaṃ manasi karohi; bhāsissāmī”ti. “Evaṃ, bho”ti kho tikaṇṇo brāhmaṇo bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca–
   “Idha brāhmaṇa, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ cetaso ekodibhāvaṃ avitakkaṃ avicāraṃ samādhijaṃ pītisukhaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti– ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
   “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ– ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṃsampi jātiyo cattārīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi, anekepi saṃvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṃvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe– ‘amutrāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṃ. Tatrāpāsiṃ evaṃnāmo evaṃgotto evaṃvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṃsukhadukkhappaṭisaṃvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno’ti. Iti sākāraṃ sa-uddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati. Ayamassa paṭhamā vijjā adhigatā hoti; avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
   “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṃ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti – ‘ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā …pe… manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā, vacīsucaritena samannāgatā, manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṃ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapannā’ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. Ayamassa dutiyā vijjā adhigatā hoti; avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.
   “So evaṃ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anaṅgaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṃ khayañāṇāya cittaṃ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti; ‘ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ‘ayaṃ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. Tassa evaṃ jānato evaṃ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṃ vimuccati; vimuttasmiṃ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṃ hoti. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Ayamassa tatiyā vijjā adhigatā hoti; avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno yathā taṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato”ti.
  “Anuccāvacasīlassa, nipakassa ca jhāyino;
  Cittaṃ yassa vasībhūtaṃ, ekaggaṃ susamāhitaṃ.
  “Taṃ ve tamonudaṃ dhīraṃ, tevijjaṃ maccuhāyinaṃ;
  Hitaṃ devamanussānaṃ, āhu sabbappahāyinaṃ.
  “Tīhi vijjāhi sampannaṃ, asammūḷhavihārinaṃ;
  Buddhaṃ antimadehinaṃ, taṃ namassanti gotamaṃ.
  “Pubbenivāsaṃ yo vedī, saggāpāyañca passati;
  Atho jātikkhayaṃ patto, abhiññāvosito muni.
  “Etāhi tīhi vijjāhi, tevijjo hoti brāhmaṇo;
  Tamahaṃ vadāmi tevijjaṃ, nāññaṃ lapitalāpanan”ti.
   “Evaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hotī”ti. “Aññathā, bho gotama, brāhmaṇānaṃ tevijjo, aññathā ca pana ariyassa vinaye tevijjo hoti. Imassa ca pana, bho gotama, ariyassa vinaye tevijjassa brāhmaṇānaṃ tevijjo kalaṃ nāgghati soḷasiṃ”.
   “Abhikkantaṃ, bho gotama …pe… upāsakaṃ maṃ bhavaṃ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gatan”ti. Aṭṭhamaṃ.
漢巴經文比對(莊春江作):
  「已掌握心者」(Cittaṃ yassa vasībhūtaṃ,直譯為「心已成為自在的;心已成為主人的」),菩提比丘長老英譯為「他的心已被掌握」(whose mind has been mastered)。
  「喃喃而說者」(lapitalāpananti),菩提比丘長老英譯為「說咒文者」(who utters incantations)。按:《滿足希求》以「只說喃喃言詞的程度」(lapitavacanamattameva lapati)解說。